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Political knowledge, political engagement, and civic education

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What is education s impact on civic and social engagement?

A Tangy Sendup of Literary-World Dalliances. The 1980s, that otherwise deplorable decade, was a fertile era for satire. Spy magazine, which pinned the phrase short-fingered vulgarian on Donald J. Trump, was born. In bookstores there was a boomlet in Knowledge rakishly intelligent literary romans a clef. In 1987 alone there was The Belle Lettres Papers, Charles Simmonss take on a publication not unlike The New York Times Book Review, where he had toiled, and deontological vs utilitarian Wilfrid Sheeds The Boys of Engagement Winter, about writers and editors tweaking each others rumps and reputations in the Hamptons. Part of the is the difference between legal issues, pleasure these novels delivered, to Knowledge and Civic Essay, quote a snippet of Sheeds essay The Writing Condition, was a sense that one was receiving heightened, selected, imagined gossip. And please, cant we agree to apparitions, call gossip, as Elizabeth Hardwick once suggested, character analysis? The tangiest literary-world roman a clef to emerge from the Political Knowledge Essay, 80s it is almost certainly the best of the Essay, past four decades is Elbowing the Political Knowledge and Civic Essay, Seducer (1984), the nen personality, first novel from a writer named T. (for Trudy) Gertler. Its awful that this novel is out of print. Its more awful that Gertler, who is still with us, has not written a second book. She has a high style, a feel for social comedy and a deadly eye for detail. Engagement? Elbowing the Seducer is the kind of novel in which a lust-bedeviled male editor doesnt merely watch an attractive assistant walk away. He watches her walk away with (Gertler skewers the eras abysmal sexual politics while reveling in her Tom Wolfe-like powers of description) her departing bottom rippling in prewashed, presoftened, preworn, prepatched, presoiled, pretinged-with-vaginal-discharge Levis she skated out, popping a bubble. The objectification in Elbowing the what between legal and ethical issues, Seducer cuts both ways.

Everyone is on and Civic Engagement, the make; elite publishing is a tragicomic sexual safari park, with Gertler as Jeep-driving guide. The novel is about a determined young writer named Dina, who is trapped in a dull marriage to a failed artist. When she sells her first short story to a new literary magazine, she also falls in love with Howard Ritchie, the magazines charismatic, married, womanizing editor. In his recent memoir, The Accidental Life, Terry McDonell quotes a well-known remark that an editor is someone who doesnt know what he wants but recognizes it instantly. Howard knows what he wants: to ward off death, boredom and tummy fat by sleeping with every attractive woman who comes within 10 feet of on The Effects of Racism in Schools him. Howard preferred literate sex, Gertler writes. Of course, if that wasnt available, hed take anything. Howard sometimes brings women to a downtown bookstore that resembles the Strand, where the Political and Civic, owner lets him borrow an upstairs bedroom. Essay Effects In Schools? Hed once been banned from Knowledge Engagement this bleached aerie because he used a signed first-edition Jack London to elevate the hips of a lover, tall Adrienne the Tarot reader. As a frontispiece, Gertlers novel provides a declaration that everything in it is fictional. This hasnt stopped some observers from suggesting that Howard bears, at Deficit Disorder, least in terms of his aggressive editing methods, a resemblance to Knowledge and Civic Engagement, the longtime Alfred A. Knopf editor Gordon (Captain Fiction) Lish. An error has occurred.

Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. Another major character in on The Elbowing the Seducer is an oversexed and Political and Civic Essay elegant (his precisely planed face balanced light like a Buddhas) book reviewer named Newman Sykes, in whom some have sought at least distant echoes of the critic and memoirist Anatole Broyard. Influence Did The Dada Have On Future? Come to this novel for its sweat-drenched lunch-hour sex scenes, its daytime martini-imbibing, its ashtrays in the office and its portrait of a 1980s Manhattan in which drug dealers still loiter at the margins of the green market in Knowledge Essay Union Square. Stay for its intuitive sense of the work behind editing and vs utilitarian writing, and for its surprising emotional heft. Feydeau farce bends toward tragedy here, and then bends back again. He wanted to be disarmed, he wanted to be aroused, Gertler writes about and Civic Engagement Essay what Howard needed in a piece of apparitions writing for Knowledge and Civic Engagement Essay, Rosemary, his magazine. He was searching for something beloved. It wouldnt arrive in a neat package. He expected bile and bowels, entrails of dismay, false clues, field days for macbeth, maggots. He was prepared, eager even, to Political, dirty his hands birthing it. The press begins to pay attention to Howard. To be written about in The Times was certification, Gertler observes. To be written about in The New Yorker was apotheosis. Dina is tired of her marriage (poverty required more guile than she could admit to having) and looks toward Howard not only as an what movement have on future art?, editor but as a redeemer. Howards terrified when she leaves her husband and needs a place to stay.

Hes even more terrified when her lout of a husband begins to stalk him. In the end, in terms of its plot, this novel goes way over the edge, in a way I found perfectly delightful. Political Essay? Punishments are meted out; revenge is had; strange checks are cashed. The best revenge, for Dina, is that she begins work on a novel a roman a clef that will push voodoo pins into Howard the editor and Newman the critic. Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder In Children? She gets an agent, an advance and Political Knowledge and Civic possibly a man worthy of her attentions. She is ardently chasing the next draft of herself. Everyone in Elbowing the legal, Seducer fishes in other peoples ponds, to borrow Shakespeares phrase for adultery. Everyone toddles around, as the title of the Elvis Presley song has it, wearin that loved on look. No one is and Civic Engagement very likable, which is why the novel is likable indeed.

American Beauties is a column by Dwight Garner about test undersung American books of the past 75 years. Used copies of books that are out of print are available from various online retailers and libraries. Follow Dwight Garner on Twitter: @DwightGarner. Elbowing the Seducer. A version of this review appears in print on June 16, 2017, on Page C19 of the New York edition with the headline: Even Bookworms Like to Bed-Hop. Today's Paper | Subscribe. We#8217;re interested in your feedback on and Civic Essay, this page.

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Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement Essay

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Prisoners and the Right to Vote Essay Sample. The right to vote is fundamental to representative democracies and it is well recognized in most Western democracies that this right should be extended to all citizens, subject to the narrowest of exceptions.[1] The basis of every representative democracy is the mandate from the people where governmental power emanates. Political And Civic Engagement. It is in Schools, simply because in a representative democracy, sovereignty resides in the people who have the right to choose the proper functionaries who will run the affairs of the government. Knowledge Essay. Australia being a representative democracy must adhere to this basic rule. The people or citizens must have the supreme voice in the affairs of the macbeth government. Such right to exercise ones sovereignty must be exercised free from any limitation except on valid and Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement constitutional grounds, and any inherent or implied limitation in the exercise thereof. Election in Essay Effects of Racism in Schools a representative democracy has become an institution in the expression and Political demonstration of this choice. Election has become the process of determining whether the government and Attention Deficit Essay the functionaries running it still enjoy the mandate from the people.

The general will must be determined at all cost necessary as it is the general will that government must serve. This simply means that every citizen and persons entitled to vote must be given such right and should not be excluded from the exercise simply by reason of Political Engagement, their peculiar circumstances. Every such person who is under the threat of being disenfranchised must be saved from such threat, and must be restored to his basic and guaranteed right as a citizen of the state. The Right to Vote under Australian Constitution. Structure of the Australian form of government is defined, limited and established under its constitution which provides for a representative government. Being a Federal Government, representation comes in two form; one in the Commonwealth and another in the respective states. Considering the nature of a representative form of government, it is also important for apparitions the constitution to Political Knowledge provide and prescribe for the fundamental basis of the influence movement have on future art? representative form of government which is the right to vote of the people. The right to vote by the people thereof should necessarily be defined and established in the constitution in Engagement order to nen personality test lay down its meaning and other possible implications. There are two specific provisions in the Constitution which pertains to voting.

Both may refer to the right to Political and Civic Essay vote, but are different when it comes to the subject matter of the right to vote. Generally, however, both provisions have a common implication and Deficit Hyperactivity in Children and Medication significance as to the right of the people to vote, especially in the exercise thereof. Section 7 of the Political Knowledge Essay Australian Constitution states that : The Senate shall be composed of senators for each State, directly chosen by the people of the State, voting, until the Parliament otherwise provides, as one electorate . This provision certainly refers to the right of the people of the state to deontological vs utilitarian choose who shall compose the Senate. The Senate must have the mandate of the people of the state as one electorate. On the one hand, Section 24 of the Constitution provides for recognition of the right of the people. It states that: The House of Political and Civic Essay, Representatives shall be composed of members directly chosen by the people of the Commonwealth . It can be gleaned from the text of both provisions that they refer to different aggroupment of Disorder, people as Section 24 refers specifically to the people of the commonwealth to choose the Knowledge and Civic Engagement representative in deontological vs utilitarian the House of Representatives while Section 7 refers to the People of the State. The said provisions pertaining both to the right of the Political Engagement people to vote does not contain the test scope and delimitation of the term people. Essay. What are the qualifications and conditions for the people to satisfy prior to the exercise of the rights was not properly laid down. It does not even include nor describe who may be disqualified or excluded in the exercise of the right to choose their government leaders who shall compose the Senate or the House of Representatives. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder And Medication. Hence, it is Knowledge and Civic, basically our duty to decipher from the necessary implications of the constitutional provisions, the existing jurisprudence and other basic legal principles for us to determine the meaning of the word people, and further answer the question as to whether the prisoners are necessarily included within the scope and context of the term people.

Sections 7 and 24 of the Australian Constitution do not only recognize the Essay right to vote, but more particularly provides members of the Knowledge and Civic Engagement Senate or the House of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Essay, Representative must be directly chosen by the people. It is Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement Essay, worth noting that the Constitution uses the word choice which simply means that the right to vote involves the exercise of a choice. Moreover, it is implied in the exercise of a choice that a person must be able to macbeth apparitions comprehend the nature and consequences of his choice and that this choice must certainly be free from any limitation and restriction. It can be concluded that minors, insane, and and Civic Engagement feeble-minded persons are not entitled to vote considering their condition as incapable of making a choice. Hence, voting is left to those who have the sufficient discretion to determine what is Essay of Racism in Schools, good for Engagement Essay himself and for the general welfare whenever he casts his vote during the Effects of Racism in Schools election. The constitution also uses the word directly, that member of the Engagement Essay Senate and nen personality test the House of Representatives must be chosen directly by the people. This simply means the Knowledge choice or decision as to who will seat in government positions mentioned must come from the people themselves, and not through any delegate or representative, or the what is the difference issues so-called collegial voting. During elections, the very act of Political and Civic Engagement Essay, choice of the influence dada people is that which must be counted and determined in order to determine the will of the majority. Hence, under the Australian Constitution, the right to vote is an act of choice that must be directly be chosen by the people of the state, and at the same time, of the commonwealth.

However, this should not stop us to determine what is the real scope of the term people to Political and Civic Engagement Essay enable us to determine the nature of the right to vote of prisoners under the nen personality test constitution. While we may say that prisoners can make and exercise that direct choice within their jurisdiction, let us further see, as legislation attempted to exclude the from the exercise of such right, whether there is proper basis under the constitution to give them the right to vote. The Scope and Meaning of the People as Elector. The term people as used in the said provisions must not be confused with the term citizen. A citizen is Knowledge Essay, one who owes allegiance to a state, and by reason of such allegiance, he is granted the right by the state to participate in on The Effects the affairs of the Knowledge and Civic Engagement Essay government. There is therefore an existing dualism in the concept of macbeth apparitions, people under the constitution and under the general framework of a representative democracy that is the duty to maintain allegiance as well as the right to participate in the processes of the government such as in choosing for the proper leaders. Another dualism exists in the case of Australia. In a federal state like Australia where two forms of government exists, the term people connotes double allegiance as well as double power. Where there is the right of the two forms of government that demands allegiance from their people, the people themselves can demand two separate rights to vote, in the state, and in the Commonwealth. The constitution itself makes the people dual citizens as both people of the state, and of the commonwealth. From this dual citizenship, and in order to Engagement assist in its preservation, every person living under such a form of government has a duality of political rights and powers. [2] Under Article 25 of the International Covenant on on The of Racism in Schools, Civil and Knowledge and Civic Engagement Political Rights (ICCPR), the term people has been recognized as one possessing the rights to participate in the affairs of the government, directly or through their chosen representatives, as well as the right to vote.

These rights are so guaranteed and should not be limited by any unreasonable and discriminatory restrictions. Government signatories like Australia are thereby bound to observe and adhere to the fundamental principles established by the International Convention that no legislation must be enacted that would attempt to derogate from the standards given. The conventions policy is certainly to allow and influence movement have on future art? grant the right of suffrage equally to all persons regardless of creed, sex, language, economic status or political belief. Any such demarcation of the people tantamount to disenfranchisement of Knowledge, one from the exercise of such right should not be availed of for nen personality test being not in consonance with the policy of the said International Convention. Any such doubt that may be created by the classification should rather be resolved against the derogation of the right to vote and in favor of enfranchisement to vote. Can Punishment Remove the Fundamental Freedom to Vote. Being punished for a crime means that prisoners have lost certain rights to participate in private as well as political activities like voting.

One is Essay, deprived of the legal capacity to do acts with certain effect. Some believe and perhaps the nen personality government does, that incarceration of the prisoners to Knowledge vote should be incidental to the punishment imposed upon them by the state. What Legal And Ethical Issues. In addition, they think it follows that because prisons keep convicts away from the community, they must be kept away from Political, all activities that are the rights of ordinary citizens.[3] Whether such deprivation includes the fundamental right to vote is a big question. They say prisoners live off our hard-earned taxes and should feel grateful for what they get while they serve their time: asking for the vote is just plain greedy[4]. A person declared as guilty of apparitions, a crime must be certainly be denied the right to vote as being granted such would mean an excessive privilege for one who has been condemned by the state. The Australian government attempted to institutionalize this treatment to prisoners by enacting Commonwealth Electoral Act in Knowledge and Civic 2006 by imposing a total ban to prisoners to vote. The Government last year passed the voting ban as part of changes to electoral laws, including closing the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Medication rolls on the day that writs are issued a move that could affect as many as 300,000 potential voters and raising the threshold at which donations must be declared from $1500 to $10,000.[5] This piece of legislation even effaces the privilege of the electoral law prior 2006 which prohibits voting only to those who suffer imprisonment of more than three years, while those serving a penalty of imprisonment of less than three years are so allowed. The fact of being in prison however may not necessary imply that he is Knowledge and Civic Essay, no longer entitled to certain human rights. Most democratic societies recognize that prisoners continue to be protected, even after incarceration, by all of the fundamental rights and freedoms guaranteed to citizens save for the right to liberty.[6] Even behind bars, the prisoners are still entitled to such rights like freedom from torture, inhuman and ill-treatment, right against inhuman or degrading punishment, right to free religious exercise. Certainly, a prisoner does not lose his status as a citizen of the macbeth apparitions state or the commonwealth simply by reason of Knowledge and Civic Engagement, his detention. Prisoners are not non-citizens because they are in jail. They are still Australians.[7] The argument that prisoners should not be allowed to vote dimply by reason of their being a burden to the public treasury contributing nothing for the welfare and Effects of Racism in Schools development of the state simply does not hold water. There certain sectors that are equally a burden to the state yet they are granted the right of suffrage. This may include the disabled, the unemployed among others.

In this scenario of incarcerating those who are burdens to the government from the right to Political and Civic Engagement Essay vote, would certainly mean that suffrage is a right limited only to those who are wealthy and privileged. This further implies that the government is determined only by the will of the wealthy while other persons who have nothing but and are mere burdens to the state and have no right whatsoever to the affairs of the state. This is repugnant to the concept of representative democracy that is reflective of the general will of the macbeth people. Representative government losses it character of being a true representative with people from all sectors, rich and Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement Essay poor alike, are well represented. The total number of prisoners certainly is composed of a large number that when voting together, could affect the mandate of the Essay general public. Constitutionally, our Parliament must be elected directly by and Civic Engagement the people. All the people. Not just the ones the Government wants to go to the polls.[8] Prisoners remains a citizen of the is the difference between legal issues state, that even after they have served their sentence, they are back to their normal life without need of any formalities or legal requirement to once again perfect or restore their status as such citizen. They remain to be members of the state whose interests must be protected. While in prison, prisoners never did any act repugnant to their oath of allegiance as would deprive him of the protection and benefits granted by the state. Knowledge Engagement Essay. As such person, he remains to possess his rights except of course his right to liberty. The problem with removing prisoners (or any groups for that matter) voting right is that voting is not just any activity in a democratic and free nation.[9] The right to vote or the compulsion to vote, with prosecution the punishment for not doing so in Australias model of democracy should be beyond the reach and control of the government of the day.[10]

Prisoners remain to be citizens despite of being in detention. The nature of being imprisoned is merely to be restricted of the right to liberty but it does not necessarily affect other fundamental rights of a person duly protected by the Constitution. Prisoners as people remain to be the very basis of a representative democracy, the disenfranchisement of which is simply contradictory to the concept of a representative democracy. The constitution of Australia is is the legal and ethical, way in line with the principles of a representative democracy. It does not necessarily demarcate nor discriminate sectors or group of persons from being included in the concept of people who can rightfully exercise the right to choose the members of the Senate and Political Knowledge Engagement the House of vs utilitarian, Representatives. It is Knowledge Engagement, even clear that those who have the influence dada movement have on future art? capacity and freedom to choose can rightfully vote directly such persons to government positions mentioned. Where the provisions is Knowledge Engagement, clear, the government should not confuse it by macbeth passing certain legislation that would diminish the base of the representative government and that would incarcerate the people from their right to directly participate in the affairs of the government by voting their chosen representatives and Political Knowledge and Civic Essay delegates.

The constitution being the supreme law, should simply be followed. Fynes J. Macbeth Apparitions. C. (May 3, 2007). Jail No Bar to Rights. Political Knowledge. Courier Mail. Com. Retrieved on Attention in Children and Medication Essay, Seotember 11, 2007, from Political and Civic Engagement,,23739,21659881-5012473,00.html. Guttman, D. (n.d.). Before the High Court Roach v Commonwealth: Is the Blanket Disenfranchisement of Convicted Prisoners Unconstitutional? Retrieved on deontological vs utilitarian, September 9, 2007 from Kissane, K. (August 31, 2007) Court reverses prisoner vote ban. Retrieved on September 2, 2007 from

Pearlman, J. (August 31, 2007). Court gives vote back to some inmates. Retreived on September 5, 2007 from Should Prisoners Be Allowed to Vote?, ABC Radio National Law Report, (2007, June 12). Retrieved September 14, 2007 from Prisoner Mounts High Court Challenge Over Voting Rights, ABC News, (2007, June 12). Retrieved September 14, 2007 from

Woman to Challenge Prisoner Vote Ban, The Age, (2007, June 12). Retrieved September 14, 2007 from Prisoners Call for Political Knowledge Engagement Voting Rights, ABC Radio PM, (2007, June 11). Retrieved September 14, 2007 from [1]. Daniel Guttman (n.d.). Before the High Court Roach v Commonwealth: Is the Blanket Disenfranchisement of Convicted Prisoners Unconstitutional? Retrieved on September 9, 2007 from [3] Jayne Fynes Clinton (May 3, 2007).

Jail No Bar to Rights. Courier Mail. Test. Com. Retrieved on Political Knowledge Essay, Seotember 11, 2007, from deontological,,23739,21659881-5012473,00.html. [5] Jonathan Pearlman (August 31, 2007). Court gives vote back to some inmates. Retreived on Political Knowledge and Civic, September 5, 2007 from [6]. Daniel Guttman (n.d.). What Between Legal. Before the High Court Roach v Commonwealth: Is the Blanket Disenfranchisement of Convicted Prisoners Unconstitutional?

Retrieved on September 9, 2007 from [7] Jayne Fynes Clinton (May 3, 2007). Jail No Bar to Rights. Courier Mail. Com. Retrieved on Seotember 11, 2007, from Political Knowledge Engagement,,23739,21659881-5012473,00.html. Is this the perfect essay for you?

Save time and what difference legal issues order Prisoners and the Right to and Civic Vote. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Prisoners and the Right to Vote. Nobody? will ever ?deprive? the ? American? people of the right to vote except the American people themselves and the only way they could do this is by not voting.? Franklin Roosevelt. ? Why Americans Do Not Vote? Our country is a land of privilege. We live in a democracy where we decide who will lead us. Ours is a nation where ?The Reason Why You Should Vote. The reason why you should vote speaker 1 gave a good motivational speech. In my opinion her speech gave good reasons to get people to go out to vote.

Being Should Sixteen Year Old be able to Vote? Right now, only people over eighteen are allowed to vote, this is something that every Canadian citizen should know. People think that only people over eighteen are mature enough and Should Felons Be Able to Vote?

We let ex-convicts marry, reproduce, buy beer, own property and drive. They dont lose their freedom of religion, their right against self-incrimination they cant be trusted to help choose our Convicted Felons: Should They Be Allowed To Vote? The term disenfranchisement or taking away a criminals right to vote, has been around since ancient Greece and Rome Eras. In Europe, a condition called civil death involves the forfeiture

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alain briot essays As a digital photographer, if you havent been asked this question you eventually will: Do you manipulate your photographs? Sometimes it comes under another aspect: Do you change the colors? And occasionally it goes straight to the heart of the matter: Is this real? There is and Civic Engagement Essay, a certain percentage of the public who believes that fine art photographs must represent reality. There are people who do not know that there are differences between what they see and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Medication what the Political Essay camera captures. Finally, there are individuals who do not understand that a photograph is a two dimensional representation of reality and not reality itself because reality is macbeth apparitions, far more complex, perceived by us through five senses and not just one. Some people are willing to change their minds when these things are explained to Political and Civic Essay, them. Others have their minds made up and Attention Deficit do not want to be bothered by the facts. Those are the ones that I am referring to in this essay. Political Knowledge Engagement. The people in this last category not only believe that photographs must represent reality, they also believe that to achieve this photographs must be unaltered. Macbeth. They believe that a photograph must be printed exactly the way it comes out and Civic Engagement, of the camera. Test. While this may be true for certain types of technical photographs, when it comes to Political Knowledge, art and to my work I believe the exact opposite to be true, namely that photographs must be altered in one way or another in nen personality test order to Knowledge, have a chance to represent the reality that I perceive.

My premise for this essay is did the dada art?, that a fine art photograph, created by an artist with the goal of expressing himself or herself, is Political Knowledge and Civic, a representation of this artists view of reality - a representation of what influence movement art? this artists vision - and Knowledge and Civic Essay not a representation of the what did the on future world as others may see it. This can be a blessing or a crime, depending on your opinion regarding this matter. Eventually, this is a matter of Political Knowledge Engagement opinion. Personally, my opinion is that a photograph cannot capture reality as we experience it physically and I can back it up with facts (I do so in my other essays on on The Effects in Schools this subject including Of Cameras and Art and The Eye and the Camera ). However, I found that debating this point with people who do not agree with me isnt necessarily the smartest decision. So, I propose a different approach, one that works well for me. A little bit of history. For a long time I didnt know what to say when confronted by Essay people asking me if my work was real, if I manipulated the colors, or if I changed something in the scenes I photographed. In fact, as a fledging artist unsure of where I stood, I felt threatened by these questions and nen personality was more concerned with defending myself than with anything else.

At that time I believed that explaining my artistic approach would help. So I answered by saying that this - the color changes, the manipulations, the Engagement modifications I made to deontological, the image - were representative of my style and Knowledge that my goal was to show how I saw the world. I also explained that I preferred to call what I do enhancements rather than manipulations, because the test later was a derogative statement while the former was positive and Political and Civic Essay complimentary. Unfortunately, my efforts were to no avail. These fine differences in terminology were lost on these people. Furthermore, their minds were made up and they did not want to be bothered by the facts. My explanations may have been accurate, thought out and sophisticated, but they were facts nevertheless.

While they may have had a chance to be heard in an academic setting, they were completely useless in nen personality a real world situation. I also thought that doing all this would help in Political and Civic regards to Disorder in Children Essay, selling my work. I believed that I could change peoples mind and Political Knowledge and Civic Essay that once this was achieved they would buy my photographs. What I discovered was how many people have their minds made up and dont want to on The Effects in Schools, be bothered by the facts. Political Knowledge And Civic. I also discovered that people who do not believe what you say, or who do not like what you do, will not buy your work.

After all, I am selling art. And to buy art, someone has to like the work and often like the Attention Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Medication Essay artist as well. When people dont like one or the other, or worse dont like either, trying to make a sale is not just futile, it is delusional. Political Knowledge And Civic Engagement. What I discovered overall was that my explanations had little effect on these people. While some believed me, most were unconvinced.

What I did not know then, was that the macbeth majority of those asking these questions were primarily interested in starting an argument. They knew that what I showed in Political and Civic my work was my vision. They asked if it was real not because they wondered about what my answer would be, but because they did not like my vision of reality. Deontological. Certainly, a few a minority really did not understand how my work was created. But those were satisfied with my answer that this is my style, my vision of the world. Those that I am talking about here are the others, those that wouldnt accept that answer as valid. I finally saw the light and decided on a different course of action.

I decided that in front of obvious suspicion regarding the honesty of my answers, I would give the Political Knowledge and Civic Essay most direct and least questionable answer possible. I decided, in a sense, that I would act as if I was in a court of law, where the apparitions party being questioned, the party whose actions are at Political Knowledge Engagement Essay stake, is asked to answer with a simple yes or no. In short, and to get to nen personality test, the point, I decided to just say yes . Political And Civic Engagement Essay. The Art of Essay on The Effects in Schools saying Yes. When you are asked do you manipulate your colors? and you answer yes you create an entirely different situation than when you start explaining why you do what you do. Political Knowledge Engagement. When you say yes, you state the facts and nothing but the facts: Yes, I do manipulate my colors. Although the on The of Racism in Schools person asking the question may not like your answer, it is Knowledge and Civic, difficult to question this answer without questioning your personal integrity. When you do explain why you do what you do, you are in effect trying to legitimize your actions. In that case, three things need to be explained. First, trying to legitimize your actions implies that you know they may not be perceived as legitimate. Second, you are leaving it up to the person asking the question to decide whether they believe you or not. Third, you are opening the door for a lengthy discussion because the person asking the question now has the option of taking apart your answer point by point. Influence Did The Movement On Future Art?. In other words, although I was speaking the Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement truth when I tried to explain myself, I was giving control to the person asking the vs utilitarian question. Once I had given my answer, they were in control because it was up to Political Knowledge and Civic, them to decide whether they believed my explanations or not, and on The Effects in Schools up to them to decide how they were going to respond.

I was also confusing the matter by explaining in a lengthy manner what could have been answered with just one word: yes or no. They could legitimately ask why I was not saying Yes or just saying No. They had grounds to Political and Civic Essay, question my integrity regarding what I was really doing in my work. Once I decided to just say yes, I took control of the situation. Why?

Simply because when someone answers a question in the most straightforward manner possible, the two only options available are to either believe this person or not. Essay On The Effects. If you dont believe that the person is saying the Knowledge and Civic Engagement truth, then you must come back with a question as straightforward as their answer, and most likely you will hesitate doing so because you will expect a second answer just as straightforward as the first one. You also run the chance of coming across as insulting. After all, someone you just met answered your question in the most straightforward and to the point manner possible. This person can, if pressed further, could legitimately ask what reasons you have to not believe them. Or ask if you are suspicious by nature or if you have a problem with what they do. Finally, they could ask if there is something wrong with you in the first place. Neither option is bound to be pleasant for macbeth the person asking the Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement questions. And as a general rule, human beings do not purposefully engage in Essay unpleasant actions. Political And Civic Engagement Essay. For example, if someone asks me Do you manipulate your colors? and I answer yes and what is the difference issues they then ask Is that so? my answer will be another yes. I could say yes sir to emphasize my answer, or just because I feel that they need a longer answer, but that is all I would say at a show of my work. If they ask how do you manipulate your colors? I will answer in Photoshop. And if they say, Oh, I see, you use Photoshop! my answer will again be yes with or without Sir. Of course, the Political Engagement exact words being used and the exact questions being asked vary in difference and ethical issues their grammatical construction according to the situation, but in my experience, this is how things go.

Lets back up a little. My Creative Writing teacher at Northern Arizona University, Allen Woodman, defined drama as being: two dogs, one bone. As we all know, such a situation can quickly lead to a dogfight because most dogs will want that one bone for themselves. Knowledge Essay. Dogs rarely share with other dogs. Influence Did The. With humans, fights often occur for the same reason: two individuals both wanting the same thing for themselves. Knowledge And Civic Essay. If we metaphorically apply it to what influence did the, the situation discussed in this essay, photographers or photography enthusiasts often enter into a conflict regarding reality because they both believe they describe reality in their work. However, their work looks radically different, although they both photographed the same subject. In this situation, who is right? Who can claim to represent reality? Clearly, it must be one or the other but not both.

This is usually what is at stake when someone looks at Essay my work and asks: Do you manipulate your colors? or Is this real? They question whether I claim to represent reality or not. If I say that I do, most likely we are going to what is the difference and ethical, have an argument because most likely they see reality differently than I do. Knowledge Engagement. Therefore, if they believe there is only one possible reality out there, one of us will be wrong. Two photographers, one reality equals a problem. However, my answer does not point to a conflict. Macbeth Apparitions. My answer is Political Knowledge Engagement Essay, not yes, I represent reality. My answer is yes I do manipulate my work. And yes I manipulate reality.

Therefore, my reality may be different from what did the dada movement art? yours. At conferences, I give a longer answer, explaining, In fact I clone, change the colors, alter the contrast, even remove houses that look ugly in Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement the middle of a pristine wilderness. In short, I modify reality. What you see is not what I photographed. What you see is how I felt when I created this image. Vs Utilitarian. What you see is the world as see it and and Civic Engagement as I want to show it. Furthermore, I feel great about doing what I do. Is The Difference. In fact, I love it and I have never been happier than since I gave myself the freedom of doing so! Not only that, but I write essays describing precisely not only how I do what I do, but teaching others how they can do it too. I even give workshops and Political Knowledge and Civic seminars and conference presentations about both the Essay of Racism techniques I use and the philosophical and rhetorical views that underline my position. And if there is anything else you would like to know about Political Engagement Essay, this subject that I have not covered yet, dont hesitate to what did the dada movement on future, ask. I may have overlooked something, and Essay if so I will be glad to fix it right away. What I am saying, to go to the root of my message and of my artistic position, is that there isnt just one reality.

Instead, there are multiple realities. And if we limit this discussion to just myself and the person asking the what influence movement have art? questions mentioned above, then there are at least two different realities: theirs and mine. We both see the world in different ways. I see the Essay world the nen personality way it is depicted in my work, and Knowledge Engagement they see the world whichever way they like. Between Legal And Ethical Issues. That is Political Knowledge Engagement, OK. Nen Personality Test. They can have their reality, I can have my reality, and I dont see a problem with that whatsoever. I dont claim that their reality is wrong or that my reality is Political Knowledge Essay, right, or that their reality is right and mine is wrong. In fact, I really dont care which reality is right and wrong.

All I know is that I love my reality. It makes me feel great, makes me want to what influence did the have art?, get out of bed in the morning to create more of it, makes me want to go further in describing in Knowledge greater details exactly what it consists of, and legal above all it makes me want to Political and Civic, experience it as much as I can. In short, I love my reality and I live in it happily. All I ask is that they dont impose their reality on me anymore than I impose my reality on them. It is a free country and Hyperactivity and Medication Essay they can do whatever they please, but their freedom stops where mine begins. Knowledge And Civic. We have the same rights, and we should both remember that. We may both believe that we are right in Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Essay depicting the world the way we do in our work, but we could just as easily be wrong, not just them, me or you but all of us. Technique is meant to and Civic Engagement, be seen. There is another aspect to this, and that aspect is technique. Technique, in my view, is meant to be seen and should be visible.

If this technique involves manipulating or enhancing the image, depending on which side of the fence you stand on, then this enhancement, or manipulation if this is what you want to call it, must be visible. Deficit Hyperactivity In Children And Medication. Why? Because I want others to see it. Because I want my audience to see what I did to the image, see how I made my vision a reality through the use of this technique or that technique. In fact, I want this to be visible so much that starting April 2006 I am providing the master file to Knowledge and Civic Engagement Essay, my images with print purchases. Deontological Vs Utilitarian. I do this so others can learn how to do what I do, but also to show how I did what I did. That is, I am taking advantage of Political Knowledge one aspect of digital technology, which is movement have, that the digital image file can be duplicated countless times and still be as good as the original. Such is not the and Civic Engagement Essay case with a negative or a transparency, whose quality degrades dramatically with each copy made from the original. There is also a matter of quality. The only way to tell if a technique is apparitions, good, effective or again mastered by the practitioner, by the master, is to Knowledge Engagement Essay, see it for what difference legal issues ourselves. Otherwise, we rely on the word of others, on Political and Civic Engagement Essay the opinion of someone else but us.

Mastery is something that must be witnessed, something that must be seen. If one wants to be recognized as a master, one cannot have as a goal to make his technique transparent. One must try as hard as possible to nen personality, make his technique something that can be seen, something visible to all. Technique, in other words, must be or become part of the work. It must not be just the path that lead to the creation of this artwork, it must be part of the artwork.

To return to my main point in this essay, and to just saying yes when asked if my work is enhanced or manipulated, I must give this answer in order to Political and Civic Essay, tell my audience that it is my intention to macbeth, make my technique visible. Indeed, I often emphasize my yes answer, by saying yes! In writing, there is no other way to show this subtle difference besides placing an exclamation point after the Political and Civic Essay yes, but in reality this slight change conveys my love and my passion for apparitions the work that I do and for my desire to share this with my audience. Bringing a conclusion to this essay is difficult. On the one hand, there is a lot more to Essay, say on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity the subject. On the other hand, some may argue that such an essay should never be written. The first position is correct the second one is incorrect.

There is a lot more to be said on this subject, and this essay does need to be written because finding the proper answer to these questions is Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement, very difficult. As I said at the beginning, if you are a photographer and you show your work to other people, regardless of whether you sell your work or not, you will be asked these questions. If you havent yet, you eventually will. It is only a matter of time. As the popular statement goes: it is nen personality, not a matter of if, it is a matter of when.

And when the time comes, you better have an answer. Otherwise you will join the ranks of the stumped. I dont know about you, but personally I hate being stumped. Knowledge And Civic Engagement. So yes, this essay definitely has a reason to Attention Deficit Disorder and Medication, exist. This reason is to help you find out where you stand.

My answer is Yes because I do believe, and for good reasons, that I manipulate reality. Engagement. Your answer may be different. For example, if you believe you do not manipulate reality, then your answer should be No. My goal is to create images that represent the nen personality test world not as it is, but as how I see it, how I feel when I am in Political and Civic Engagement Essay a specific location and how I perceive this location as a whole. Not just the did the dada movement on future part that I see, but the part that I dont see: the melting sap of Pinion pines on a warm summer days; the Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement call of a blackbird bouncing off a canyon wall; the Essay on The Effects of Racism heat waves floating in Political and Civic Essay front of nen personality test me over the bare sandstone; the multitude of sensory inputs that are, by nature, non-visual. After all, a photograph is Political and Civic Essay, nothing but something we can look at. Yet, the reality of the world is much more than that. We experience this reality through five senses: smell, touch, hearing, taste and finally sight.

A photograph only makes use of the fifth sense. It is a partial perception of the world, representing at the most 1/5th of all that we sense. I wish those that argue that unaltered photographs can represent reality would understand that. But, as I explain, it is not in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Medication my power to change their mind. Therefore, I limit myself to just answering yes when they ask me questions about whether my work is and Civic Engagement Essay, manipulated or not. Of course my work is manipulated. How could it be otherwise? Only a fool would believe that it isnt.

Yes. To some extent, my goal is to include in my photographs as much of what we perceive with these other four senses as is possible to include in a two dimensional medium. It is also to transform the world from what it actually is to what I wish it was. For example, I may photograph a depressing yet otherwise beautiful scene, and if all it takes is remove the houses that mar this scene, or brighten the colors, for test this photograph to bring joy to my heart instead of sadness, then I will unashamedly do so, regardless of what others might think. If someone wants a depressing photograph, or a photograph in which all the houses that mar the hills in an otherwise beautiful location are present, I know for Knowledge Essay a fact that there are countless photographers out there, and that one, if not several of deontological vs utilitarian them, will either have exactly what these people want or will be willing to create exactly what they want. So no, dont write to me saying that you wish I didnt do what I do, or that you wish I didnt manipulate reality, change the colors, remove things, or alter the Political and Civic Engagement contrast.

Dont write to me to ask that I do not make the on The of Racism in Schools world more beautiful, more joyful, more inviting, or more attractive than it really is in Political Engagement Essay your opinion. Instead, write to me to influence have on future art?, tell me that you like what I do and that you wish I would go further. Write to me to say that you see my point, that your mind is not made up and and Civic Engagement Essay that you are willing to be bothered by the facts. Vs Utilitarian. Write to me to say that you love my work. Why? Simply because if you disagree with what I do, you actually disagree with who I am. You see, what I show in my work is and Civic Essay, part of me, part of what dada movement have on future art? who I am and and Civic part of in Schools how I perceive the world. It is Engagement Essay, that part that I make visually accessible to all.

It is that part that I am willing to share with others. And no, I am not willing to change. Definitely not. I am not willing to see the world as a depressing or gloomy place. Call me delusional if you wish, but do keep it to yourself. There is another aspect to this, and this aspect is the audience I am addressing. I am addressing an apparitions audience who loves what I do. I am addressing an audience who has loved what I do since I started, nearly 20 years ago. Political Knowledge And Civic Essay. I am addressing an audience who is nen personality, growing daily and who wants to see me go further in my approach, in my practice and in my style. Political Knowledge Engagement Essay. An audience who knows that I manipulate colors, change things around a little, and who not only does not care one bit that I do so but actually loves that I do what I do. I am addressing an audience who loves my work for what it is.

So no, dont even give it a try. And if you do, dont expect me to care. I dont and what influence movement on future I wont. I have already answered the question, and the answer is yes. Yes, I manipulate my work, change the colors and much more; and Political and Civic Engagement yes, I feel great about doing so; and yes, I am proud of it and deontological have no remorse whatsoever; and yes, I have no intention whatsoever of changing this approach. In fact, this is my style. Political Knowledge And Civic Essay. This is me. If you are a photographer, I strongly encourage you to follow my approach. If nothing else, it will free you and liberate your creativity.

I know it does for me. Remember that you must be free in vs utilitarian order to be an artist. If you do not feel free to create whatever your heart desires, then you might call yourself an artist, but you are not really an artist. Knowledge And Civic Essay. Art is deontological vs utilitarian, personal expression. It is the expression of your personality, of your vision, or your view of the world, of Political Knowledge and Civic Essay your perception of reality. Art is not doing something because you believe someone else may like it better than what you would otherwise do. Art, in short, is freedom. What is art is another discussion altogether, one that I will address in a future essay in influence did the movement have on future art? this series. For now, remember that the Knowledge Essay most effective answer to a question designed to stump you is the what is the legal issues shortest, most direct and most honest answer you can possibly think of.

In this situation it is a resounding Yes or a resounding No. It all depends whether you believe that your work is manipulated or not. Political And Civic Engagement Essay. In general, and in closing, it is best not to act defensively when you find yourself confronted by someone asking questions such as the apparitions ones I mention in this essay. Often, these questions are aimed at making you take a defensive position. Unfortunately, if you do so you find that you have to defend yourself in Political and Civic Essay regards to actions that you are perfectly free to influence did the dada have, conduct.

Actions that, eventually, are nobodys business except your own. Actions that, furthermore, are perfectly legal but that your interlocutor may want you to feel are not. Unfortunately for them, what is illegal are things such as loan sharking, drug dealing or pistol-whipping a priest. It does not include image manipulation. You cant be arrested for doing it, you cant be taken to Political Engagement, court and vs utilitarian you cant be placed on Political Essay probation or otherwise legally punished. The best solution for people who really do not like your work and macbeth apparitions who do not want to be bothered by the facts is to move on and go look at Political Knowledge the work of an artist that they like. Therefore, if they ask you questions, there is no reason for you to influence did the dada movement on future art?, feel threatened or act in a defensive manner. Political And Civic. Just tell them the truth, and let them believe whatever they want to believe. Remember, if they dont like you or your work, they will never buy your work. And if they compliment you about your work, they are either lying or pulling your leg.

So just say yes and let them be. That is Attention Disorder in Children and Medication Essay, what I do. Learn more about Alain and view more of his work on his website at Alain can be contacted at Comments on NPN nature photography articles?

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Can There Be an Islamic Democracy? Middle East Quarterly. Spring 2007, pp. Political Knowledge And Civic. 71-79. Are Islam and democracy compatible? A large literature has developed arguing that Islam has all the ingredients of modern state and society.

Many Muslim intellectuals seek to prove that Islam enshrines democratic values. But rather than lead the debate, they often follow it, peppering their own analyses with references to deontological, Western scholars who, casting aside traditional Orientalism for the theories of the late literary theorist and polemicist Edward Said, twist evidence to fit their theories. Essay. Why such efforts? For Western scholars, the answer lies both in politics and the often lucrative desire to please a wider Middle East audience. For Islamists, though, the motivation is to remove suspicion about the nature and goals of Islamic movements such as the Muslim Brotherhood and, perhaps, even Hezbollah. Some Western researchers support the Islamist claim that parliamentary democracy and representative elections are not only compatible with Islamic law, but that Islam actually encourages democracy.

They do this in apparitions, one of two ways: either they twist definitions to make them fit the apparatuses of Islamic governmentterms such as democracy become relativeor they bend the Political Essay reality of life in Muslim countries to fit their theories. Among the vs utilitarian best known advocates of the idea that Islam both is compatible and encourages democracy is John L. Esposito, founding director of the Alwaleed bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding at Georgetown University and the author or editor of more than thirty books about Islam and Islamist movements. Knowledge And Civic Essay. Esposito and his various co-authors build their arguments upon tendentious assumptions and platitudes such as democracy has many and varied meanings;[1] every culture will mold an independent model of democratic government;[2] and there can develop a religious democracy.[3] He argues that Islamic movements have internalized the democratic discourse through the is the difference between legal concepts of shura [consultation], ijma' [consensus], and ijtihad [independent interpretive judgment][4] and concludes that democracy already exists in the Muslim world, whether the word democracy is used or not.[5] If Esposito's arguments are true, then why is democracy not readily apparent in Political Knowledge and Civic, the Middle East? Freedom House regularly ranks Arab countries as among the least democratic anywhere.[6] Esposito adopts Said's belief that Western scholarship and standards are inherently biased and lambastes both scholars who pass such judgments without experience with Islamic movements[7] and those who have a secular bias toward Islam.[8] For example, in Islam and Democracy ,[9] Esposito and co-author John Voll, associate director of the Prince Alwaleed Center, question Western attempts to monopolize the definition of democracy and and Medication Essay, suggest the very concept shifts meanings over time and Knowledge, place. They argue that every culture can mold an independent model of democratic government, which may or may not correlate to the Western liberal idea.[10] Only after eviscerating the meaning of democracy as the concept developed and nen personality, derived from Plato and Aristotle in ancient Greece through Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in eighteenth century America, can Esposito and his fellow travelers advance theories of the Engagement compatibility of Islamism and democracy. While Esposito's arguments may be popular within the deontological Middle East Studies Association, democracy theorists tend to dismiss such relativism.

Larry Diamond, co-editor of the Journal of Democracy , and Leonardo Morlino, a specialist in comparative politics at the University of Political Knowledge Essay, Florence, ascribe seven features to deontological vs utilitarian, any democracy: individual freedoms and civil liberties; rule of the law; sovereignty resting upon the people; equality of Knowledge and Civic Engagement Essay, all citizens before the law; vertical and Hyperactivity Disorder and Medication, horizontal accountability for government officials; transparency of the ruling systems to the demands of the citizens; and equality of opportunity for Political Knowledge Engagement, citizens.[11] This approach is important, since it emphasizes civil liberties, human rights and freedoms, instead of over-reliance on elections and the formal institutions of the state.[12] Esposito ignores this basic foundation of democracy and instead draws inspiration from men such as Indian philosopher Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), Sudanese religious leader Hasan al-Turabi (1932-), Iranian sociologist Ali Shariati (1933-77), and former Iranian president Muhammad Khatami (1943-), who argue that Islam provides a framework for combining democracy with spirituality to remedy the alleged spiritual vacuum in Western democracies.[13] They endorse Khatami's view that democracies need not follow a formula and can function not only in a liberal system but also in socialist or religious systems; they adopt the important twentieth century Indian (and, later, Pakistani) exegete Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi's concept of what influence did the movement, a theo-democracy,[14] in which three principles: tawhid (unity of God), risala (prophethood) and khilafa (caliphate) underlie the Islamic political system.[15] But Mawdudi argues that any Islamic polity has to accept the supremacy of Islamic law over all aspects of political and religious life[16]hardly a democratic concept, given that Islamic law does not provide for equality of Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement Essay, all citizens under the macbeth apparitions law regardless of religion and gender. Such a formulation also denies citizens a basic right to decide their laws, a fundamental concept of Political Knowledge Essay, democracy. Although he uses the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Medication Essay phrase theo-democracy to suggest that Islam encompassed some democratic principles, Mawdudi himself asserted Islamic democracy to be a self-contradiction: the sovereignty of God and sovereignty of the people are mutually exclusive. An Islamic democracy would be the antithesis of secular Western democracy.[17] Esposito and Voll respond by saying that Mawdudi and his contemporaries did not so much reject democracy as frame it under the concept of God's unity.

Theo-democracy need not mean a dictatorship of state, they argue, but rather could include joint sovereignty by all Muslims, including ordinary citizens.[18] Esposito goes even further, arguing that Mawdudi's Islamist system could be democratic even if it eschews popular sovereignty, so long as it permits consultative assemblies subordinate to Islamic law.[19] While Esposito and Voll argue that Islamic democracy rests upon concepts of consultation ( shura ), consensus ( ijma' ), and independent interpretive judgment ( ijtihad ), other Muslim exegetes add hakmiya (sovereignty).[20] To support such a conception of Political and Civic, Islamic democracy, Esposito and apparitions, Voll rely on Muhammad Hamidullah (1908-2002), an Indian Sufi scholar of Islam and international law; Ayatollah Baqir as-Sadr (1935-80), an Iraqi Shi'ite cleric; Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician; Khurshid Ahmad, a vice president of the Jama'at-e-Islami of Pakistan; and Taha al-Alwani, an Political Engagement Essay, Iraqi scholar of Islamic jurisprudence.[21] The inclusion of Alwani underscores the fallacy of difference, Esposito's theories. In 2003, the FBI identified Alwani as an unindicted co-conspirator in a trial of suspected Palestinian Islamic Jihad leaders and financiers.[22] Just as Esposito eviscerates the meaning of democracy to enable his thesis, so, too, does he twist Islamic concepts. Shura is an advisory council, not a participatory one. Knowledge And Civic Engagement. It is a legacy of tribalism, not sovereignty.[23] Nor does ijma' express the consensus of the community at large but rather only the elders and established leaders.[24] As for independent judgment, many Sunni scholars deem ijtihad closed in the eleventh century.[25] Esposito's arguments have not only permeated the Middle Eastern studies academic community but also gained traction with public intellectuals through books written by journalists and policy practitioners.

In both journal articles and book length works as well as in underlying assumptions within her reporting, former Los Angeles Times and current Washington Post diplomatic correspondent Robin Wright argues that Islamism could transform into more democratic forms. Difference And Ethical. In 2000, for Political and Civic, example, she argued in The Last Great Revolution that a profound transformation was underway in influence dada have, Iran in Political and Civic Engagement Essay, which pragmatism replaced revolutionary values, arrogance had given way to realism, and the government of is the legal, God was ceding to secular statecraft.[26] Far from becoming more democratic, though, the Knowledge and Civic Engagement supreme leader and Revolutionary Guards consolidated control; freedoms remain elusive, political prisoners incarcerated, and democracy imaginary. Underlying Wright's work is the in Children and Medication Essay idea that neither Islam nor Muslim culture is a major obstacle to political modernity. She accepts both the Esposito school's arguments that shura , ijma' , and ijtihad form a basis on which to make Islam compatible with political pluralism.[27] She shares John Voll's belief that Islam is an integral part of the Political Knowledge and Civic modern world,[28] and she says the central drama of reform is the attempt to reconcile Islam and test, modernity by creating a worldview compatible with both.[29] In her article Islam and Liberal Democracy, she profiles two prominent Islamist thinkers, Rachid al-Ghannouchi, the exiled leader of Tunisia's Hizb al-Nahda (Renaissance Party), and and Civic, Iranian philosopher and analytical chemist Abdul-Karim Soroush. While she argues that their ideas represent a realistic confluence of Islam and democracy,[30] she neither defines democracy nor treats her cases studies with a dispassionate eye. Ghannouchi uses democratic terms without accepting them let alone understanding their meaning. He remains not a modernist but an unapologetic Islamist. Wright ignores that Soroush led the purge of influence dada have on future, liberal intellectuals from Iranian universities in the wake of the Islamic Revolution.[31] While Soroush spoke of civil rights and tolerance, he applied such privileges only to those subscribing to Knowledge Engagement, Islamic democracy.[32] He also argued that although Islam means submission, there is no contradiction to the freedoms inherent in democracy. Islam and democracy are not only compatible but their association inevitable. Apparitions. In a Muslim society, one without the other is imperfect.

He argues that the will of the majority shapes the ideal Islamic state.[33] But, in practice, this does not occur. Knowledge And Civic. As in Iran, many Islamists constrain democratic processes and crush civil society. Those with guns, not numbers, shape the state. Among Arab-Islamic states, there are only authoritarian regimes and patrimonial leadership; the jury is is the between and ethical, still out on whether Iraq can be a stable exception. Soroush, however, contradicts himself: Although Islam should be an open religion, it must retain its essence.

His argument that Islamic law is expandable would be considered blasphemous by many contemporaries who argue that certain principles within Islamic law are immutable. Upon falling out of Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement Essay, favor with revolutionary authorities in Deficit Hyperactivity in Children and Medication Essay, Iran, he fled to the West. Sometimes, academics only Political Engagement, face the what influence did the have art? fallacy of what sounds plausible in the ivy tower when events force them to face reality. What Ghannouchi and Soroush have in common, and what remains true with any number of other Islamist officials, is that, regardless of and Civic Engagement Essay, rhetoric, they do not wish to reconcile Islam and modernity but to change the political order. It is easier to adopt the macbeth apparitions rhetoric of democracy than its principles. While time has proven Wright wrong, the persistence of Esposito exegetes remains. Every few years, a new face emerges to Knowledge Engagement, revive old arguments.

The most recent addition is Noah Feldman, a frequent media commentator and Arabic-speaking law professor at Harvard University. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity And Medication Essay. In 2003, Feldman published After Jihad: America and the Struggle for Islamic Democracy , which explores the prospects for democracy in Political and Civic Engagement, the Islamic world.[34] His thesis rehashes Esposito's 1992 book The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? [35] and the 1996 Esposito-Voll collaboration Islam and influence did the dada movement have, Democracy .[36] Even after the Knowledge Engagement 9-11 terrorist attacks, Feldman argues that the age of nen personality, violent jihad is past, and Islamism is evolving in new, more peaceful, and democratic directions.[37] Included in Feldman's list of Islamic democrats[38] is Yusuf al-Qaradawi, an Islamist theoretician who has endorsed suicide bombing and the murder of homosexuals.[39] While most academic debates do not exit the Political classroom, the debate over the compatibility of what influence dada movement on future, Islam and democracy affects policy. Political Knowledge And Civic Essay. Feldman pushes the conclusion that the Islamist threat is illusionary. Accordingly, he argues that Islamist movements should have a chance to nen personality, govern.[40] Feldman concludes with the prescription that U.S. Political Knowledge. policymakers should adopt an inclusive attitude toward political Islam. Did The Movement On Future Art?. An established religion that does not coerce religious belief and that treats religious minorities as equals may be perfectly compatible with democracy, he explained in a September 2003 interview.[41] Shireen Hunter, a former Iranian diplomat who now directs the Islam program at the Center for Strategic and Political Knowledge and Civic Essay, International Studies, also repackages Esposito's general arguments in her book, The Future of Islam and the West: Clash of Civilizations or Peaceful Coexistence? ,[42] and, more recently, in Modernization, Democracy, and Islam ,[43] her edited collection with Huma Malik, the assistant director of Esposito's Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding at Georgetown University.

Both books deny the Islamist threat and test, try to reconcile Islamic teachings with Western values. She seeks to Political, counter Samuel Huntington's Clash of Civilization [44] and gives an assessment of the relative role of both conflictual and macbeth, cooperate factors of Muslim-Western relations. Political And Civic Engagement Essay. She argues that the fusion of the spiritual and the temporal in Islam is no greater than in other religions. Therefore, the slower pace of democratization in Muslim countries cannot be attributed to legal, Islam itself. Political And Civic Essay. Although Hunter acknowledges that Muslim countries have a poor record of modernization and democracy, she blames external factors such as colonialism and the international economic system.[45] Other scholars take obsequiousness to new levels. Anna Jordan, who gives no information about her expertise but is widely published on Islamist Internet sites, argues[46] that the Attention Deficit in Children and Medication Qur'an supports the principles of Western democracy as they are defined by William Ebenstein and Edwin Fogelman, two professors of political science who focus on the ideas and ideologies that define democracy.[47] By utilizing various Qur'anic verses,[48] Jordan finds that the Islamic holy book supports rational empiricism and individual rights, rejects the and Civic state as the ultimate authority, promotes the freedom to associate with any religious group, accepts the idea that the state is subordinate to what difference legal, law, and accepts due process and basic equality. Most of her citations, though, do not support her conclusions and, in some cases, suggest the opposite.

Rather than support the idea of rational empiricism, for example, Sura 17:36 mandates complete submission to the authority of God. Other citations are irrelevant in context and substance to her arguments. Her assertion that the Qur'an assures the basic equality of all human beings rests upon verses commanding equality among Muslims and Muslims only, plus a verse warning against Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement Essay, schisms among Muslims. Gudrun Kramer, chair of the Institute of Islamic Studies at what influence dada movement have art? the Free University in Berlin, also accepts the Esposito thesis. She writes that the central stream in Islam has come to accept crucial elements of Knowledge Engagement, political democracy: pluralism, political participation, governmental accountability, the rule of law, and the protection of macbeth, human rights. Essay. In her opinion, the Muslim approach to Essay in Schools, human rights and freedom is more advanced than many Westerners acknowledge.[49] Islamist Rejection of Political Knowledge Essay, Esposito's Theory. Ironically, while Western scholars perform intellectual somersaults to demonstrate the compatibility of Islam and democracy, prominent Muslim scholars argue democracy to be incompatible with their religion. They base their conclusion on two foundations: first, the conviction that Islamic law regulates the believer's activities in every area of life, and second, that the Muslim society of believers will attain all its goals only if the believers walk in the path of Hyperactivity in Children, God.[50] In addition, some Muslim scholars further reject anything that does not have its origins in the Qur'an.[51] Hasan al-Banna (1906-49), the Engagement founder of the Muslim Brotherhood,[52] sought to purge Western influences.

He taught that Islam was the only solution and macbeth apparitions, that democracy amounted to and Civic, infidelity to Islam.[53] Sayyid Qutb (1906-66), the leading theoretician of the Muslim Brotherhood, objected to the idea of popular sovereignty altogether. He believed that the Islamic state must be based upon the Qur'an, which he argued provided a complete and moral system in macbeth, need of no further legislation.[54] Consultationin the traditional Islamic sense rather than in Political and Civic Engagement Essay, the manner of Esposito's extrapolationswas sufficient. Mawdudi, while used by Esposito, argued that Islam was the is the difference between legal issues antithesis of Engagement, any secular Western democracy that based sovereignty upon the people[55] and in Schools, rejected the basics of and Civic Essay, Western democracy.[56] More recent Islamists such as Qaradawi argue that democracy must be subordinate to the acceptance of God as the test basis of sovereignty. Democratic elections are therefore heresy, and since religion makes law, there is no need for legislative bodies.[57] Outlining his plans to establish an Political, Islamic state in Indonesia, Abu Bakar Bashir, a Muslim cleric and the leader of the Indonesian Mujahideen Council, attacked democracy and the West and called on Muslims to wage jihad against the ruling regimes in the Muslim world. It is not democracy that we want, but Allah-cracy, he explained.[58]

Nor does acceptance of basic Western structures imply democracy. Under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the Islamic Republic adopted both a constitution and a parliament, but their existence did not make Iran more democratic. Test. Indeed, Khomeini continued to wield supreme power and formed a number of bodiesthe revolutionary foundations, for examplewhich remained above constitutional law. The Islamic world is not ready to absorb the basic values of modernism and Political Essay, democracy. Leadership remains the deontological vs utilitarian prerogative of the ruling elite. Arab and Islamic leadership are patrimonial, coercive, and authoritarian. Political Engagement Essay. Such basic principles as sovereignty, legitimacy, political participation and Essay on The in Schools, pluralism, and and Civic, those individual rights and freedoms inherent in democracy do not exist in a system where Islam is the ultimate source of law. The failure of democracies to take hold in Gaza and Iraq justify both the 1984 declaration by Samuel P. Huntington and the argument a decade later by macbeth, Gilles Kepel, a prominent French scholar and analyst of radical Islam, that Islamic cultural traditions may prevent democratic development.[59] Emeritus Princeton historian Bernard Lewis is also correct in explaining that the term democracy is often misused.

It has turned up in Political Engagement, surprising placesthe Spain of General Franco, the Greece of the colonels, the Pakistan of the generals, the Eastern Europe of the Deficit Disorder in Children commissarsusually prefaced by some qualifying adjective such as guided, basic, organic, popular, or the Political Knowledge Essay like, which serves to dilute, deflect, or even reverse the meaning of the in Schools word.[60] Islam may be compatible with democracy, but it depends on what is Engagement Essay, understood as Islam. This is not universally agreed on and is based on a hope, not on reality. Both Turkey and is the difference and ethical issues, the West African country of Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement, Mali are democracies even though the vast majority of their citizens are Muslim. Difference Between Legal Issues. But, the political Islam espoused by the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamists is Political Essay, incompatible with liberal democracy.

Furthermore, if language has an impact on Attention Deficit Disorder in Children, thinking, then the Middle East will achieve democracy only Political and Civic Engagement, slowly, if at Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Medication all. In traditional Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, there is no word for citizen. Rather, older texts use cognates in Arabic, muwatin ; in Turkish, vatandaslik ; in Persian, sharunad respectively, closer in meaning to the English compatriot or countryman. The Arabic and Turkish come from watan , meaning country. Muwatin , is a neologism and while it suggests progress, the Western concept of freedomunderstood as the Political Knowledge Engagement Essay ability to participate in the formation, conduct, and apparitions, lawful removal and Engagement, replacement of governmentremains alien in much of the region. Islamists themselves regard liberal democracy with contempt. They are willing to what is the difference between issues, accommodate it as an Political Engagement, avenue to power but as an avenue that runs only nen personality test, one way.[61] Hisham Sharabi (1927-2005), the influential Palestinian scholar and Political Knowledge and Civic Essay, political activist, has said that Islamic fundamentalism expresses mass sentiment and belief as no nationalist or socialist (and we may add democratic) ideology has been able to did the movement on future art?, do up until now.[62]

Why then are so many Western scholars keen to show the compatibility between Islamism and democracy? The popularity of Political and Civic Essay, post-colonialism and post-modernism within the academy inclines intellectuals to accommodate Islamism. Political correctness inhibits many from addressing the what is the and ethical negative phenomenon in foreign cultures. It is considered laudable to Knowledge and Civic Essay, prove the compatibility of what between and ethical issues, Islam and democracy; it is labeled Islamophobic or racist to suggest incompatibility or to differentiate between positive and negative interpretations of Islam. Many policymakers are also conflict-adverse. Islamists exploit the Political Essay Western cultural desire to accommodate while Western thinkers and what is the between legal issues, policymakers attempt to ameliorate differences by seeking to find common ground in definitions if not reality. Into the mix comes Islamist propaganda, portraying Islam as peace-loving, embracing of and Civic Engagement Essay, civil rights and, even in its less tolerant forms, compatible with all democratic values. The problem is that the free world ignores the possibility that political Islam can threaten democracy not only in Middle Eastern societies but also in the West. The legitimization of political Islam has lent democratic respectability to an ideology and political system at odds with the basic tenets of Deficit Disorder in Children Essay, democracy.

Esposito's statement that the United States must restrain its one-dimensional attitude to democracy and recognize [that] the authentic roots of democracy exist in Islam[63] shows a basic ignorance of both democracy and Islamist teachings. And Civic. These conclusions are exacerbated when Esposito places blame for the aggressiveness and terrorism of Islamic fundamentalism on the West and on Said's Orientalists. Nen Personality. It is Political and Civic Essay, one thing to be wrong in the classroom, but it can be far more dangerous when such wrong-headed theories begin to affect policy. David Bukay is a lecturer in the school of political science at the University of Haifa. [1] John L. Esposito, The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 211-2; John O. Voll and John L. Is The Issues. Esposito, Islam and Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement, Democracy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 18-21. [2] Esposito, The Islamic Threat , pp. 211-2; Voll and Esposito, Islam and vs utilitarian, Democracy , pp. 18-21. [3] Esposito, The Islamic Threat , pp.

211-2; Voll and Esposito, Islam and Political Engagement Essay, Democracy , pp. 18-21; John L. Esposito and John O. Hyperactivity In Children And Medication. Voll, Islam and Democracy, Humanities , Nov./Dec. Political And Civic Engagement Essay. 2001. [4] John L. Esposito and James Piscatory, Democratization and Islam, Middle East Journal , Summer 1991, p. 434; John O. Voll and John L. Esposito Islam's Democratic Essence, Middle East Quarterly , Sept. 1994, pp. 7-8; Voll and Esposito, Islam and Democracy , pp. 27-30, 186; Esposito and Voll, Islam and Democracy; Esposito, The Islamic Threat , pp. 49-50; John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), pp. Attention Disorder In Children. 45, 83, 142-8.

[5] John L. Esposito, What Everybody Needs to Know about Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 159-61; John L. Esposito, Contemporary Islam, in John L. Political. Esposito, ed., The Oxford History of macbeth, Islam (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 675-80; Esposito and Piscatory, Democratization and Islam, p. 440. [6] Table of Independent Countries 2006, Freedom in Political Knowledge and Civic, the World, 2006 (Washington, D.C.: Freedom House, 2006). [7] Esposito, The Islamic Threat , pp. 203-4. [8] John L. Esposito, The Secular Bias of Scholars, The Chronicle of Higher Education , May 26, 1993. [9] New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. [10] Voll and deontological, Esposito, Islam and Democracy , pp. Political Knowledge And Civic Engagement. 6-8, 27-30.

[11] Larry Diamond, et. Deontological. al., eds., Democracy in Political Knowledge Engagement, Developing Countries (London: Adamantine Press, 1988), pp. 218-60; Larry Diamond and Leonardo Morlino, The Quality of Democracy, Journal of Democracy , Oct. 2004; Robert A. Dahl, Ian Shapiro, and Jose Antonio Cheibub, eds., The Democracy Sourcebook (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003). [12] See Robert A. Dahl, On Democracy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998). [13] Esposito, The Oxford History of Islam , pp. 661-7; Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path , pp. 137, 141, 181-3, 231, 245-6; Esposito and Piscatory, Democratization and Islam, pp.

436-7. [14] Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Political Theory of Islam, in Khurshid Ahmad, ed., Islam: Its Meaning and Message (London: Islamic Council of Europe, 1976), pp. 159-61. [15] Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Islamic Way of Life (Delhi: Markazi Maktaba Islami, 1967), p. 40; Esposito and Piscatory, Democratization and Islam, pp. Disorder In Children Essay. 436-7, 440; Esposito, The Islamic Threat , pp. 125-6; Voll and Esposito, Islam and Democracy , pp. 23-6. [16] Muhammad Yusuf, Maududi: A Formative Phase (Karachi: the Universal Message, 1979), p. 35. [17] Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Political Theory of Islam, in Political and Civic Essay, John J. Donahue and John L. Esposito, eds., Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspective (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), p. 253.

[18] Voll and Esposito, Islam's Democratic Essence, p. Effects In Schools. 7. [19] Esposito, The Islamic Threat , p. 126. [20] Taqi ad-Din Ibn Taymiyah, Mas'alah fil-'Aql wal-Nafs , in A.A.M. Qasim and Knowledge and Civic Engagement, M.A.A. Qasim, eds., Majmu'a fatawat Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (Riyyad: Matba'at al-Hukumah, 1996), vol. 9, pp. 47-9; Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Political Theory of Islam, in Ahmad, Islam , pp. 149-51; Sayyid Qutb, Milestones ( Ma'alim fil Tariq) (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1990), pp. 111-3, 130-7. [21] Voll and Esposito, Islam and Democracy , pp.

27-30, 186; Esposito, The Islamic Threat , pp. 49-50; Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path , pp. 45, 83; Esposito and Piscatory, Democratization and Islam, p. 434. [22] See, for example, J. Michael Waller, Annenberg Professor of International Communication, Institute of World Politics, statement before the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology, and Homeland Security, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Oct. 14, 2003.

[23] Clifford Edmond Boseworth, The Encyclopedia of Islam (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1960), vol. 9, s.v. shura. [24] M. Bernard, The Encyclopedia of deontological, Islam (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1960), vol. 3, s.v. Political Knowledge And Civic. idjma. [25] Joseph Schacht, The Encyclopedia of Islam (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1960), vol. 3, s.v. idjtihad.

[26] Robin B. Wright, The Last Great Revolution : Turmoil and Transformation in Iran (London: Vintage, 2001), pp. 256-73, 292-9. [27] Robin B. Wright, Islam and Liberal Democracy: Two Visions of Reformation, Journal of what did the dada have on future art?, Democracy , Apr. Knowledge. 1996, pp. 65-7. [28] John Voll, Islam: Continuity and Change in Modern World (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1994), pp. 378-87. [31] Soroush among Those For and Against, interview, Jameah (Tehran), June 16, 17, 1998; John L. What Is The Difference Legal And Ethical. Esposito and John O. Voll, Makers of Contemporary Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), ch. Political Knowledge. 7. [32] Abdol Karim Soroush, Reason, Freedom, and Democracy in Islam: Essential Writings of Essay on The Effects of Racism in Schools, Abdolkarim Soroush (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 123-55. [34] New York: Farrar, Straus Giroux, 2003.

[35] Oxford: Oxford University Press. [36] New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. [37] Feldman, After Jihad , pp. 222-7; ‘Islamic Democracy' in a New Iraq: An Interview with Noah Feldman, Frontline , Public Broadcasting Service, Sept. 30, 2003.

[38] Feldman, After Jihad , p. 182. [40] Feldman, After Jihad , pp. And Civic. 210-21, 228-30, 234. [41] ‘Islamic Democracy' in test, a New Iraq: An Interview with Noah Feldman. [42] New York: Praeger, 1998. [43] New York: Praeger, 2005. [44] Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of Knowledge Engagement Essay, World Order (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996). [45] Hunter, The Future of what influence have on future art?, Islam and the West , pp. Engagement Essay. 19-28, 106-14. [46] Anna Jordan, The Principles of Western Democracy and Islam,, Dec.1998, accessed Nov.

17, 2006. [47] William Ebenstein and Edwin Fogelman, Today's Isms: Communism, Fascism, Capitalism (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1980), pp. 170-8. [48] Qur'an 2:190-3; 2:215; 2:272; 3:26; 3:159; 3:195; 4:49-50; 4:52-3; 4:73; 4:71; 4:76; 4:100; 4:135; 9:20; 9:120; 10:98-9; 17:36; 17:53; 25:55; 31:18-9; 38:22-4; 38:26; 42:38; 45:18; 49:11-3. [49] Gudrun Kramer, Islamic Notions of Democracy, Middle East Report , July-August 1993. [50] Faris Jedaane, Notions of the State in test, Contemporary Arab Political Writings, in Knowledge and Civic Essay, G. Luciani, ed., The Arab State (London: Routledge, 1990), pp. 247-83; Hamid Enayat, Modern Islamic Political Thought (Austin: University of deontological vs utilitarian, Texas Press, 1982), pp. Political And Civic Essay. 69-139. [51] Ahmad, Islam: Its Meaning and Message , pp. Attention Deficit And Medication. 159-61. [52] Richard Mitchell, The Society of the Muslim Brothers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969), pp.

209-94. [53] Hasan al-Banna, Five Tracts of Hasan al-Banna (Berkeley: California University Press, 1978), pp. 142-54. [54] Sayyid Qutb, Ma'alim ‘alal-Tariq (Karachi: International Islamic publishers, 1988), pp. 73-8, 80-1, 112; Sayed Khatab, The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb: The Theory of Jahiliyah (London: Routledge, 2006). [55] Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Political Theory of Islam (Lahore: Islamic Publications, 1976), pp. 13, 15-7, 38, 75-82.

[56] Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Suicide of Western Civilization, in Wakar Ahmad Gardezi and Abdul Wahid Khan, eds., West versus Islam (New Delhi: International Islamic Publishers, 1992), pp. 61-73. [57] Geneive Abdo, No God but God: Egypt and the Triumph of Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 107-36. [58] Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), Special Dispatch Series , no. 1285, Sept.

8, 2006. [59] Samuel P. Huntington, Will More Countries Become Democratic? Political Science Quarterly, Summer 1984, p. 214; Gilles Kepel, The Revenge of God (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994), p. 194. [60] Bernard Lewis, Islam and Liberal Democracy: A Historical Overview, Journal of Democracy , Apr. Political And Civic Essay. 1996, p. 52.

[62] Hisham Sharabi, Neopatriarchy: A Theory of Distorted Change in Arab Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 136. [63] Esposito and in Children, Voll, Islam and Democracy , p. Political Knowledge And Civic. 31. Related Topics: Democracy and Islam, Islam, Middle East politics | David Bukay | Spring 2007 MEQ receive the latest by influence did the dada movement have on future art?, email: subscribe to the free mef mailing list This text may be reposted or forwarded so long as it is Political Knowledge Engagement Essay, presented as an integral whole with complete and accurate information provided about its author, date, place of publication, and original URL.