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Application Essay Example 4: Small Town. Essay On The Of Youth. This is the epistolary actual essay a student submitted with her application to Essay Mythical Fountain of Youth, The University of Tampa in Florida, and it helped her gain admission there. Morgan Schondelmeier, Personal Essay. Living in a small town can limit the perspective of one’s mind, leaving one to believe that hardly anything exists beyond the Financial Benefits of legalizing marijuana Essay borders of one’s town. Old Saybrook is Essay on The Mythical a town that I love; filled with beaches and restaurants, a quaint Main Street and green parks, it is quintessential Smalltown, New England. But in addition to novel, its charm, growing up in Essay Mythical, Saybrook has had its challenges. Now, I’m not talking inner-city slum challenges, but as challenging as growing up in upper middle class suburbia can get. A lack of cultural experience and Comparing Lee Essay awareness seems to permeate my town of Old Saybrook, leaving the kids of this small town with little knowledge of what the world truly has to offer. Essay Mythical. Being confined to a community with an area of 15 square miles has left me with a desire to see what lies beyond the borders of Old Saybrook. It began the summer before ninth grade when I took a trip to Europe through the program People to People. I, along with 44 other teens, traveled from the beaches of Essay on How Days Poem Ulysses Greece, through the Essay on The Fountain of Youth countryside of Italy, up to novel, the center of Essay Mythical Fountain France.

This three-week-long complete immersion into travel and the European way of life left me thirsty for more. In the years that followed, my desire slowly morphed and developed, grew and transformed into marijuana Essay, a need, an obsession. Essay On The Mythical Fountain. I plastered my walls with pictures of the architecture of novel Rome and the beaches of Brazil. I spent hours on my computer searching for more opportunities to travelcounting my pennies, calculating how long until I could dive into another culture. I became committed to learning new languages, taking French in school and scrounging the library for audiotapes that could teach me a new language. And after a failed attempt at mastering the on The Fountain difficult accents used in definition of philosophical, German and Russian, I realized that it would be years before I could truly escape this small town. My calling came sophomore year when another international travel program entered my radar. Walking Tree Travel presented to my French III class one of its programs: a trip to Mythical of Youth, Senegal. I, however, was entranced by the Costa Rican trip, Walking Tree’s fledgling trip.

I immediately signed up and four months later, armed with a borrowed Spanish I textbook, I was in Costa Rica. While I spent two weeks cliff diving, hiking, and zip lining, my 14 companions and I spent two weeks living and working with the inhabitants of Las Brisas. Las Brisas has a whopping population of novel 500that’s a small town! My life began to revolve around life and Essay on The Fountain work in Las Brisas. I would wake up every morning and walk a mile to the school where we were building a new support wall and Teen Essay mixing cement by hand for hours before being refreshed by a hot cup of coffee. The physical requirements of building a seven-foot high cement wall are extensive, but the rewards were even greater. I made new friends with the Las Brisas natives, began learning a new language, and really connected with the dozens of individual personalities and relationships that existed in this small farm town. Everyone had their own stories to tell and dreams to share, from the littlest chica to the oldest hombre.

I gained so much more insight into culture in my two weeks in on The Mythical Fountain of Youth, Las Brisas than I ever expected. They come from a different world than I do, but we share so many similarities! They like watching TV and playing sports. Others love traveling to see the wonders their small country has to offer. Some even love texting and, like me, some dream to escape their small town and see the world. And while living and Essay to Live Final Days Tennyson’s working with the Mythical of Youth warm-hearted people of Las Brisas, I realized that it’s not the size of the town but the hopes and dreams of those in it that really determines the life they will lead. While Saybrook gets quite boring in the dead of winter, growing up in the Works Lee, what I thought was a “small” town has given me the perfect launch pad to make my life whatever I want it to be.

My experiences in Europe and Costa Rica have given my life purpose and focus. I study hard in French and now take Spanish as well to build a foundation of knowledge that I hope will grow during and after college. I’ve made amazing international connections and friendships that I know I will keep for my whole life. These friendships have changed my perspective of humans and cultural differences as a whole. My interest in travel and foreign cultures has grown from a desire to Mythical Fountain, an obsession to a virtual need for new experiences and relationships. I hope to fulfill this need in college and my career after, traveling and definition of philosophical meeting new people and working to build a better world. But now, as I mature, I know that I will not forget the small shoreline town that I dreamed of leaving, knowing that one day, I will dream of returning. Essay On The Fountain Of Youth. Note: Did you know you could win a $10,000 scholarship for college or grad school just by registering on CollegeXpress? This is one of the quickest, easiest scholarships youll ever apply for.

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Hamlet Cause and Effect Essay Act 4 Soliloquy. . Essay On The Fountain? is the Teen, key to any successful event, and a celebration is on The Mythical, no different (Felix, 2009). To make the planning easy delegate the list, give one job one sibling, then another part to another sibling, sharing the Essay on How Final Days Ulysses, work will not only help, but will make it easy preparing the celebration. With each one having their own list, one can contact all of the friends that live all over the state, and the other one will be contacting the rest of the siblings, and they will pass the Essay Mythical, word to rest of the rennin activity, family members. Fountain? There has to be a food preparer, but the guest list is Essay to Live Final in Lord Tennyson’s Ulysses, too large, after all everybody has a job to do planning the celebration, so hiring a caterer will be the next step and preparing a menu. After preparing the menu, finding out how many guest will be there is the next job. After making out the guest list, let the caterer know how many guest will be there, so they will know how much food to prepare for 100 or more guest. This is very important because making sure there will be enough food for everybody is the reason for the list (Felix, 2009, p.75). Preparing for such an elegant event requires a lot of of Youth planning ahead and of course you want everything to run as smooth as possible. If the epistolary, anniversary celebration will be April, 2012 start the organizing, planning, and on The preparing about 9 months ahead of time. Starting there and working your way covering every detail along the way so everything will be covered.

Family celebrations are not just for 50th anniversaries, but. Words: 564 - Pages: 3. . Mariana Secundes 11-22-11 Period 2 Cause and Effect Essay In A Midsummer Night's Dream, Oberon causes many events to rennin activity, happen all because of love. He causes Titania to Essay on The of Youth, fall in love with him again, Demetrius to fall in love with Helena, and Cyber Bullying Titania to fall in love with Nick Bottom who looks like a donkey. This is all caused by a love potion, which reveals the true fickle nature of love. Love causes many problems in this play, but all ends up fixed.

The actors and Nick Bottom go into the clearing to on The Mythical Fountain, practice their play. Nick Bottom is behind a wall waiting for the Works, his part, when Puck transforms his head into a donkeys head. Nick Bottom scares all his fellow actors away and in confusion he thinks it's all a joke. Essay? He begins to sing and definition of philosophical wakes up the fairy queen Titania. Essay Mythical Fountain? She begins to flirt with him and brings him up onto her loft.

They go to sleep and when he wakes up he thinks its is definition of philosophical, all a dream. Mythical Of Youth? He has to go to the play and Puck transforms his head back to normal. This is all through the cause of a love potion that doesn't only mess with Nick Bottom life. Oberon and Titania haven't been together in a long time, because Titania is Financial of legalizing, taking care of an Indian boy. Oberon has Puck go get a flower that is used for a love potion and when a drop of it falls in a persons eyes, they fall in love with the next person they see.

He has Puck go put the love potion in Titanias eyes. She wakes up to Nick Bottom's singing. Words: 624 - Pages: 3. . Stay In Shape, Stay Healthy Are you exercising and Essay Mythical eating right to stay healthy? More than half of America can answer this question with a no. According to statistics 35.7% adults and 17% teens are obese in America due to lack of exercise and Essay unhealthy eating.

Not exercising and eating poorly can only prepare you for the worse. Obesity, high blood pressure, and on The Fountain heart attacks are likely to occur to a person if they are not exercising and Financial Benefits of legalizing Essay eating correctly to stay healthy. Obesity is the number one effect with most people in todays society. More than 52.7% of Essay on The of Youth people in America are obese, which is a very high percentage compared to other countries. But if being lazy is on the agenda instead of working out, obesity may become your new friend. Obesity is Benefits Essay, when the body doesnt move around much so all the unhealthy food that goes into ones body, is stored as fat.

It is always wise to on The, exercise after eating a meal, because it can help balance out the food youve just ate with the work-out youre getting at Essay on How Those Ulysses, the moment. High blood pressure can occur when you eat a lot fried food without exercising. This is where soul food comes in at, it may look and smell delicious, but it will turn into the complete opposite once it enters your body. I was once told four years ago that pork plays a major part in Mythical Fountain, high blood pressure also. From that day on, I never ate pork again because; I had realized that I needed to stay healthier. Epistolary? Heart attacks are another concern when. Words: 477 - Pages: 2. . Cause and Effect Essay Chinas One Child Policy Can you imagine not having the option of having more than one child?

Well this is the Essay, case in China. Due to the enormous increase in population, the Chinese government have decided that each family has the right of having only one child. The Works Of Harper Lee? Otherwise they will be punished. The decision has harmful consequences on the Chinese society. Essay Of Youth? It affected the of philosophical, balance of male-female ratio.

In addition, it caused the loneliness of the children. Moreover, it caused a shortage of on The Mythical of Youth young people. First, Chinas one child policy affected the balance of female-male ratio. The number of the boys in China became much more than the number of the girls which led to unfortunate consequences. Comparing Of Harper Essay? For example, it became hard for some of them to Essay Mythical Fountain, get married. In addition, the criminal activities increased since the number of Financial of legalizing Essay boys is larger.

Esther Dulfo states This only on The Fountain of Youth child generation is now reaching adulthood. Financial Benefits Essay? A child born in 1980 is now 28 years old, and China is beginning to realise the consequences of this demographic imbalance. Among 16-25 years old, there are nearly 110 boys for every 100 girls. Boys are having trouble getting married. And young men, particularly single ones, have more behavioural problems and commit more crimes than young women. Second, the Essay Mythical of Youth, children became lonely because they cannot have siblings which led to miserable effects. For instance, the epistolary, children have. Words: 825 - Pages: 4. . Essay On The Mythical Of Youth? Cause and Effect Essay In 1981 a new disease by the name of AIDS (Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome) was diagnosed. AIDS was first discovered in major coastal cities such as New York, San Francisco, Miami, and Benefits of legalizing Essay Los Angeles.

The Center for disease control and prevention (CDC) published in their morbidity and mortality weekly report on June 5th 1981 a report with a description of rare cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a lung infection. Doctors from all over on The Fountain the United States recounted numerous similar cases as well as cases of a rare cancer known as Kaposis sarcoma. In these early reports it was noted that those affected were mostly gay men and intravenous drug users. It was because of this that many referred to the disease as GRID (Gay-Related Immune Deficiency). Later reports sprouted up of women, babies born to infected women, blood recipients such as hemophiliacs, as well as prostitutes and Cyber Bullying Essay their customers all with the disease. Some children were even denied entry to school and when it was found they had the disease. When wealthy high profile victims started surfacing, the movie icon Rock Hudson for example, it was realized that AIDS is a disease that can affect anyone and is not just limited to a particular group of people. This realization set the stage for the anxiety of Essay people toward what is now known as the Aids pandemic and put the world in a state of emergency. It is now know that HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and AIDS go hand in epistolary novel, hand. Words: 806 - Pages: 4. . Hamlet: Analysis of Act IV Soliloquy Hamlet by William Shakespeare is a tragic play about a young prince named Hamlet and his struggle to Essay Fountain of Youth, avenge the death of of philosophical his father.

Hamlet is outraged when he learns that what appeared to be an accidental death was actually a murder carried out by his uncle. He vows to get revenge on the murderer at all costs. Throughout the play, Hamlet is hesitant about on The Mythical of Youth his actions until he sees a group of soldiers preparing to battle over a very small piece of land. At this point Hamlet has a soliloquy; he reflects on his actions and is upset with himself for not fulfilling his plan yet. Epistolary Novel? He decides that it is time to complete what he has started and Essay Mythical Fountain of Youth kill his uncle. This speech directly affects the target audience, the people of the Elizabethan Era.

The audience is captured by the use of rennin activity poetic devices, they can relate to Hamlet and feel his pain, and his speech adds excitement as the audience knows there will be a change of events. Shakespeare uses an abundance of literary devices to enhance his work. Essay On The Fountain Of Youth? In this soliloquy there are multiple examples that draw in the viewer and intensify the meaning of his words. The speech opens with an example of assonance: How all occasions do inform against me,/ And spur my dull revenge! (4.4.31-32). The repetition of the o sound in the first line and definition the u sound in the second line make the words flow together. This captures the audiences attention because it makes the phrase easy to Essay on The Mythical Fountain of Youth, listen to.

The words. Words: 1044 - Pages: 5. . Cause and Effect Essay Elizabethan Target Audience Always mystify, torture, mislead, and surprise the audience as much as possible (Roff). Hamlet is a dramatic production written by the Works, William Shakespeare. The play, set in the Kingdom of Denmark, recounts how Prince Hamlet exacts revenge on his uncle Claudius for murdering the old King Hamlet, Claudius's own brother and Prince Hamlet's father, and then succeeding to the throne and Mythical Fountain marrying Gertrude, the King Hamlet's widow and Teen Cyber Essay mother of on The of Youth Prince Hamlet (Hamlet). Shakespeares main objective was to impress his Elizabethan audience because entertainment through theater was extremely important to everyone in definition, the era (Elizabethan Theater). Shakespeare successfully captivated an Elizabethan audience with this production (Hamlet). This essay will explain how an Elizabethan audience was targeted by Essay, Hamlets final monologue (act 4, lines 32-66). This speech effectively targeted and Essay on How to Live Poem Ulysses engaged an Elizabethan audience because its format, mentions of revenge and Essay on The Mythical exciting nature caused the audience to sympathise with Hamlets decisions and feelings, and become enthusiastic and Teen Cyber Bullying Essay involved in the play.

The format of Essay of Youth this speech is a key factor which explains why the Elizabethan audience is effectively targeted. This speech is written and delivered in the form of on How Those Final Days in Lord a soliloquy. This means that it is an uninterrupted speech delivered by Mythical Fountain, a single character to the audience but not to rennin activity, other characters (Jaber Al-Ogaili 48). Soliloquies are. Words: 1719 - Pages: 7. . As an Essay on The Fountain 18 year old kid, on the verge of graduation, I had endless possibilities ahead of me. I could go to novel, college. I could take a year or two to travel; maybe backpack through Europe. Heck, I could spend the on The of Youth, summer sleeping in late and hanging out with my friends before setting off on my next adventure. The point is, high school was about to end and I was the captain of my own ship for the first time. Novel? I was about to embark on an uncharted voyage to whatever destination I desired with nothing to keep me from fulfilling my dreams and desires. Essay On The Of Youth? At least thats what I thought.

My whole world was about to Essay Those Tennyson’s, change and I was totally unaware. The bomb dropped about on The Mythical Fountain a month before graduation, and my ship sank like a ton of bricks. My girlfriend Christy was pregnant. Instead of being a young man about to take on Essay on How Those Final Days in Lord Tennyson’s Poem Ulysses the world, I was going to be a father. I honestly dont remember how I felt when she first told me. I think mostly I was just numb. I remember her sitting across from me in the passenger seat of my Volkswagen Beetle, tears streaming down her face, gasping for breath through her sobs. She was terrified. I was too, but I knew I had to Essay on The Mythical Fountain, get my act together and try to be strong for us both. I mean, I was the man, right?

I stretched across to Comparing the Works, her seat and tried as best I could to hold her and comfort her. I didnt know what to Essay on The Fountain, say, so I just kept telling her everything would be ok, we would figure things out together, and that I loved her. I guess thats what she needed because she. Words: 1605 - Pages: 7. . Cause and Effect Assignment Poem: Be Glad Your Nose is on Your Face By Jack Prelutsky Be glad your nose is on your face, not pasted on some other place, for if it were where it is not, you might dislike your nose a lot. Imagine if your precious nose were sandwiched in between your toes, that clearly would not be a treat, for you'd be forced to smell your feet. Your nose would be a source of dread were it attached atop your head, it soon would drive you to despair, forever tickled by your hair.

Within your ear, your nose would be an absolute catastrophe, for when you were obliged to sneeze, your brain would rattle from the breeze. Comparing Of Harper Lee? Your nose, instead, through thick and thin, remains between your eyes and chin, not pasted on some other place-- be glad your nose is on your face! Analysis: Be Glad Your Nose is On Your Face is a humorous cause and effect poem by famous childrens poet Jack Prelutsky. It vividly describes moving your precious nose to other parts of Essay on The Mythical Fountain of Youth your body and of legalizing Essay the amusing results. In his poem, Perlutsky writes, Imagine if your precious nose, were sandwiched in between your toes, that clearly would not be a treat, for youd be forced to on The Fountain of Youth, smell your feet. (5-8) While the poem seems to be simple and straightforward, it has an important message. Be happy with who you are. Perlutsky make this point in his poem with, Be glad your nose is on your face, not pasted on some other place, for if it were where it.

Words: 339 - Pages: 2. Cause and Effect Essay on Divorce. . Isaiah Smith Ms. Of Harper Essay? Coughlan English 0990 11:00 A.M -12:50 P.M 4-17-15 Teenagers and Jobs The pressure for most teenagers to on The Fountain of Youth, work is great, not only because of the economy in the world today. Most of it is peer pressure to have some independence and freedom, and to have their own spending money on what they want. The most concern we have is when the on How Those Days in Lord, part-time work becomes the main focus. However, working more than fifteen hours a week can be harmful for teenagers because it reduces their involvement with school.

The schoolwork and benefits of the activities they are involved in tend to go by the wayside when teenagers are working long hours. Of Youth? As more teens filled the part-time jobs offered by of philosophical, malls and fast food restaurants, teachers have faced some increasing difficulties. The teachers have to Essay on The Fountain of Youth, give homework to students who really do not have time to do it and rennin activity keep the attention of tired teenagers. Athletic teams and even school bands are losing the on The Mythical Fountain of Youth, players due to their work schedule, and the students who work are not attending sports events. Too much working can cause kids to want more name brand clothes. Some parents claim that working helps teach teenagers the value of earning money and getting it on they own. Epistolary? If you think of it this is so true. Its true that some teens are working in order to Essay on The Mythical Fountain of Youth, save up for college or family budgets. Majority of teens that are working blow all of their money. Words: 406 - Pages: 2. . Teen Bullying Essay? Hamlet Aristotle once wrote, You will never do anything in this world without courage.

It is the on The Mythical, greatest quality of the mind next to honour. Rennin Activity? William Shakespeare wrote the play, Hamlet, as a revenge tragedy to entertain the Elizabethan audience. In act IV scene IV, Hamlet questions his courage and lack of on The of Youth ability to rennin activity, make a decision to avenge his fathers death. Hamlet compares himself to a military leader who demonstrates great bravery while questioning what defines honour. Shakespeare strategically utilizes his characters flaw to create deception, greed and ultimate revenge within the play. Therefore, Hamlets final soliloquy causes the Elizabethan audience to on The Fountain of Youth, connect to the emotions the on How to Live Days in Lord Poem, play evokes while simultaneously engaging them. To begin with, Hamlets final soliloquy allows the audience to elicit feelings of empathy over the personal conflict and struggle Hamlet is facing over avenging his fathers death. Firstly, Hamlet is Essay on The Mythical of Youth, overcome with grief and sadness at the loss of his father and recent marriage of his mother, which causes him to question his inability to epistolary, act out his revenge. Hamlet states, How stand I then, that have a father killed, a mother stained, excitements of Essay on The Mythical Fountain my reason and Teen Cyber Essay my blood, and let all sleep (IV.IV.55-59). Essay? This conflict of conscience would cause the audience to sympathize with Hamlet as he mourns the unimaginable loss of his precious family and the realization that the world he knows will never be the same again.

Words: 929 - Pages: 4. . professions provide flexible hours and telecommuting options which satisfy the work-life balance needed in these situations. Some fields such as manufacturing and medicine have three standard shifts. This can cause an entirely different set of challenges and opportunities for families. Children with two working parents must adapt to a regimented routine. This may include waking up and leaving the Essay on How Final Days in Lord Tennyson’s, house long before the school bell rings in order to attend a before-school program so the on The Mythical of Youth, parent can get to work on time. It may mean earlier bedtimes, preparing breakfast, lunch and snacks, and checking homework, signing papers and Cyber Bullying reading school correspondence the Mythical of Youth, night before rather than waiting to do it in the morning. As your child matures some expense can be eliminated if you are comfortable allowing your child to be alone in the house before and after school. These children are sometimes referred to as latchkey kids. If the family is ready for this and selects it as an option, it can teach the child much about independence and on How Tennyson’s responsibility. Ground rules will need to be set and discussed before this transition occurs.

Is cooking allowed? Can friends visit without an adult present? Reminders to lock doors, do homework and limit television and computer use will be repeated daily. Fortunately, there are now many technologies such as GPS, cell phone tracking, security systems, and online cameras to Essay on The of Youth, account for the whereabouts and actions of your child. Of Harper Lee Essay? We very often. Words: 929 - Pages: 4. Don#x27;t Blame Bush- Cause/Effect Essay. . on October 7, 2001. Fountain Of Youth? The initiation of the war included an air attack by American and British forces.

Bombs were dropped on Taliban military bases as well as Al-Qaeda camps (McCabe). October 7, 2001was day one towards the long-lasting effort that exists to this day. Since then, much progress has been made towards achieving Bushs goal. Arguably, as of today, the greatest American victory including the epistolary, war against terror occurred on May 2, 2011 when U.S. forces found, shot, and killed Osama bin Laden. On The Fountain? Terrorist activity was still prevalent long before September 11, 2001, but the actions on that day resulted in of philosophical, the birth of the War on Terrorism. As an effect from 9/11, the United States passed a bill called the USA PATRIOT Act. USA PATRIOT is Fountain of Youth, a ten letter acronym for Uniting and the Works Lee Essay Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism The Patriot Act passed in order to strengthen the United States security controls and prevent crimes such as terrorists attacks. The act grants more authority to federal officials and officers to personal information. Changes involve stricter rules such as the Fountain of Youth, FBI or law enforcement being able to force third parties to hand over personal records like medical, financial, school, juvenile records, etc.

Title IX in on How to Live Those Final Days, The Patriot Act explains a method that allows US officials to gain intelligence from other foreign agencies similar to the CIA. Fountain? This specific rule is Comparing the Works Lee Essay, aimed towards better border control and. Words: 2694 - Pages: 11. . Child violence is a topic which has exposed itself tremendously with both causes and effects; causes being, poor parenting, environment and Essay on The Mythical Fountain of Youth exposure, and effects including depression, difficulties in school and criminal behavior. Rennin Activity? Most people try not to address poor parenting because it can be a very sensitive topic but, it is very important and lack of conversation or teaching can become an Essay on The Mythical Fountain issue.

We have all been somewhere and witness a child misbehaving and the parent not reprimanding their child. We have also heard stories of how a child may be being abused or witnessing abuse by a parent, guardian or loved one. A child being bullied or rough housing with siblings may also become an issue. Cursing and fighting around a child can leave a negative impression on them. These are all examples of poor parenting that could potentially be the cause of child violence. Environment and exposure also plays a major role in a childs aggression.

Where a child lives, attends school, and plays all have an impact on behavior. Children adopt habits from many different things. If a child lives in a home or neighborhood that is violent, chances are they may begin to act the same. Especially witnessing domestic abuse. What a child watches on rennin activity TV, sees on the internet and video games may have an effect. While attending school and playing with other children an adolescent may face violence. Having witnessed children that have received proper parenting and discipline at Essay Fountain, home and attended a. Words: 677 - Pages: 3. . Cause and/or Effect Essay: Good Writer Writing is definition of philosophical, a mastery that may take years to develop. As one matures from Essay on The Fountain, childhood, they develop diverse communication skills, such as talking, listening, and writing. Of Philosophical? Writing is an integral skill that enables a person articulate their ideas in a commonsensical manner. Although I am not a good writer, as I would like to be, I have made tremendous improvements over the years.

Several factors have influenced my writing ability to the level I have reached currently. My family background and school experience presented me with an opportunity to become an exceptional writer, while social influences had an insignificant effect in bettering my skills. On The Fountain? Primarily, my family background has a significant effect in my mastery of writing. I saw people writing at home, as my parents read and wrote frequently. My parents have an inherent respect and value for Essay on How Those Final Ulysses, writing. On The Fountain? They regularly expressed a love for writing and implored us to read and write as much as possible.

We had a small book library at our home, comprising of newspapers, novels, and research books. Home libraries have a significant influence on development of an interest in reading and Teen Cyber Bullying Essay writing (Bonci, 2010). Initially, I only read magazines, but it was only after I started reading longer books with chapters, that I developed the Mythical of Youth, skill to epistolary novel, organize ideas. For that reason, my family background has had a significant effect in the writing skills. In addition, my.

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Everything You Need to Know about Careers in on The Fountain Banking Consulting! In collaboration with student societies at Oxford, The Careers Service is hosting two key events ahead of the onslaught of employer presentations, workshops and fairs to Teen Cyber Essay help you navigate careers in the city. On Tuesday 10 October well be hosting Careers in Consulting: Everything You Need to Know from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools. Hear from 3 very different firms (Strategy, Oliver Wyman and CIL Consulting) to Essay on The Fountain learn what a week in the life of a consultant is like and gain key advice to be on Cyber Bullying top of on The your game for competitive applications. Then on epistolary novel Wednesday 11 October from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools join us for Careers in Banking: Everything You Need to Know where youll hear from a range of Essay Mythical firms including HSBC, BNY Mellon, Jefferies and Schroders. They will be giving vital tips on how to find your dream job in finance and illustrating what their day-to-day roles involve. These events are being closely supported by a number of Oxford societies including the Finance Society, the Financial Benefits, Oxford Student Foundation and The Oxford Strategy Group.

No need to book, spaces are allocated on a first-come, first served basis. Career Workshops for Researchers in Michaelmas. Positive steps in career development come from meeting others and learning. Researchers at Oxford can come to any of our events, but we also have bespoke opportunities for research Masters students, Research Assistants, DPhils and Post-Docs. These are listed below for Essay on The Mythical Fountain, Michaelmas Term.

Also look out for Teen Bullying Essay, Careers Days, invited speakers and skills sessions run by your department, division or post-doc network. For appointments with Rachel Bray or another Careers Adviser of your choice at the Careers Service on Banbury Road, please book through CareerConnect. Rachel Bray also offers regular appointments for scientists at Essay the JR and rennin activity Old Road Campus, bookable by phoning reception on 01865 274646. Bookings for workshops/events should be through CareerConnect and if you have any queries please email For: Research Assistants and Masters Students When: Thursday 5 October, 9.00 12.30 Where: The Careers Service Booking: This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to Essay on The Mythical of Youth CareerConnect. In this workshop we will look closely at the value of doing a doctorate in todays employment market and for of philosophical, ourselves as people. We will consider our personal motivations for this route, the Essay Fountain, challenges we may need to overcome to secure a place and how to definition thrive as a PhD student. There will also be opportunity to Mythical of Youth reflect on alternative pathways towards professional satisfaction.

Pointers towards further advice and support available here at Oxford and more broadly will be given. This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Alternatively, book a place at our lunchtime seminar on this topic on Monday 23 October. Career Management for Research Staff and DPhils. Looking to manage your career more effectively? This workshop has been designed specifically for University Research Staff at definition all levels and at Mythical Fountain any stage in their career, who want to step back and Comparing spend a few productive hours focusing on identifying their ideal job and on The Mythical Fountain future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia. An interactive mix of short individual exercises and small informal group discussions will help you to Essay in Lord Tennyson’s Poem Ulysses build a clearer picture of the key factors relating to your career and personal circumstances and to explore career pathways. The session will cover: reflections on where your career is right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and career motivations; identifying your values and transferable skills; how to identify possible career pathways and move forward effectively. You will be encouraged to draw your insights together to Essay on The Mythical Fountain begin a realistic personal career plan and to consider your next steps.

Researchers@ Oxford Careers Fair. Research students and of philosophical staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on of Youth the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on Bullying Essay the Oxford Careers Fair page. Essay On The Mythical Fountain? The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the Comparing the Works of Harper Essay, event. Researchers@ Finance Careers Fair. When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event.

Depending on Essay on The the number of rennin activity bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Management Consulting Careers Fair. When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for Essay on The, this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Kickstart for Research Staff and their Partners/Newcomers. When: Friday 20 October, 13.00 16.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: To reserve a place Researchers should book through CareerConnect.

Partners of newcomers should call Careers Service reception on 01865 274646. A special careers workshop for those looking to return to Cyber Essay work after a long career gap or for Essay of Youth, a new direction, whether through re-location, other circumstances or choice. We will cover job search strategies, document optimisation, networking and interview technique but we will also be exploring ideas and case studies on how to get into the market and freshen up your skills and CV. Even if you are a few years from getting back to Comparing work, come along! There are things you can be doing now to make that transition much easier when it comes. Open to anyone considering applying for a PhD. In this session well cover the steps you might take to discover whether a PhD is the right course of action for you, and discuss how to choose the best institution and programme for you.

Well also briefly talk about the Essay Fountain of Youth, application process and funding. Researchers@ Careers in Computing Fair. When: Tuesday 24th October, 14.00 15.00 Where: Department of Computer Science, Robert Hooke Building Booking: To reserve a place please go to rennin activity CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend the on The Mythical Fountain, above fairs are invited to definition of philosophical book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on Essay on The Fountain our Fairs page.

The fair booklet for definition, this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Arts, Media and Essay of Youth Marketing Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to epistolary discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the on The Mythical of Youth, event. Researchers@ Science, Engineering and of Harper Essay Technology Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to Essay on The Mythical Fountain of Youth attend the Teen Bullying, above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event.

Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to Essay Fountain discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on rennin activity our Fairs page. The fair booklet for Essay Mythical of Youth, this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the epistolary, event. Researchers@ Teaching and Education Fair. Research students and staff planning to Fountain attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page.

The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Internship Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to Teen Cyber Bullying book at the relevant pre-fair event. Essay On The Mythical Fountain? Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to Essay on How Days discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page.

The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. CV and Cover Letter Skills for Research Staff. This intensive workshop on producing effective CVs and Cover Letters is specifically for Fountain, doctoral students and Benefits marijuana Essay research staff, whether you are considering an academic or non-academic career, or are undecided. Using a mix of individual and informal small group exercises, we will. understand and recognise the characteristics of effective CVs and cover letters critique the strengths and Essay on The Mythical of Youth weaknesses of their own and colleagues current CVs evaluate example CVs and cover letters to build their knowledge of Comparing of Harper Lee Essay different types and styles.

Insight into Academia Seminar: Myths and Realities Panel. When: Tuesday 7 November, 13.00 14.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: You do not need to book a place at this event but popular events may fill early so arrive in good time. Are you considering an academic career? We will hear from a small panel of early- to mid-career academics about their day-to-day roles, how they manage a work-life balance, and opportunities for progression. This is a chance to ask questions and generate discussion on many aspects of being an academic. Academic Application and on The Fountain Interview Skills for Research Staff and DPhils.

Are you a DPhil Student or Research Staff member planning to of philosophical apply for academic jobs? Do you want advice on on The Fountain of Youth how to Cyber prepare academic applications and to improve your interview skills? This workshop, designed specifically for University of Essay of Youth Oxford researchers pursuing academic applications, is for you. This interactive course will equip you with the skills to maximise your chances of getting academic employment. Emphasis will be given to to Live Days Poem understanding the processes which universities use to select staff and the importance of tailoring CVs, applications, research and Essay Mythical Fountain teaching statements accordingly. We will discuss and practice the novel, skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and how to deal with typical academic interview questions. Follow up one-to-one career discussions can additionally be used to review intended applications and to on The Fountain of Youth prepare for particular interviews. Career Options for Mathematicians ( leading into Jobs for Mathematicians Careers Fair ) When: Tuesday 21 November, 15.15 16.00 Where: Mathematical Institute Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Erica Tyson from the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications will outline the breadth of career options that opens up for people with outstanding skills in mathematics. Its not only the financial and academic or teaching world that is hungry for this important skillset.

Increasingly, commercial, government and not-for-profit sector players of all kinds are keen to definition of philosophical employ highly numerate, analytical and Fountain creative thinkers to understand and predict trends, plan and develop strategy and Those Final Days in Lord Tennyson’s Ulysses deliver smarter and Essay Mythical of Youth more efficient solutions. You do not need to book a place at this event but please bear in Financial marijuana mind that spaces will be allocated on Essay on The Fountain of Youth a first-come, first served basis and marijuana popular events may fill early so arrive in Essay good time. DPhils and research staff are very welcome to this talk and to Teen Cyber stay for the Maths Careers Fair. Dr Rachel Bray, Careers Adviser, will be available for half an hour after the talk to discuss any questions that arise. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page.

The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Interview Presentation Skills for Research Staff and Essay Mythical DPhils. New job or direction in mind? Do you want to brush up on the practicalities of preparing for interviews and presentations? This workshop, designed for University Research Staff and final year DPhils, is for you. A highly interactive session, it will equip you with the skills to play the Comparing Lee Essay, recruitment game to best effect. Fountain? We will discuss and definition of philosophical practice the skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and how to deal with typical interview questions.

The workshop will cover the skills required for both academic and non-academic interviews, with particular focus on the latter. Follow up one-to-one career discussions can then be used to review intended applications and to prepare for particular interviews. Insight into Academia Conversation: Gender, Age and Progression in Academia. This conversation around gender, age and progression in academia will be an Essay on The Mythical Fountain, informal group discussion (facilitated by a careers adviser), with two guest contributors (two early- to mid career academics) who will share their experiences with you. We welcome individuals from across the university with a mutual interest in the topic. The careers adviser present is an experienced group facilitator, wholl support the discussion with advice, strategies and resources, as well as offering suggestions for Financial marijuana, topics of discussion. Meeting people is a really useful way to learn more about your mutual goals: its the equivalent of attending a tutorial or class discussion, and often attendees choose to keep in touch with fellow participants for Essay Mythical Fountain, further mutual support. Too Late to epistolary novel Change Direction? Career Transitions for Researchers.

In this workshop we will explore our understanding of the pros and cons of Essay on The Mythical Fountain staying in academic research, whether and how we can move to another sector (or combine aspects of academia with another role) and Teen Cyber Bullying what we feel we might be risking in making this move. In small groups, we will then. become familiar with an evidence-informed framework for assessing a potential career move, think about how to use this in Essay of Youth our current roles, develop some practical strategies to novel assist decision-making. This one day workshop, for DPhil students and research staff who identify themselves as female, is an opportunity for you to explore your values, create tangible goals, practice presenting your achievements positively and build assertiveness and networking strategies. There will also be a guest speaker who will share their work / life story and answer any questions you have. Coffee and tea will be available from 9am and the workshop will start promptly at 9.30am. Lunch will be included. This programme is just for women, but note that we plan to Essay on The of Youth run a mixed programme in Bullying Trinity Term for a mixed group of men and women.

Tier 1 Graduate Entrepreneur Visa Endorsement apply now! If you have an idea for a business, have a venture currently in development, or are piloting a new concept, you may be eligible to apply for our endorsement under the Tier 1 (Graduate Entrepreneur) visa scheme, which allows non-EEA nationals who are graduates or post-doctoral researchers to reside in Mythical of Youth the UK in order to develop their business. Previously endorsed businesses have included: Social enterprises and not-for-profits Technology start-ups Funding generation and investment organisations Digital education tools Energy research. The University of Oxford can endorse up to thirty applicants per year. Calls for applications are held four times a year: once in Essay each term, and once during the Long Vacation. The next deadline for applications is Thursday 30 November 2017 at 12 noon . Applications are now open, and you can apply by email to, or via Symplicity (for Said Business School students), or via CareerConnect (for all other students/alum) using the following vacancy IDs: for Students: CareerConnect opportunity ID dnk94 for Alumni: CareerConnect opportunity ID 3v86d. You can find more information and details of Fountain of Youth how to Financial marijuana apply on our visa page or on CareerConnect. Alternatively you can email All applications must be submitted through CareerConnect or emailed to by Mythical Fountain, Thursday 30 November 2017 at 12 noon.

Win a $1000 scholarship for coming up with a morale-boosting idea. VelvetJobs, a US outsourcing and placement service, are offering a $1000 scholarship for students studying in the USA or overseas. The Employee Morale Scholarship aims to of legalizing marijuana get students thinking about their own potential future management position and how their decisions can affect employee morale. The piece should include a headline of the morale boosting idea and at on The Mythical Fountain of Youth least 500 words on how to effectively deploy the strategy. Students of Comparing any nationality can enter, as long as they are enrolled in full time education and over the age of 18.

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2000 election essays Journal Articles, Newspapers. Summary of the on The of Youth Bush/Gore Dispute in the U.S. Presidential Election, 2000. To Live Final Tennyson’s Ulysses! In November 2000, the election for the President of the Essay Mythical United States was one of the closest in the United States history. Both parties were aware of the trend within three months before. During that time, many polls continued to fluctuate, showing candidates Bush and Gore ahead at different times, usually within the statistical margin of error. Neither party, however, expected the outcome to be as close as it did. The outcome of the election was not known until five weeks after the election.

While outcomes were close in quite a few states, (New Mexico, Oregon, Wisconsin, Iowa and New Hampshire-- all within less than seven thousand), the one in rennin activity, question was Florida, a state that had enough electoral votes (25) to Essay on The Fountain of Youth, determine the election. Election 2000 would become the first election since 1888 where there was a difference between the popular vote and epistolary, the electoral vote-- Vice President Al Gore leading Governor George W. Bush by a little over 500,000 votes while Governor George W. Bush leading Vice President Al Gore in the Electoral College by four votes (271-267). The state of Florida being the one to decide was made even more dramatic as Jeb Bush, George W. Bush's brother, was its governor. On The Mythical Fountain Of Youth! Furthermore, Florida was probably the most campaigned state by marijuana Essay both candidates as polls there continued to show Gore with a slight lead (but always within the on The Mythical of Youth margin of error). To make the rennin activity certainty of the winner of Florida even more blurry, broadcast networks declared Al Gore the winner earlier in the evening, retracted, and then later declared Bush the winner as well as the winner of the Presidency before again, retracting. The outcome first revealed that out of more than six million votes cast in Florida, Bush led by a slim margin of around 1700 votes. After a machine recount required by Florida law, the Fountain of Youth margin slipped to below 500. Vice President Al Gore filed a protest and definition of philosophical, later a contest to the election through the Courts, asking for Essay Mythical, a hand recount in selected Florida counties that leaned Democratic. The Works! The grounds for both the protest and contest was that these counties: Palm Beach, Broward, Miami Dade, and Volusia was that these four had signs of voting irregularities. Irregularites included the quality of the on The Mythical voting tabulation machines and also that certain types of ballots could possibly be misread by machines. While the media highly featured a particular ballot used in Palm Beach County that some voters claimed confused them to rennin activity, vote for a third party candidate, Pat Buchanan, when they intended to vote for Gore, the main type of Essay on The Mythical ballot that was in question was the punch card ballot.

The punch card ballot is one where the voter uses a stylus to punch holes, marking their choices. Rennin Activity! At times the of Youth chad, the piece of paper that is Benefits of legalizing punched may be left hanging, or may still be so attached that only an indentation is left (a dimple). Essay Mythical! Florida Secretary of Essay Final Days Poem Ulysses State, Katherine Harris, insisting on a Florida statute deadline for certification of the voting tally and questioning whether counties can conduct a hand recount, continued to block efforts of counties conducting a hand count. Democrats questioned the Republican Secretary of State's motives as she was also the co-chair of the Bush campaign in Florida. The Florida Supreme Court stepped in twice allowing recounts to commence, the second time around coming close to what a majority of the country wanted-- a hand recount of the entire state in Essay Fountain, Florida.

By then some hand counts had occurred and of Harper Essay, were included in the total, dwindling Bush's uncertified lead to less than 200 votes (the certified lead was 537). Due to a looming deadline for Florida to name its electors within days (December 12), the Fountain Florida Supreme Court on December 8 ruled in a 4-3 vote that only undervotes of all counties will be hand counted and then added to the total (undervotes are ballots that machines could not read a presidential choice). However the novel United States Supreme Court over-ruled the Florida Supreme Court, questioning the Constitutionality of counting only the Essay on The Mythical of Youth undervotes and the lack of standards to determine the intent of the voter (the intent of the voter was the only definition Florida Law gave in determining when a vote counts). The lack of standards had enabled different counties to consider a vote using different methods, making equal treatment of the ballots fall into question, thus clashing with the Teen Cyber Bullying Essay Equal Protection Clause in Essay Fountain of Youth, the U.S. Constitution. On remedying the Constitutional problem, The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that the Florida Supreme Court had to come up with another solution on how hand counts should be conducted. However with the of philosophical deadline to submit the names of Essay on The Mythical Fountain electoral voters only being two hours away from the time the U.S. Supreme Court submitted its opinion, that remedy was impossible. So the five justices argued that since the deadline is here, no more recounts can occur, and thus the certified winner (Bush) stands.

The split of the Supreme Court decision appeared deeply partisan-- five conservative leaning judges consenting and four liberal leaning judges dissenting. Epistolary! Many legal experts questioned whether December 12 was the drop dead deadline date considering electors do not vote until December 18 and that in the past some states didn't even send their electors over until even after the stated date, but were included when Congress read the vote in January. However, if a state did not name its electors by December 12, the U.S. Congress would have had grounds to question the state's electors and Essay, that would have led to a Constitutional crisis. In an election that had an outcome of an almost split House of Representatives (five seat difference) and an evenly split Senate (50-50), this historical election makes many political pundits declare the Teen Essay nation to be Divided. Essay On The Of Youth! Written by Bullying Norman Buchwald, Information Literacy and of Youth, Technology Librarian, Chabot College.

Some Possible Paper Topics--you should narrow any of the Works of Harper Lee Essay these topics further before beginning your research. (When is a vote a vote?) For most of the on The Mythical Fountain of Youth examples given above, you will most often be searching for articles on your subject, as recent interest in Essay on How Days in Lord Poem, this topic is still new. Note: The above list are possible paper topics, but you MUST come up with a search strategy to effectively research these topics, including coming up with search terms for your topic. Coming up with the best search terms is not always easy. Each database practically has their own vocabulary when it comes to grouping relevant books and articles together. For example, the official subject heading used in the Library Catalog for United States' Presidential Elections is: Presidents--United States--Election. For tips on Mythical of Youth how to develop an effective search strategy, go to the site below: For tips on definition of philosophical finding articles to Essay on The, your subject, go to the site below:

We also have a guide to particular web sites that you could use for your paper or to epistolary, come up with ideas for your topic: If you need help coming up with search terms, consult the Library of Congress Subject Headings at the reference desk or use thesaurii to come up with other terms. A reference librarian is available on the left side of the circulation/reference desk at all hour the Library is Mythical open! This web site was last updated on December 19, 2000. If you have any questions or want to suggest any additions, please contact. Norman Buchwald, Information Literacy and rennin activity, Technology Librarian.

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Deconstruction and Graphic Design: History Meets Theory. A theory-heavy, mid-1990s look at the concept of Deconstruction, looking at its origins in French post-structuralist discourse and then current use in the design world. Since the surfacing of the term ‘deconstruction’ in design journalism in the mid-1980s, the word has served to label architecture, graphic design, products, and fashion featuring chopped up, layered, and Essay on The of Youth, fragmented forms imbued with ambiguous futuristic overtones. This essay looks at the reception and use of deconstruction in the recent history of graphic design, where it has become the tag for yet another period style. We then consider the place of graphics within the theory of deconstruction, initiated in the work of philosopher Jacques Derrida. We argue that deconstruction is not a style or ‘attitude’ but rather a mode of questioning through and about the technologies, formal devices, social institutions, and novel, founding metaphors of representation. Deconstruction belongs to both history and on The Fountain, theory. It is Financial Benefits marijuana embedded in recent visual and academic culture, but it describes a strategy of critical form-making which is on The Mythical performed across a range of rennin activity artefacts and practices, both historical and Essay, contemporary.

Jacques Derrida introduced the epistolary, concept of ‘deconstruction’ in his book Of Grammatology , published in France in 1967 and translated into Essay on The Mythical English in 1976. Comparing Essay! ‘Deconstruction’ became a banner for the advance guard in American literary studies in the 1970s and 80s, scandalising departments of English, French, and comparative literature. Deconstruction rejected the project of modern criticism: to uncover the meaning of a literary work by studying the way its form and content communicate essential humanistic messages. Deconstruction, like critical strategies based on Marxism, feminism, semiotics, and anthropology, focuses not on the themes and imagery of its objects but rather on the linguistic and institutional systems that frame the production of texts. In Derridas theory, deconstruction asks how representation inhabits reality. How does the external image of things get inside their internal essence? How does the surface get under the skin?

Western culture since Plato, Derrida argues, has been governed by such oppositions as reality/representation, inside/outside, original/copy, and mind/body. The intellectual achievements of the West its science, art, philosophy, literature have valued one side of on The Mythical of Youth these pairs over the other, allying one side with truth and the other with falsehood. For example, the of Harper Essay, Judeo-Christian tradition has conceived the body as an external shell for the inner soul, elevating the mind as the sacred source of thought and spirit, while denigrating the body as mere mechanics. In the on The, realm of aesthetics, the original work of art traditionally has carried an aura of authenticity that its copy lacks, and the telling of Financial Benefits marijuana a story or the taking of Essay Fountain a photograph is viewed as a passive record of events. ‘Deconstruction’ takes apart such oppositions by showing how the devalued, empty concept lives inside the valued, positive one.

The outside inhabits the inside. Consider, for example, the opposition between nature and culture. Definition! The idea of ‘nature’ depends on Essay on The Fountain the idea of ‘culture’, and definition, yet culture is Essay part of nature. Its a fantasy to conceive of the non-human environment as a pristine, innocent setting fenced off and protected from the products of human endeavourcities, roads, farms, landfills. The fact that we have produced a concept of Essay ‘nature’ in opposition to ‘culture’ is a symptom of our alienation from the ecological systems that civilisation depletes and transforms. A crucial opposition for deconstruction is speech/writing. The Western philosophical tradition has denigrated writing as an inferior copy of the spoken word. Speech draws on interior consciousness, but writing is dead and Mythical of Youth, abstract. The written word loses its connection to the inner self. Language is set adrift, untethered from the definition, speaking subject.

In the Essay Mythical of Youth, process of rennin activity embodying language, writing steals its soul. Deconstruction views writing as an Essay on The Fountain of Youth active rather than passive form of representation. Writing is not merely a bad copy, a faulty transcription, of the on How to Live Poem, spoken word; writing, in fact, invades thought and speech, transforming the sacred realms of memory, knowledge, and spirit. Any memory system, in fact, is a form of writing, since it records thought for the purpose of future transmissions. The speech/writing opposition can be mapped onto a series of ideologically loaded pairs that are constitutive of modern Western culture: interior to the mind/exterior to the mind. requires no equipment/requires equipment. present subject/absent subject. Derridas critique of the speech/writing opposition locates the concerns of deconstruction in the field of graphic design. We will return to the speech/writing problem in more detail later, but first, we will look at the life of deconstruction in recent design culture. The Design History of Essay Deconstruction. Deconstruction belongs to the Works, the broader critical field known as ‘post-structuralism’, whose key figures include Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard, and Mythical of Youth, others.

Each of these writers has looked at Comparing Lee modes of Essay Mythical Fountain of Youth representation- from literature and photography to the design of schools and to Live Those Days Poem, prisons -as powerful technologies which build and remake the social world. Deconstructions attack on the neutrality of signs is also at Essay of Youth work in the consumer mythologies of Barthes, the institutional archaeologies of Foucault, and the simulationist aesthetics of Baudrillard. The idea that cultural forms help to fabricate such seemingly ‘natural’ categories as race, sexuality, poetic genius, and aesthetic value had profound relevance to visual artists in the 1980s. Comparing Essay! Post-structuralism provided a critical avenue into ‘post-modernism’, posing a left-leaning alternative to the periods nostalgic returns to figurative painting and neo-classical architecture. While Barbara Kruger, Cindy Sherman, and Victor Burgin attacked media myths through their visual work, books such as Hal Fosters The Anti-Aesthetic and Terry Eagletons Literary Theory delivered post-structuralist theory to students in Mythical Fountain, an accessible form.

Graphic designers in many U. S. art programs were exposed to critical theory through the fields of photography, performance and installation art during the early 1980s. The most widely publicised intersection of post-structuralism and graphic design occurred at rennin activity the Cranbrook Academy of Art, under the leadership of co-chair Katherine McCoy. Designers at Cranbrook had first confronted literary criticism when they designed a special issue of Visible Language on Mythical contemporary French literary aesthetics, published in the summer of 1978. Teen Essay! Daniel Libeskind, head of Cranbrooks architecture program, provided the graphic designers with a seminar in literary theory, which prepared them to develop their strategy: to systematically disintegrate the the series of essays by expanding the spaces between lines and Essay on The Mythical, words and pushing the footnotes into the space normally reserved for the main text. French Currents of the Letter, which outraged designers committed to the established ideologies of rennin activity problem-solving and direct communication, remains a controversial landmark in experimental graphic design. According to Katherine McCoy, post-structuralist texts entered more general discussions at Cranbrook around 1983. She has credited Jeffery Keedy, a student at the school from 1983-85, with introducing fellow course members to books by Barthes and others. The classes of 1985/87 and 1986/88 also took an active interest in critical theory; students at this time included Andrew Blauvelt, Brad Collins, Edward Fella, David Frej, and Allen Hori.

Close interaction with the photography department, under the leadership of Carl Toth, further promoted dialogue about post-structuralism and visual practice. Post-structuralism did not serve as a unified methodology at Fountain the school, however, even in the period of its strongest currency, but was part of an eclectic gathering of novel ideas. According to Keedy, students at Cranbrook when he was there were looking at everything from alchemical mysticism to Fountain, the ‘proportion voodoo’ of the golden section. McCoy recalled in a 1991 interview: ‘Theory had become part of the intellectual culture in Cyber Bullying Essay, art and Essay Mythical Fountain of Youth, photography. We were never trying to apply specific textsit was more of a general filtration process. The term deconstructivist drives me crazy. Post-structuralism is an attitude, not a style’. But what is the difference between ‘style’ and ‘attitude’? If ‘style’ is a grammar of to Live Poem Ulysses form-making associated with a particular historical and cultural situation, then perhaps ‘attitude’ is the unarticulated, just out-of-focus background for the specificities of style.

The response to post-structuralism at Cranbrook was largely optimistic, side-stepping the profound pessimism and political critique that permeates these writers major works. McCoy used the architectural theory of Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown as a ‘stepping stone’ to post-structuralism, enabling her to merge the Pop aestheticisation of the Mythical, American commercial vernacular with post-structuralisms critique of ‘fixed meaning’. McCoys preference for celebration over criticism is echoed in Keedys comment, ‘It was the poetic aspect of Barthes which attracted me, not the Marxist analysis. Definition Of Philosophical! After all, were designers working in a consumer society, and while Marxism is interesting as an idea, I wouldnt want to Essay of Youth, put it into practice’. Post-structuralisms emphasis on the openness of meaning has been incorporated by many designers into a romantic theory of self-expression: as the argument goes, because signification is not fixed in material forms, designers and readers share in the spontaneous creation of meaning. This approach represents a rather cheerful response to the post-structuralist theme of the ‘death of the author’ and the assertion that the interior self is constructed by external technologies of definition representation. According to the writings of Barthes and on The Mythical Fountain, Foucault, for example, the citizen/artist/producer is not the imperious master of systems of language, media, education, custom, and so forth; instead, the individual operates within the limited grid of possibilities these codes make available. Rather than view meaning as a matter of private interpretation, post-structuralist theory tends to see the realm of the ‘personal’ as structured by external signs. Invention and revolution come from tactical aggressions against this grid of epistolary possibilities. ‘Deconstructivism’ catapulted into the mainstream design press with MoMAs 1988 exhibition Deconstructivist Architecture, curated by Philip Johnson and Mark Wigley. The curators used the Essay on The Mythical Fountain of Youth, term ‘deconstructivism’ to link certain contemporary architectural practices to Russian Constructivism, whose early years were marked by novel an imperfect vision of form and technology.

The MoMA exhibition located a similarly skewed interpretation of modernism in the work of Frank Gehry, Daniel Libeskind, Peter Eisenman, and others. Wigley wrote in Essay Mythical Fountain, his catalogue essay: ‘A deconstructive architect isnot one who dismantles buildings, but one who locates the inherent dilemmas within buildings. The deconstructive architect puts the pure forms of the architectural tradition on the couch and identifies the symptoms of a repressed impurity. The impurity is drawn to the surface by a combination of gentle coaxing and violent torture: the form is interrogated’. In Wigleys view, deconstruction in architecture asks questions about definition modernism by re-examining its own language, materials, and Mythical Fountain, processes. By framing their exhibition around a new ‘ism’, Wigley and Johnson helped to canonise the elements of a period style, marked by twisted geometries, centerless plans, and shards of glass and metal. Teen Bullying Essay! This cluster of Mythical stylistic features quickly emigrated from architecture to graphic design, just as the icons and colours of neo-classical post-modernism had travelled there shortly before. Rennin Activity! While a more critical approach to Essay, deconstruction had been routed to graphic designers through the fields of photography and the fine arts, architecture provided a ready-to-use formal vocabulary that could be broadly adopted. ‘Deconstruction’, ‘deconstructivism’, and just plain ‘decon’ became design-world cliches, where they named existing tendencies and Teen Essay, catalysed new ones in the fields of furniture and fashion as well as graphic design. In 1990 Philip Meggs published a how-to guide for would-be deconstructivists in the magazine Step-by-Step Graphics. His essay, which includes a journalistic account of how the term ‘deconstruction’ entered the field of Essay on The Fountain graphic design, focuses on style and works back to theory.

Following the logic of the MoMA project, his story begins with Constructivism and ends with its ‘deconstruction’ in contemporary design; unlike Wigley, however, Meggss story depicts early modernism as a purely rational enterprise. Chuck Byrne and Martha Wittes more analytical piece for Print (1990) describes deconstruction as a ‘zeitgeist’, a philosophical germ circulating in contemporary culture that influences graphic designers even though they might not know it. Novel! Their view corresponds roughly to McCoys sense of post-structuralism as a general ‘attitude’ or ‘filtration process’ responding to the ‘intellectual culture’ of the time. Byrne and Wittes article identifies examples of deconstruction across the on The, ideological map of contemporary design, ranging from the work of Paula Scher and Stephen Doyle to Lucille Tenazas and Lorraine Wild. Today, in on How to Live Those Days Tennyson’s Ulysses, the mid-90s, the term ‘deconstruction’ is used casually to label any work that favours complexity over simplicity and dramatises the formal possibilities of digital production- the term is commonly used to invoke a generic allegiance with ‘Cranbrook’ or ‘CalArts’, a gesture which reduces both schools to flat symbols by blanketing a variety of distinct practices. Our view of deconstruction in graphic design is at on The Mythical Fountain once narrower and broader in its scope than the epistolary novel, view evolving from the current discourse. Rather than look at deconstruction as a historical style or period, we see deconstruction as a critical activity -an act of questioning. The visual resources of typography help demarcate Derridas ideological map of the Essay Fountain of Youth, biases governing Western art and philosophy. Having looked at deconstructions life in recent design culture, we will now locate design within the theory of Cyber Bullying Essay deconstruction. Design in Deconstruction.

Derridas critique of the Essay on The Mythical Fountain, speech/writing opposition developed out of his reading of Ferdinand de Saussures Course in General Linguistics , a foundational text for modern linguistics, semiotics, and anthropology. Saussure asserted that the Benefits Essay, meaning of signs does not reside in the signs themselves: there is no natural bond between the signifier (the signs material aspect) and the signified (its referent). Instead, the Essay on The Fountain of Youth, meaning of a sign comes only from its relationship to other signs in a system. Of Philosophical! This principle is the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the ‘content’ of a given code or custom. Saussure revealed that because the sign has no inherent meaning, it is, taken by itself, empty, void, absent. The sign has no life apart from the system or ‘structure’ of language. Saussure revealed that language is not a transparent window onto pre-existing concepts, but that language actively forms the realm of ideas. The base, material body of the signifier is not a secondary copy of the elevated, lofty realm of concepts: both are formless masses before the articulating work of language has sliced it into distinct pieces. Instead of thinking of language as a code for on The Mythical Fountain, passively representing ‘thoughts’, Saussure showed that ‘thoughts’ take shape out of the material body of epistolary novel language. Derridas Of Grammatology points out that although Saussure was willing to reveal the emptiness at the heart of language, he became infuriated when he saw the same principle at work in writing, the system of signs created to represent speech. Saussures text views writing as a copy of speech, an artificial technology for reproducing language.

While the alphabet claims to be a phonetic transcription of Essay Mythical Fountain spoken sounds, codes such as written English are full of irrational spellings: for example, words that sound the same but are spelled differently (meet/meat), and letter combinations with unexpected pronunciations (th-, sh-, -ght). The tone of Saussures critique escalates from mild irritation at the beginning of his presentation to impassioned condemnation of the alphabets violation of an innocent, natural speech: ‘writing obscures language; it is not a guise for language but a disguise’. The ‘tyranny of writing’ distorts its pristine referent through ‘orthographic monstrosities’ and Lee Essay, ‘phonic deformations’. Saussure specifically concerned himself with phonetic writing, the paradigmatic medium of Western culture, which translates the diverse sounds of a language into a set of on The Mythical repeatable graphic marks. He explicitly excluded pictographic and ideographic scripts from his attack on writing; Chinese ideograms have fewer ‘annoying consequences’ than the alphabet, because their users clearly understand their role as secondary signs for spoken words. The power (and seductiveness) of phonetic writing lies in Essay on How to Live Those Final Days, its economy: a small number of characters can represent an ever-expanding quantity of words. Unlike pictographic or ideographic scripts, phonetic writing represents the signifier of language (its material sound) rather than the signified (its conceptual meaning or ‘idea’). Essay Fountain! Whereas an ideogram represents the concept of a word, phonetic characters merely represent its sounds.

The alphabet thus embraces the arbitrariness of the sign by considering the signifier independently of its meaning. As an intellectual technology, alphabetic writing can be compared to photography: it is an automatic record of the surface of language. The alphabet cleaved language into an inside and an outside: the destiny of phonetic writing is to occupy the outside, to be a mechanical copy of the signifier, leaving intact a sacred interior. The belief in the interiority, the fullness, of speech depends on the existence of an exterior, empty representationthe alphabet. Similarly, the notion of ‘nature’, as an rennin activity ideal realm separate from human production, emerged as ‘civilisation’ was despoiling the Essay Mythical Fountain, broader ecological systems in which culture participates. To ‘deconstruct’ the relationship between speech and writing is to Cyber Bullying, reverse the status of the two terms, but not just to replace one with the other, but rather to show that speech was always already characterised by the same failure to transparently reflect reality. There is no innocent speech.

In Of Grammatology , Derrida asserted that an intellectual culture (or episteme) built on the opposition between reality and representation has, in Mythical, fact, depended on representations to construct itself: ‘External/internal, image/reality, representation/presence, such is the old grid to which is definition given the task of outlining the domain of a science. And of what science? Of a science that can no longer answer to the classical concept of the episteme because the originality of its field- an originality that it inaugurates is that the opening of the image within it appears as the condition of reality, a relationship that can no longer be thought within the simple difference and Essay Mythical Fountain, the uncompromising exteriority of image and reality, of outside and inside, of appearance and rennin activity, essence ’. The fact that our culture developed a phonetic writing system one which represents the material signifier in isolation from the sacred signified -is indicative of on The Mythical Fountain our primary alienation from the spoken language. Phonetic writing, because it makes use of the gap between signifier and signified, is not simply a secondary reflection of language, but is a symptom of languages lack of Comparing Lee Essay presence, its lack of interior self-completeness. Derridas final attack on the notion of writing as a secondary copy of Essay Fountain of Youth speech is to make the claim that ‘phonetic writing does not exist’. Not only does writing inhabit speech, transforming its grammar and sound, and not only does phonetic writing exist as languages ‘own other’, an ‘outside’ manufactured to affirm its own complete ‘insidedness’, but this model of the of Harper Essay, ‘outside’ continually fails to behave in the manner expected of it.

Thus where Saussure had claimed that there are only two kinds of writing- phonetic and ideographic -Derrida found the frontiers between them to fluctuate. Phonetic writing is full of non-phonetic elements and functions. On The Mythical Fountain! Some signs used in Benefits Essay, conjunction with the alphabet are ideographic, including numbers and mathematical symbols. Other graphic marks cannot be called signs at all, because they do not represent distinct ‘signifieds’ or concepts: for example, punctuation, flourishes, deletions, and patterns of difference such as roman/italic and uppercase/lowercase. What ‘idea’ does the space between two words or a dingbat at Mythical of Youth the end of a line represent? Key among these marks, which Derrida has called ‘graphemes’, are various forms of rennin activity spacingnegative gaps between the positive symbols of the alphabet. Spacing cannot be dismissed as a ‘simple accessory’ of writing: ‘That a speech supposedly alive can lend itself to spacing in its own writing is what relates to Essay Fountain of Youth, its own death’. The alphabet has come to rely on Financial of legalizing marijuana silent graphic servants such as spacing and punctuation, which, like the frame of a picture, seem safely ‘outside’ the proper content and internal structure of a work and yet are necessary conditions for making and reading. Follow Typotheque on Twitter or Facebook.

Derridas book The Truth in Painting unfolds the logic of framing as a crucial component of works of art. In the Enlightenment aesthetics of Kant, which form the basis for modern art theory and criticism, the frame of Essay on The Mythical Fountain a picture belongs to a class of elements called parerga, meaning ‘about the work’, or outside/around the work. Financial Benefits Of Legalizing Marijuana! Kants parerga include the columns on buildings, the Essay Fountain of Youth, draperies on statues, and the frames on pictures. A frame is an Cyber Bullying ornamental appendix to a work of art, whose ‘quasi-detachment’ serves not only to hide but also to reveal the emptiness at the core of the seemingly self-complete object of aesthetic pleasure. In Derridas words, ‘The parergon is a form that has, as its traditional determination, not that it stands out but that it disappears, buries itself, effaces itself, melts away at Essay the moment it deploys its greatest energy. The frame is in no way a background.but neither is its thickness as margin a figure. Or at least it is a figure which comes away of its own accord’. Like the non-phonetic supplements to the alphabet, the borders around pictures or texts occupy an ambiguous place between figure and of philosophical, ground, positive element and negative gap. Spacing and punctuation, borders and frames: these are the on The Fountain of Youth, territory of graphic design and typography, those marginal arts which articulate the conditions that make texts and rennin activity, images readable. Mythical Of Youth! The substance of typography lies not in the alphabet per se- the generic forms of characters and their conventionalised uses -but rather in the visual framework and specific graphic forms which materialise the system of writing. Definition! Design and typography work at the edges of writing, determining the shape and style of letters, the spaces between them, and their positions on the page.

Typography, from its position in the margins of Essay of Youth communication, has moved writing away from speech. Design as Deconstruction. The history of typography and writing could be written as the development of formal structures which have articulated and explored the border between the inside and the outside of the text. To compile a catalogue of the rennin activity, micro-mechanics of publishing- indexes and title pages, captions and colophons, folios and footnotes, leading and line lengths, margins and marginalia, spacing and punctuation -would contribute to the field which Derrida has called grammatology, or the of Youth, study of writing as a distinctive mode of representation. This word, grammatology, serves to title the book whose more infamous legacy is deconstruction. Such a history could position various typographic techniques in relation to definition of philosophical, the split between form and content, inside and outside. Some typographic conventions have served to rationalise the Essay of Youth, delivery of information by epistolary novel erecting transparent ‘crystal goblets’ around a seemingly independent, neutral body of ‘content’. Some structures or approaches invade the sacred interior so deeply as to Essay on The, turn the text inside out, while others deliberately ignore or contradict the rennin activity, internal organization of Essay Mythical Fountain of Youth a text in Comparing Lee Essay, response to external pressures imposed by technology, aesthetics, corporate interests, social propriety, production conveniences, etc. Robin Kinrosss Modern Typography (1992) charts the progressive rationalisation of the forms and uses of letters across several centuries of European history.

Kinrosss book characterises printing as a prototypically ‘modern’ process, that from its inception mobilised techniques of mass production and precipitated the mature arts and sciences. Essay On The Fountain Of Youth! The seeds of modernisation were present in Gutenbergs first proofs; their fruits are born in the self-conscious methodologies, professionalized practices, and standardised visual forms of printers and typographers, which, beginning in the late seventeenth century, replaced an rennin activity older notion of printing as a hermetic art of ‘black magic’, its methods jealously guarded by a caste of craftsmen. If Kinrosss history of modern typography spans five centuries, so too might another history of deconstruction, running alongside and beneath the erection of transparent formal structures and coherent bodies of professional knowledge. Derridas own writing has drawn on forms of page layout from outside the accepted conventions of university publishing. His book Glas , designed with Richard Eckersley at the University of Nebraska Press, consists of parallel texts set in different typefaces and written in heterogeneous voices. Glas makes the scholarly annotations of medieval manuscripts and the accidental juxtapositions of modern newspapers part of a deliberate authorial strategy. A study of typography and writing informed by deconstruction would reveal a range of structures that dramatise the intrusion of visual form into verbal content, the Essay on The of Youth, invasion of ‘ideas’ by graphic marks, gaps, and differences.

There are two different attitudes towards framing the text. In the first, the margins are a transparent border for the solid block dominating the page. The lines of classical roman characters are minimally interruptedparagraph breaks are indicated only by Essay on How Those Tennyson’s Poem a wider gap within the Essay of Youth, line, preserving the Bullying Essay, text as a continuously flowing field of letters. On The Fountain! The second example draws on the tradition of scribal marginalia and biblical commentary. Days In Lord Poem Ulysses! Here, typography is an interpretive medium; the text is open rather than closed. The first example suggests that the frontiers between interior and exterior, figure and ground, reader and writer, are securely defined, while the second example dramatises such divides by engulfing the center with the edge. Another comparison comes from the history of the newspaper, which emerged as an elite literary medium in the seventeenth century. On The! Early English newspapers based their structure on the classical book, whose consistently formatted text block was designed to rennin activity, be read from beginning to end. As the newspaper became a popular medium in Essay, nineteenth-century Europe and America, it expanded from a book-scaled signature to a broadsheet incorporating diverse elements, from reports of war and the Works of Harper Lee Essay, crime to announcements of ship departures and ads for Essay Mythical, goods and services. The modern illustrated newspaper of the Bullying, twentieth century is a patchwork of competing elements, whose juxtaposition responds not to rational hierarchies of content but to the struggle between editorial, advertising, and production interests.

While the structure of the classical news journal aspired to the status of a coherent, complete object, the appearance of the popular paper results from frantic compromises and arbitrary conditions; typographic design serves to distract and seduce as well as to clarify and explain. Dictionaries of page design featuring schematic diagrams of typical layouts have been a common theme in twentieth-century design. Such visual enactment of theory include Jan Tschicholds 1934 manifesto ‘The Placing of Type in a Given Space’, which charts a range of subtle variations in the placement of headings and body copy, and Don Mays 1942 manual 101 Roughs , which catalogues various types of commercial page design. While Tschichold charted minor differences between clearly ordered elements, May accommodated the diverse media and competing messages found in advertising. Both theorists presented a series of formal containers for abstract, unspecified bodies of on The Mythical Fountain ‘content, ’ but with a difference: Tschichold?s structures are neutral frames for Financial of legalizing Essay, dominant textual figures, while May?s patterns are active grounds which ignore conventional hierarchies in favour of such arbitrary rules as ‘Four point: The layout touches all four sides of the Essay on The Mythical Fountain, space once and only once’, or ‘Center axis: The heading copy, illustration, and logotype flush on definition alternate sides of axis’. If one pursued the study of ‘grammatology’ proposed by Derrida, the resulting catalogue of Essay on The Mythical Fountain of Youth forms might include the graphic conditions outlined above. In each case, we have juxtaposed a coherent, seemingly self-complete literary artefact with a situation where external forces aggressively interfere with the sacred interior of content.

A history of typography informed by Bullying Essay deconstruction would show how graphic design has revealed, challenged, or transformed the accepted rules of communication. Such interventions can represent either deliberate confrontations or haphazard encounters with the social, technological, and on The Mythical Fountain of Youth, aesthetic pressures that shape the making of texts. In a 1994 interview in The New York Times Magazine, Derrida was asked about the purported ‘death’ of deconstruction on North American campuses; he answered, ‘I think there is some element in deconstruction that belongs to Essay, the structure of history or events. It started before the academic phenomenon of deconstruction, and it will continue with other names’. In the spirit of Essay on The Mythical Fountain of Youth this statement, we are interested in de-periodizing the relevance of deconstruction: instead of Bullying Essay viewing it as an ‘ism’ of the late-80s and early-90s, we see it as part of the ongoing development of design and typography as distinctive modes of representation. But deconstruction also belongs to culture: it is an operation that has taken a name and has spun a web of influence in particular social contexts. Deconstruction has lived in a variety of institutional worlds, from Essay Mythical Fountain, university literature departments to rennin activity, schools of art and design to Essay of Youth, the discourse of popular journalism, where it has functioned both as a critical activity and as a banner for a range of styles and attitudes. We will close our essay with two examples of rennin activity graphic design that actively engage the language of contemporary media: the first confronts the politics of Essay on The Fountain representation, while the Comparing the Works of Harper, second remakes designs internal language. Vincent Gagliostros cover for NYQ, a gay and Essay Fountain of Youth, lesbian news magazine, was designed in November, 1991, in response to Magic Johnsons announcement that he is HIV+. Gagliostro imposed NYQs own logo and headline over a Newsweek cover featuring Magic Johnson proclaiming ‘Even me’, his upheld arms invoking saintly sacrifice and athletic vigour. ‘He is not our hero’, wrote NYQ over the existing cover. While Gagliostros layering and Cyber Essay, splicing of Essay on The Fountain type and image are shared with more aestheticized, individualised gestures found elsewhere in contemporary design, this cover does not aim to trigger an infinite variety of ‘personal’ interpretations but instead explicitly manipulates an ideologically loaded artefact.

Gagliostros act of cultural rewriting is a powerful response to the ubiquity of normative sign systems, showing that the structures of rennin activity mass media can be reshuffled and reinhabited. Mythical Fountain! The NYQ cover reveals and exploits the function of framing as a transformative process that refuses to remain outside the editorial content it encloses. The manipulation of existing media imagery is definition of philosophical one activity in contemporary design that can be described as deconstruction; another is the Essay on The, exploration of the visual grammar of communication, from epistolary, print to the electronic interface. Designers working in hypermedia are developing new ways to generate, distribute, and use informationthey are reinventing the language of graphic design today, just as typographers reacted to the changing technologies and social functions of printed media in the past. A leading pioneer of Essay on The this research was Muriel Cooper, who founded the Visible Language Workshop at MIT in Financial Benefits, 197X.

In the wake of her death in the spring of 1994, her students are continuing to build a concrete grammar of three-dimensional, dynamic typography. Cooper called the basic elements of this language ‘geometric primitives’, defined by relationships of size, brightness, colour, transparency, and Essay on The Mythical of Youth, location in 3-D space, variables which can shift in response to the user?s position in a document. Cooper and her students have worked to Comparing the Works of Harper, restructure the Essay of Youth, internal language of typography in four dimensions. Spacing, framing, punctuation, type style, layout, and other non-phonetic marks of difference constitute the material interface of writing. Traditional literary and linguistic research overlook such graphic structures, focusing instead on the Word as the center of communication. According to Derrida, the functions of repetition, quotation, and fragmentation that characterise writing are conditions endemic to all human expressioneven the seemingly spontaneous, self-present utterances of speech or the smooth, naturalistic surfaces of painting and photography.

Design can critically engage the mechanics of representation, exposing and revising its ideological biases; design also can remake the grammar of communication by discovering structures and the Works of Harper Essay, patterns within the material media of visual and verbal writing. This is an earlier version of the essay ‘Deconstruction and Essay Mythical, Graphic Design’, published in Design Writing Research .