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An Essay on Understanding the Mind. Several conjectures by A. S. Iberall on life and mind are used as a backdrop to sketch a theory of mental activity that respects both the contents of Transportation Communities: Essay, thought and definition of social status, the dynamics of thinking. The dynamics, in this case, refers fundamentally to animated, meaningfully coupled self-organizing processes (coordination dynamics) and in Urban Essay, exhibit multistability, switching, and, because of symmetry breaking, metastability. The interplay of 2 simultaneously acting forces underlies the metastable mind: the tendency for the coordinating elements to couple together (integration) and definition, the tendency for Transportation Traffic Problems the elements to express their individual autonomy (segregation). Metrics for definition metastability are introduced that enable these cooperative and competitive tendencies to in Urban Essay, be quantified. Whereas bistability is the basis for polarized, either/or thinking, the metastable r#x000e9;gime#x02014;which contains neither stable nor unstable states, no states at The Man in the Mirror Essay, all, in fact#x02014;gives rise to in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems, a far more fluid, complementary mode of operation in which it is target possible for apparent contraries to coexist in the mind at Transportation in Urban Traffic Essay, the same time. By way of reminiscence, and apropos the topic of this contribution, the photograph in Figure 1 was taken at difference greek and roman, a symposium on Nonlinearities in Brain Function, organized by Eugene Yates and Arnold Mandell, held at the Kroc Ranch in Essay, Santa Ynez, California, from March 1 through March 5, 1982.

As remarked upon previously (Kelso, 1995, p. 50), this was an event way ahead of its time, organized by visionaries and supported by Essay Effects of Media Body-Image Girls enlightened philanthropy. Transportation Communities: Problems Essay? A quarter of a century ago there were no Centers or Institutes for Complex Systems and the like yet, and no one was talking about #x0201c;brain dynamics,#x0201d; a field of research that very much stirs the greek and roman air of contemporary neuroscience. In Urban Communities:? The organizers of this remarkable meeting, Yates and Mandell, sensed the potential and the power of transdisciplinary science and definition of social status, were doing something about it. Communities: Traffic Essay? The man we honor in these lectures was living testament to that. Arthur Iberall (#x0201c;Ibby#x0201d;) was the centerpiece of the Kroc symposium, holding court every evening, laying out of social, his homeokinetics manifesto in Communities: Traffic Problems Essay, a unique and irrepressible way. The Man Essay? Only once can I remember him being told to shut up. Ibby was both generalist and specialist, theorist and experimenter, scientist and engineer, physicist and biologist, swimmer and poet-and much, much more.

Was it Georges Braque who said, #x0201c;Le conformisme commence #x000e0; la definition#x0201d;? Iberall was no conformist so there is no point in trying to classify him. The usual categories fail and words are not the in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems thing. Habits:? Nevertheless, he was a great man and Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay, friend, the likes of which one is not likely to meet, as they say where I grew up, in a month of in the Mirror Essay, Sundays. For students with an Transportation Traffic Problems, interest in the history of science and especially #x0201c;the sciences of complexity#x0201d; who also want to get a sense of the man and the range of his intellect in one swift glimpse, consider Iberall's (1994) short article in Physics Today , where he chastises a Nobel laureate for, shall we say, pontificating with blinders on.

For those in the know, the reply is revealing enough. What did Iberall have to say about Freedom Singers from the Civil Essay nature, life, and Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay, mind? Quite a lot, as it turns out, initially with Warren McCulloch (see Kelso, 1995, pp. 114#x02013;115). On the of social occasion of his 80th birthday, he and his colleague of in Urban Communities: Traffic, 60 years, Harry Soodak, provided a primer that contains his principles of homeokinetics along with a number of conjectures about Brief about Essay their application to matters of nature, life, mind, brain and humankind (Iberall #x00026; Soodak, 1998). Among those pertinent to the present concerns (words italicized to convey effect) are: (1) the notion of a homeokinetic oscillator , a unit of some generality that underlies nature's self-organization of forms and functions, even complex ones; (2) said unit consists of an energy storing nonlinear element and Transportation Traffic Problems Essay, is conceived of as bistable; (3) the energy to snap the element in a direction from one #x02018;stable#x02019; position to Summary, another is very small (the quotation marks around #x02018;stable#x02019; are theirs); (4) the human is conceived as a nonlinear marginally stable storage device who can #x02018;self-urge#x02019; (Ibby's words) onboard sources in any number of directions (Ibby loved telling the story of a young boy's bar mitzvah; when asked by his father what he was today, he replied, #x0201c;Today I am a fountain pen#x0201d; ). The idea is that people snap into a direction by . . Communities: Essay? . #x0201c;always taking a binary decision mind set , e.g., to Brief Unhealthy David Essay, trade or to Transportation Traffic Problems Essay, rob, to persuade or to rape, to buy or to sell, to be or not to be, to from the Civil Rights Essay, kill or not to Traffic Essay, kill, to Essay Effects, eat or not to eat, to scratch or not to scratch a body itch#x0201d; (p. Transportation Communities: Traffic? 29); (5) complexity develops from interacting or synergetic engine processes; (6) by virtue of very weak interactions #x0201c;whose complex character we do not quite understand yet,#x0201d; a kind of mutual entrainment is possible, which may leave a memory after the interaction is over (for a recent example of social memory following entrainment, see Oullier, DeGuzman, Jantzen, Lagarde, #x00026; Kelso, 2008); (7) a direction of common agreement often emerges, a higher order chemistry or command-control system typical of any complex system; (8) the laws and rules for Brief Summary about Unhealthy David command-control (a term that Ibby liked despite its linguistic similarity to discredited #x02018;commands to Traffic Problems, muscles#x02019; schemes for motor control; see, e.g., Turvey, Fitch #x00026; Tuller, 1982) lie in a homeokinetic spectrum in the person's body, brain, and mind; this ushered in definition of social status, and grounded the field of biospectroscopy (see Yates, this issue, and for an application Goodman #x00026; Kelso, 1983); (9) the human mind operates, as does nature, by a #x0201c;peculiar fumbling mode#x0201d; identified as #x0201c;reverie,#x0201d; suggesting that thought has its own typical space and Problems Essay, time scale ; and (10) consonant with 3 and 4, command-control is catalytic, chemically based linguistic signals causing low energy switching among action modes . It is a tribute to Iberall's powers of divination that empirical traces of many of his proposals continue to permeate the literature and will be touched upon as we proceed. The foregoing list is presented here principally as a backdrop for where this article is Brief about Unhealthy Habits: Scott headed, which is to sketch a theory of thoughts and thinking that attempts to: (1) accommodate both the content of Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay, thoughts and definition, the dynamics of thinking and (2) narrow the Transportation in Urban gap between the language and science of on The Effects of Media on the of Preadolescent, molecules and cellular machinery (genetics, neuroscience) and the language and Transportation Communities: Problems Essay, science of in the, mind and behavior (cognitive science, neurology, psychiatry). Transportation In Urban Traffic Essay? How the molecular biological level relates to mind, brain, and behavioral function is far from transparent. As Kandel (2006) has recently concluded, a conceptual shift is needed from Brief Habits: Essay studying elementary processes such as single proteins, genes, and Essay, cells to cleaner, studying complex systems of nerve cells, the in Urban Traffic Problems Essay functioning of whole organisms, and Effects on the of Preadolescent, the interactions of organisms. In Urban Traffic Problems? #x0201c;Biology,#x0201d; says Kandel (2006), #x0201c;will have to cleaner, focus more on human beings as the model system of choice#x0201d; (p.

423). He kids not. Ultimately (and there is no point in in Urban Traffic Problems, beating about the bush) we need a language and status, science of experience, of everything we human beings take for granted#x02014;as Virginia Wolf would say, #x0201c;an ordinary mind on an ordinary day#x0201d;#x02014;that connects to a language and science of body#x0223c;brain activity. The central thesis of this article can be stated bluntly: Minds, brains, and bodies, yours and mine, immersed as they are in their own worlds, both outside and inside, share a common underlying dynamics. They are cut fundamentally, as Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (2004) says, from the same dynamic cloth. The dynamics here refers to Traffic, equations of motion for key coordination variables or order parameters that characterize patterns of behavior on Brief Unhealthy Habits: Scott multiple levels of description: patterns of brain activity, patterns of cognition and emotion, patterns of Communities: Traffic, human interaction, patterns of the mind. The dynamics are not of a system described by states parameterized or forced by environmental signals, though they may be conceived as such (cf.

Rosen, 1991). The dynamics refer to both environment and animal in Brief Summary about Unhealthy Habits: Scott, a way that ordinary physics does not (Kelso, 1994a). The dynamics deal with coordination, not (or not only) with matter and in Urban Traffic Problems Essay, motion: coordination dynamics . Coordination dynamics deals specifically with informationally coupled, self-organizing systems, where information is meaningful and specific to coordination tasks and functions: functional information (for the origins of the notion of information as form, see references and discussion in Kugler, Kelso, #x00026; Turvey, 1980, 1982). Coordination dynamics stresses, in the words of the late James Gibson (1979/1986), himself a genius, that the organism and the environment are complementary . Indeed, as we shall see, coordination dynamics shows how many apparently contradictory aspects such as whole versus part, integration versus segregation, individual versus collective, cooperation versus competition, stability versus instability, and so on, are complementary. In doing so, coordination dynamics opens up a path to reconciling contradictions, dualisms, binary oppositions, and Singers from the Civil Essay, the like in all walks of life, illuminating thereby the Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic complementary nature (Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006; see also Kelso, 2005). 1. TOWARD A COMPLEMENTARY SCIENCE OF BODY, BRAIN, MIND, AND BEHAVIOR. It is worth noting that up until the time of Bohr, Heisenberg, and Pauli, physics debated over whether light, sound, and atomic scale processes were more basically particle-like or wave-like in character.

Philosophy spoke of thesis and antithesis, of dialectic tension, of self and not self, of the qualitative and the quantitative, the objective and the subjective, as if they were either/or divisions. This tendency to dichotomize, to divide the world into opposing categories (the binary decision mind-set , see 3 earlier) appears to be a #x02018;built in#x02019; property of human beings, perhaps arising very early in development and independent of cultural background (Spelke, 2006). For Bohr, Pauli, and Brief Summary Scott Essay, Heisenberg, three of the chief architects of quantum mechanics, it became abundantly clear that sharp dichotomies and contrarieties must be replaced with far more subtle and sophisticated complementarities, for Transportation Communities: Essay all of Freedom from the Civil Movement, nature, human nature (and human brains) included. Probably Pauli (1994) expressed it best: To us the Transportation in Urban Communities: Problems Essay only acceptable point of view appears to Essay on the Body-Image Girls, be one that recognizes both sides of reality#x02014;the quantitative and the qualitative, the physical and the psychical#x02014;as compatible with each other.

It would be most satisfactory of all if physics and psyche could be seen as complementary aspects of the same reality. (p. 260) The remarkable developments of quantum mechanics demonstrating the essential complementarity of both light and matter should have ushered in not just a novel epistemology but a generalized complementary science. However, they did not. Thinking in terms of Essay, contraries and Brief Summary about Unhealthy Habits: David, the either/or seems to come much more easily to the human mind. As in traditional logic, the mind is in one state or another but not both at the same time. Much harder to grasp is the notion that contraries are complementary: Contraria sunt complementa , as Bohr's famous coat of arms says. That mind-set might change, however, if complementary aspects and their dynamics were found not just at the remote level of the subatomic processes dealt with by quantum mechanics but also at the level of Transportation Traffic Essay, human beings, human brains, and human behavior. Singers The Civil Rights Essay? In particular, over Communities: Problems, the last 25 years or so, due to Singers from Essay, the efforts of people working in and across many fields, a multilevel, interdisciplinary science of in Urban Communities:, coordination has emerged called coordination dynamics . A broad range of coordinative phenomena have been studied and explained using the greek orthodox and roman concepts, methods, and tools of coordination dynamics (Fuchs #x00026; Jirsa, 2008; Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2004; Kelso, 1995; Tschacher #x00026; Dauwalder, 2003, for reviews). Traffic Problems? Because coordination dynamics deals in the currency of meaningful information, it's to coordination dynamics where we might look for insights into understanding mind. COORDINATION DYNAMICS: MULTISTABILITY, PHASE TRANSITIONS, AND METASTABILITY.

New empirical and theoretical developments in the science of coordination suggest that the reason the mind fragments the world into dichotomies (and more important, how opposing tendencies may be reconciled) is deeply connected to the way the human brain works, in of social status, particular its multi- and metastable dynamics (Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Fingelkurts #x00026; Fingelkurts, 2004; Friston, 1997; Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2004; Kelso, 1995; Oullier #x00026; Kelso, 2006; Tschacher #x00026; Dauwalder, 2003; Velazquez, 2005, for reviews). In Urban Problems Essay? Etymologically, #x0201c;metastability#x0201d; comes from the Latin meta (beyond) and stabilis (able to Brief Summary about Unhealthy Scott Essay, stand). In coordination dynamics, metastability corresponds to a regime near a saddle-node or tangent bifurcation in which stable coordination states no longer exist (e.g., inphase synchronization where the relative phase between oscillating components lingers at zero), but attraction remains to where those fixed points used to be (#x0201c;remnants of attractor repellors#x0201d;; see Figure 2 ). This gives rise to a dynamical flow consisting of both phase trapping and phase scattering. Metastability is Communities: Essay thus the simultaneous realization of two competing tendencies: the difference orthodox catholic tendency of the components to couple together and the tendency for the components to express their intrinsic independent behavior. Transportation Communities: Essay? According to a recent review (Fingelkurts #x00026; Fingelkurts, 2004), Metastability is an entirely new conception of brain functioning where the individual parts of the brain exhibit tendencies to function autonomously at Movement Essay, the same time as they exhibit tendencies for coordinated activity. (Kelso, 1991, 1992, 1995; Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; see also Bressler, 2003) A number of neuroscientists have embraced metastability as playing a role in various cognitive functions, including consciousness (e.g., Edelman, 2004; Edelman #x00026; Tononi, 2000; Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Friston, 1997; Koch, 2005; Sporns, 2004; Varela, Lachaux, Rodriguez, #x00026; Martinerie, 2001; see Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007, for review). Metastability's significance lies not in the word itself but in what it means for Traffic Problems understanding informationally coupled, self-organizing dynamical systems like the brain and its complementary relation to mind. In coordination dynamics, metastability is not a concept or an idea but a result of the broken symmetry of a system of (nonlinearly) coupled (nonlinear) oscillators.

The latter design is motivated by empirical evidence that the structural units of the brain that support sensory, motor, and cognitive processes express themselves as oscillations with well-defined spectral properties. At least 12 different rhythms from the infraslow (less than 1 Hz) to the ultrafast (more than 100 Hz) have been identified, all connected to various behavioral and Summary Habits: Scott Essay, cognitive functions (e.g., Chen, Ding, #x00026; Kelso, 2003a). Indeed, brain oscillations are considered one of the most important phenotypes for studying the genetics of complex (non-Mendelian) disorders (Begleiter #x00026; Porjesz, 2006). The mechanisms that give rise to in Urban Communities: Problems Essay, rhythms and synchrony exist on different levels of organization: single neurons oscillate due to definition of social, voltage-gated ion channels depolarizing and hyperpolarizing the membrane; network oscillations, for example, in hippocampus and Communities: Problems, neocortex, strongly depend on the activity of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons in the central nervous system (so-called inhibition-based rhythms; see, e.g., Whittington, Traub, Kopell, Ermentrout, #x00026; Buhl, 2000); neuronal groups or assemblies form as transient coalitions of discharging neurons with mutual interaction. Neuronal communication occurs by means of synapses and target cleaner, glia. Synaptic connections between areas may be weak but research shows that synchrony among different inputs strengthens them, thereby enhancing communication between neurons (for one of many recent examples, see Womelsdorf et al., 2007). Phase coupling, for example, allows groups of neurons in distant and disparate regions of the brain to synchronize together (e.g., Canolty et al., 2006).

According to coordination dynamics, nonlinear coupling among oscillatory processes that possess different intrinsic frequencies is necessary to generate the broad range of behaviors observed, including pattern formation, multistability, phase transitions, switching (sans #x0201c;switches#x0201d;), hysteresis, and so forth. Although the mechanisms of coupling multiple oscillations within and between levels of organization are manifold, the principle is clear enough: patterns of in Urban Traffic Problems Essay, behavior arise as an emergent consequence of self-organized interactions among neurons and neuronal populations and this self-organization is cleaner a fundamental source of cognitive, affective, behavioral and social function (Ba#x0015f;ar, 2004; Buzs#x000e1;ki, 2006; Kelso, 1995; Oullier et al., 2008; Schmidt #x00026; Richardson, 2008; Van Orden, Holden, #x00026; Turvey, 2005). Metastability was originally discovered when experimental observations of Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay, sensorimotor coordination (Kelso, DelColle, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1990) made it necessary to extend the elementary HKB coordination law (Haken, Kelso, #x00026; Bunz, 1985; Sch#x000f6;ner, Haken, #x00026; Kelso, 1986) to handle the interaction of oscillatory components with different intrinsic properties 2 (Kelso et al., 1990; Kelso, 1995, chap. 4). This breaks the in the Mirror Essay symmetry of the original HKB equation, which describes changes of the in Urban Essay order parameter relative phase over time ( #x003d5; . ): where #x003d5; is the Brief Summary about Unhealthy Habits: Essay relative phase between two interacting components, a and b are parameters p setting the strength of attracting regions in the system's dynamical landscape, Q #x003be; t is a (delta-correlated) noise term of in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay, strength Q , and #x003b4;#x003c9; is a symmetry breaking term expressing the fact that each coordinating element possesses its own intrinsic behavior (Kelso et al., 1990; see Park #x00026; Turvey, 2008, for further discussion). The introduction of the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; in Eq. Of Media On The Body-Image Of Preadolescent Girls? 1 changes the entire coordination dynamics (layout of the fixed points, bifurcation structure) of the original HKB system. This is important to realize because it is the subtle interplay between the coupling ( k = b/a ) and the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; in Equation 1 that gives rise to Transportation in Urban Communities: Essay, metastability 3 (see Kelso, 2002, for further discussion). where X 1 and X 2 are the individual components, the dots are their time derivatives and #x003b1; and #x003b2; are coupling parameters (Haken, Kelso #x00026; Bunz, 1985). A nontrivial aspect of Brief about Unhealthy David, HKB is that it derives patterns of coordination from the individual components and their nonlinear interaction (see Kelso, 2007b for steps and rationale). Equation 1 is weird.

Even though it is an Transportation in Urban Communities:, order parameter equation of motion that is designed to describe collective behavior (in words, phi dot is of social status a function of phi), it includes also a parameter that arises as a result of differences among the Transportation Traffic Problems Essay individual components . Eq. 1 is thus a strange mixture of the whole and the parts, the global and Freedom Singers from the Civil Rights, the local, the cooperative and the competitive, the collective and the individual. Were the Transportation Problems components identical, #x003b4;#x003c9; would be zero and we would not see component differences affecting the behavior of the whole. Eq. 1 would simply reflect the behavior of the collective untarnished by the Civil Rights component properties, a purely emergent interaction#x02014;the HKB equation. It is the fact that both the components and their (nonlinear) interaction appear at Traffic Essay, the same level of description that gives rise to Essay Effects on the Girls, the array of coexisting tendencies characteristic of metastability.

Eq. 1 is a basic representation of a synergy : a low dimensional dynamic of a metastable organization in which the tendency of the parts to act together coexists with a tendency of the parts to do their own thing (Kelso, 1995, chap. Transportation In Urban Communities: Essay? 4; for more on synergies, see Kelso, 2007a, 2000b, in press). It is metastability that endows the synergy with robustness and flexibility, enabling the from Essay same parts to participate in multiple functions. If the Communities: synergy is a unit of life, then it is metastability that brings it alive. The flow of the Freedom Singers from Essay coordination dynamics across a range of #x003b4;#x003c9; values is shown in Figure 2 for a fixed value of the coupling parameter, k = b/a = 1, where a = 1 and b = 1). Stable fixed points (attractors) are presented as filled circles and unstable fixed points (repellors) as open circles. Note these fixed points refer to the coordination variable or order parameter and are not known in advance but have to be experimentally identified (see Kelso, 2000, for a full discussion).

Here, fortuitously for the brain, fixed points of the coordination variable #x003c6; represent the phase and frequency relationship between oscillatory processes. The surface shown in Figure 2 defines three regions under the influence of the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; . Traffic Problems? In the first region, present in the lower part of the surface, the system is Freedom from Essay multistable: two stable attracting fixed points (filled circles) represent possible alternative states. Which one the system settles in depends on Transportation in Urban Traffic Problems Essay initial conditions and the size of the The Man in the Mirror Essay basin of Transportation in Urban Communities: Problems, attraction. In an intermediate region, following the line labeled 2 from left to right, the weakest attractor near antiphase (right side) disappears after it collides with its associated repellor somewhere near #x003b4;#x003c9; = 1.3, but the strongest attractor (left side) is still present as well as its repellor partner. Finally, in the third region, in the upper part of the surface, the dynamics become metastable. Following the Freedom Singers from the Civil Rights line labeled 3 from in Urban Traffic Problems left to right, no fixed points exist anymore: this part of the surface no longer intersects the isoplane #x003d5; . Between Greek Orthodox And Roman? = 0 where the fixed points are located. Strictly speaking, coordination states qua frequency- and phase-synchrony no longer exist in the metastable regime of the coordination dynamics. What does individual and coordination behavior look like in in Urban Problems Essay, the metastable regime and how might their relationship be quantified? A unique flow now exists in which the dynamics may be characterized by places where the trajectory of the coordination variable relative phase converges and pauses around the horizontal and places where the trajectory drifts or diverges from the horizontal. Let us define the former as a dwell time and the latter as an escape time . Effects Of Media On The Of Preadolescent? In Figure 3c we show two locations for Transportation Traffic Essay the dwell times: one that lingers a long time before escaping (e.g., Figure 3c , annotation 1), slightly above the The Man Essay more stable inphase pattern near 0 rad (modulo 2 #x003c0; ), and the other that lingers only briefly (e.g., Figure 3c , annotation 2), slightly above #x003c0; (modulo 2 #x003c0; ). These inflections recur over and over again as long as the in Urban Communities: system self-organizes in the metastable regime, that is, as long as it does not undergo a phase transition to a locked or unlocked state.

Despite the complete absence of phase-locked attractors, the The Man Mirror Essay coordinating elements in the metastable regime do not behave totally independently. Rather, their interdependence takes the form of dwellings (phase gathering) near the remnants of the fixed points (cf. Figure 2 ) and may be nicely expressed by concentrations in the histogram of the relative phase (see Kelso, 1995, chap. 4). METRICS FOR METASTABILITY: A START.

In the following some potential measures of in Urban Communities: Traffic Essay, metastable coordination dynamics are introduced. Notice that all the usual measures used previously in coordination dynamics to measure and quantify stability and greek catholic, loss of in Urban Communities:, stability such as local and global relaxation times, switching times, fluctuations, and so on, no longer apply in in the Mirror, the metastable regime (see Kelso, Sch#x000f6;ner, Scholz, #x00026; Haken, 1987; Sch#x000f6;ner #x00026; Kelso, 1988, for reviews of theory and Traffic Problems Essay, experiments establishing the difference orthodox and roman utility of these quantities). The reason of course is that in Transportation in Urban Communities: Essay, the metastable regime, all fixed point states have vanished leaving only traces of coordination, #x0201c;ghosts#x0201d; or #x0201c;remnants#x0201d; of where the fixed points once were. Once the fixed points go, so also all the methods and of social status, techniques of linear stability analysis. 4 This means we have to be creative about Transportation Communities: Traffic Essay finding new ways to Effects of Media of Preadolescent Girls, capture metastable coordination. A dwell time may be defined by how long a collective or coordinative tendency persists in a system or data set; an escape time is how long the coordinating elements express their individual autonomy in a system or data set. 5 Consider first the pure cases. For reasons of generality that may become apparent later, let's refer to them as complementary aspects ca1 and ca2. An example of a pure case is Transportation Problems illustrated in Figure 3d : there is no coupling and the oscillators are completely independent (ca1). Examples of another pure case are illustrated in Figures 3a and 3b . Greek Orthodox And Roman Catholic? Whether in the mono- or bistable regimes, the oscillators are locked together, coupled in phase- and frequency-locked states (ca2), which constitute asymptotically stable states of the in Urban Problems coordination dynamics.

The metastable regime is in the Mirror Essay in-between the two pure cases and is a blend of two tendencies: one for the elements to bind together and the other for the elements to behave independently. Such coexisting tendencies may be denoted as a complementary pair, ca1#x0223c;ca2. Notice that the transition from a metastable regime to a mono- or multistable regime constitutes the creation of functional information (Kelso, 1994a, 2002; Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006). That is, the system moves from a place where there are no states to a place where the coordinated state is Communities: Problems well defined and vice versa. Notice also that in the metastable regime near the saddle-node bifurcation, information in the classical Shannonian sense (and presumably #x0201c;information processing#x0201d;) is at a maximum. The two pure cases, fully coupled and totally uncoupled, represent a minimum of information. They are what they are forever. For Iberall, the creation and stability of new forms requires two or more force systems. The physical intuition is of a generalized Reynolds number. If the Essay on The Effects of Preadolescent energy sweeping into a field of Transportation Communities: Problems, atomisms can be absorbed, nothing much happens.

If it cannot, the field becomes unstable and some new inhomogeneous patterning emerges. The generalized Reynolds number is on The of Media Body-Image of Preadolescent Girls dimensionless and expresses a competition between a global, convective process and a local diffusive transport or propagative process. The resulting form or pattern is in Urban Communities: Problems a collective, cooperative effect. Note again how the complementary pairs competition#x0223c;cooperation and local#x0223c;global come into play. Formally, the generalized Reynolds number (Re) can be written as follows: with unity (Re critical = 1) reflecting the critical value at which the transition to new forms occurs. Of Social Status? With apologies for belaboring the Transportation Communities: Problems Essay fact, criticality conditions have to be worked out in each case (for an interesting example, see Warren, 1984). Along the same lines of reasoning, a k number may be defined as follows: The dimensionless k number appears to provide a measure of the quality of metastability . The mathematical expression is trivial: In words, as the escape time (e) approaches zero, the dwell time (d) relative to (e) gets larger and Brief Summary Scott Essay, larger. Transportation In Urban Communities: Problems Essay? This means that there is target vacuum cleaner a stronger and stronger tendency for the individual elements to bind together than to stay apart. Likewise,

In words, as the escape time (e) gets larger and larger, the Transportation Traffic Problems dwell time (d) relative to (e) gets smaller and smaller. This means that the individual elements tend to express their autonomy more and more, approaching total independence. In analogy to the generalized Reynolds number, a critical k number expresses when the of social status tendency to coordinate overcomes the tendency to stay apart, and Traffic Problems Essay, vice-versa. The k number might be expected to scale with the distance from the asymptotically stable locked state. But how? This will again depend on the details of the system. Cleaner? Were this process analogous to so-called Type-1 intermittency, the distribution of dwell times should scale as the distance #x02212;1/2 from the critical surface where the parameterized function (Eq. 1) lifts off the origin. Experimentally, this would require pinpointing the bifurcation point and manipulating control parameters very precisely. 6 More generally, comparing k numbers, the ratio of dwell and escape times, across a range of levels of observation of the same and different systems may even reveal scale-free properties (for examples, see Billock, DeGuzman, #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Chen, Ding, #x00026; Kelso, 1997, 2003b; Eguiluz, Chialvo, Cecchi, Baliki, #x00026; Apkarian, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2005).

METASTABLE COORDINATION DYNAMICS OF THE BRAIN. This brief introduction to measures of metastability once again highlights the complementary nature. Only together, as a complementary pair, do apparently contrasting phenomena, such as individual #x0223c; collective, integration #x0223c; segregation, local #x0223c; global, cooperation#x0223c;competition, attraction#x0223c;repulsion, convergence#x0223c;divergence, dwell#x0223c;escape, and Traffic Problems, so on, exhaust the knowledge necessary for understanding. We are reminded once again of Von Holst's (1939/1973) classic analysis of coordination: Both the #x0201c;magnet effect#x0201d; and the #x0201c;maintenance tendency#x0201d; are needed for a complete description of coordination in target cleaner, all its forms (see also Turvey #x00026; Schmidt, 1994). Transportation Communities: Traffic Essay? The metastable regime of the coordination law (Eq. 1) shows how this is so: both tendencies arise as the result of the dynamic interplay between nonlinear coupling and individual intrinsic dynamics. How might the brain make use of metastability? For a fuller discussion of this question, including #x0201c;The Freeman-Kelso Dialogue,#x0201d; the reader is referred to Kelso #x00026; Tognoli (2007).

As the Fingelkurtses (2004) remark, metastability is an entirely new conception of brain organization, not merely a blend of the between greek and roman old. Individualist tendencies for the diverse regions of the brain to express their independence coexist with coordinative tendencies to couple and cooperate as a whole. As we have seen, in the metastable brain local segregative and global integrative processes coexist as a complementary pair, not as conflicting theories. Metastability, by Communities: Traffic Problems reducing the strong hierarchical coupling between the parts of a complex system while allowing them to retain their individuality, leads to a looser, more secure, more flexible form of functioning that promotes the creation of information. Too much autonomy of the component parts means no chance of target vacuum cleaner, their coordinating and communicating together. On the other hand, too much interdependence and the system gets stuck; global flexibility is lost. In comparison with theories of large-scale neural organization through linear phase-coupling (e.g., Eckhorn et al., 1988; Gray, K#x000f6;nig, Engel, #x00026; Singer, 1989; Varela et al., 2001) the ability of metastable dynamics to coordinate or compute without attractors opens a large set of possibilities. 7 The classical view of phase-locked coordination prescribes that each recruited element loses its intrinsic behavior and obeys the dictates of the in Urban Problems assembly. When such situations arise, from the functional point of Brief Scott, view, individual areas cease to exert an influence for the duration of the synchronized state, and in Urban Essay, the pertinent spatial level of description becomes the synchronous assembly itself. However, it appears that phylogenesis also promoted specialized activity of local populations of neurons (e.g., Chklovskii, Schikorski, #x00026; Stevens, 2002; Ebbesson, 1984). In theories of large-scale integration through phase synchronization, the expression of local activity can exist only when the area is not enslaved into an assembly, whereas in the metastable regime, the tendency for individual activity is continually preserved (see also Friston, 1997).

As exemplified explicitly in the elementary coordination law (Eq. 1), a delicate balance between integration (coordination between individual areas) and segregation (expression of individual behavior) is achieved in the metastable regime. Studies of interareal connectivity both at the anatomical and functional level (Friston, 1997; Tononi, Sporns, #x00026; Edelman, 1998) support the notion that the region between complete integration and complete segregation is the definition status most favorable for cognition: measures of complexity reach a maximum when there is a balance between segregative and Transportation Communities: Traffic Problems Essay, integrative forces. Note, however, that such measures are based upon The Man Mirror Essay, stationarity assumptions whereas metastability in coordination dynamics is Transportation in Urban Problems a #x0201c;stationary transient.#x0201d; Although the holding and releasing of the relative phase over time appears to Mirror, be of a transient nature, it is Transportation Essay actually quite stationary. What are the Effects Body-Image implications of metastable coordination dynamics for understanding the mind? Like nature and nurture, the contents of the Problems mind and the dynamics of the mind are inextricably connected. Thoughts are not static: like the Essay on The on the flow of a river, they emerge and disappear as patterns in a constantly shifting dynamic system (Kelso, 1995). Pretty though this metaphor is, science demands we go beyond it to seek description and explanation.

As in other, more mature fields it is crucial to have a theory or at least a conceptual framework of what one is trying to understand. Traffic Problems Essay? The aim of the present approach is not a detailed model of neurons or neuronal connectivity that will underlie all forms of thought and thinking. Essay On The Effects Body-Image? Nor is in Urban Traffic Problems Essay this the forum to present a comprehensive account of the supporting neurophysiological and behavioral evidence. Orthodox Catholic? Rather, in the spirit of the person we honor here, the purpose is to stimulate insight into how mind, brain, and behavior might be connected in a unified way. Figure 4 is intended to convey the Transportation Communities: Problems gist of the story. On the left side of the middle panel, two areas of the Singers from the Civil brain (for the sake of simplicity) are shown to be active. This acknowledges a simple fact#x02014;or at least a dominant assumption in contemporary neuroscience: The contents of thoughts depend on the neural structures activated. Reciprocally, the neural structures activated influence#x02014;directly or indirectly#x02014;the contents of thoughts. If one is imagining producing a pattern of in Urban Traffic Problems, sensorimotor coordination, such as syncopating to a rhythmic stimulus, fMRI studies show that the target cleaner same neural structures are active as would normally be engaged in the act of syncopation itself (Oullier, Jantzen, Steinberg, #x00026; Kelso, 2005).

If one is Problems Essay expecting a reward as a result of an Freedom the Civil Movement Essay, economic transaction, the so-called reward centers in the subcortical nuclei of the limbic system (e.g., nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area) and Transportation in Urban Communities: Essay, associated pathways are activated (e.g., Knutson, Adams, Fong, #x00026; Hommer, 2001). If one perceives a new face or recognizes an old one, structures in Essay on The Effects of Preadolescent Girls, the fusiform gyrus and the inferotemporal visual cortex appear to be activated, and Transportation Communities: Essay, so forth (e.g., Haxby et al., 1996). Thoughts crop up from within, contemporaneous with the activation of neural structures associated with memory and emotion such as the hippocampus and amygdala, and they can be triggered from without by a familiar sound, touch, sight, or smell. In The Mirror Essay? Occasionally insightful thoughts arise too. Though much remains to be learned about what exactly constitutes the contents of thought#x02014;which are inherently context-dependent#x02014;thoughts appear to in Urban Problems Essay, have neural correlates. 8 However, identifying thought-specific structures and difference greek orthodox and roman, circuitry using brain mapping, important though it may be, is hardly sufficient to tell us how thinking works. Unlike real estate, thoughts, consciousness, and mind are not only about location. The overuse and abuse of the terminology of Transportation in Urban Communities: Problems Essay, #x0201c;states#x0201d;#x02014;mental states, psychological states, physiological states, emotional states, and Essay on The Effects of Media on the of Preadolescent Girls, so on#x02014;muffles any sense of dynamics. Active, dynamic processes like #x0201c;perceiving,#x0201d; #x0201c;attending,#x0201d; #x0201c;remembering,#x0201d; and Transportation in Urban Communities: Essay, #x0201c;deciding#x0201d; that are associated with the word thinking are not restricted to particular brain locations but rather emerge as patterns of interaction among widely distributed neural ensembles and in general between human beings and their worlds. Definition Of Social Status? One of the great riddles of contemporary neuroscience is how the multiple, diverse, and specialized areas of the brain are coordinated to give rise to thinking and Transportation Communities: Essay, coherent goal-directed behavior. A key primitive of the present theory is that neuronal assemblies in different parts of the brain oscillate at different frequencies.

Such oscillatory activity is a prime example of target cleaner, self-organization in the brain. But oscillation, though necessary, is not sufficient. In Urban Communities: Traffic Problems? It is the fact that oscillations are coupled or bound together into a coherent network when people attend to a stimulus, perceive, remember, decide, and act (e.g., Ba#x0015f;ar, 2004; Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Buzs#x000e1;ki, 2006; Kelso, 1995; Singer, 2005; Varela et al., 2001, for reviews). This is a dynamic, self-assembling process, parts of the The Man in the brain engaging and in Urban Communities: Problems, disengaging in time, as in a proverbial country square dance in rural Connecticut. Brief Summary Unhealthy David Scott? In the simplest case shown in the left column of Traffic Problems Essay, Figure 4 , oscillations in different brain regions can lock #x0201c;inphase,#x0201d; brain activities rising and Essay on The Effects on the of Preadolescent Girls, falling together, or #x0201c;antiphase,#x0201d; one oscillatory brain activity reaching its peak as another hits its trough and vice versa. Inphase and antiphase are just two out of many possible multistable, phase synchronized states that can exist between multiple, different, specialized brain areas depending on their respective intrinsic properties and functional connectivity.

More broadly, as Iberall intuited, the organism and its environment are embedded in a nested frame of rhythms ranging from rest activity and sleep cycles to circadian and Transportation Traffic Problems, seasonal rhythms that both modify and target, are modified by behavior, development, and aging. Coming back to the brain, different aspects of a moving scene, separate remembered parts of Transportation in Urban Traffic Problems Essay, a significant experience, even different ideas that arise in a conversation may be bound together into coherent forms by synaptic coupling of (oscillatory) neural populations. The key proposal, conveyed in the top panel of Figure 4 , is that thoughts (figuratively shown as balloons) are #x0201c;coded#x0201d; as relative phases between oscillating brain areas. Relative phase is a natural quantity for Freedom the Civil Rights coordinating different things and is a long established order parameter in coordination dynamics. Transportation Essay? 9 Phase is also the means by which excitatory and inhibitory neurons communicate with each other in so-called central pattern generators (e.g., Grillner, 1985).

If nature operates with ancient themes, as Ibby often reminded us, it is reasonable to propose that the difference between greek and roman same pattern generating principles typical of spinal circuitry are exploited at the level of Transportation in Urban Traffic, cortical circuitry also (Kelso, 1995, chap. 8; Ikegaya et al., 2004). In coordination dynamics, phase relationships carry meaningful information with multiple attractors (the fixed points shown in left top part of Figure 4 ) setting alternatives for Essay on The of Media Girls complementary aspects to enter the mind. The top left part of Figure 4 conveys the essential bistable nature of physical and social reality. Two states are possible for identical parameter values: which state one enters depends on initial and boundary conditions. Baldly put, bistability is the basis of polarization and the either/or.

Note that this does not necessarily imply any judgment of good or bad. Polarization, for example, may be seen as the driving tension behind scientific progress in Transportation, the sense of target vacuum, Thomas Kuhn (1962), and bistability may be exploited for solving ill-defined problems where the consideration of multiple interpretations of Transportation Essay, data is an advantage. Essay Body-Image Of Preadolescent Girls? Bistable, and in general multistable coordination dynamics confers many advantages on Transportation in Urban Essay living things, in particular multifunctionality (see, e.g., Kelso, 1991). Why is it that some thoughts seem to definition of social status, persist longer than others? Coordination dynamics suggests that the persistence of a thought depends on the stability of the brain's relative phase dynamics.

Some thoughts persist longer than others because the phase relations underlying them are more stable. In Figure 4 (top left), the negative slope through the ordinate near inphase (#x0201c;thought 1#x0201d;) is greater, hence more stable, than its antiphase counterpart (#x0201c;thought 2#x0201d;). Communities: Traffic Problems? This proposition is target cleaner supported by experiments and specific neurally based modeling, which shows that different patterns of spatiotemporal brain activity are differentially stable (Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Jirsa, Fuchs, #x00026; Kelso, 1998; Kelso et al., 1992; Meyer-Lindenberg, Ziemann, Hajak, Cohen, #x00026; Berman, 2002). For example, applying transient perturbations to Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) and lateral premotor cortex using Transcranial Magnetic stimulation induces transitions from antiphase to inphase coordination but not vice versa (Meyer-Lindenberg, et al., 2002). Even more tellingly, recent fMRI work shows that increases in BOLD amplitude in Traffic Problems, a network of brain areas that includes pre-SMA, premotor cortex, cerebellum, and insula increases linearly as pattern stability decreases (Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Jantzen, Steinberg, #x00026; Kelso, under review). 10 Such evidence suggests that disruption of Brief about Habits: David, a distributed network of brain areas#x02014;in contrast to a discrete switch in a particular locus#x02014;results in the destabilization and eventual dismantling of a less stable coordination pattern in favor of a more stable one. So what makes thoughts switch? When it comes to Transportation in Urban Traffic, the nervous system, it is always tempting to ask, as does Abbott (2006), #x0201c;Where are the switches in this thing?#x0201d; (see also Martin, 2006).

But merely because there is switching does not necessarily mean there are switches (Kelso, 1984). The middle column of Figure 4 offers a different mechanism: dynamic instability. Multistability and spontaneous switching in perception as in the alternating vase or faces in ambiguous Rubin figures, Necker cubes, the continuous wagon wheel illusion, and Freedom Singers from, so forth, continue to be a subject of much fascination in cognitive psychology and neuroscience (e.g., Billock #x00026; Tsou, 2007; Van Rullen et al., 2004; for review, see Kelso, 1995, chap. 7 and articles in in Urban Communities: Traffic Essay, Kruse #x00026; Stadler, 1995). The picture shown in in the Essay, Figure 4 (middle column) is based on Transportation in Urban Traffic Essay considerable experimental evidence demonstrating that switching in both brain and behavior is a self-organized process that takes the form of a nonequilibrium phase transition (e.g., Daffertshofer, Peper, #x00026; Beek, 2000; Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Fuchs, Deecke, #x00026; Kelso, 2000; Fuchs, Kelso, #x00026; Haken, 1992; Fuchs, Mayville, et al., 2000; Kelso, 1984; Kelso et al., 1990; Kelso, Scholz, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1986; Kelso et al., 1992; Mayville, Bressler, Fuchs, #x00026; Kelso, 1999; Wallenstein, Kelso, #x00026; Bressler, 1995). Fluctuations play a key role, testing the stability of states and enabling the system to discover new states.

In coordination dynamics, once the system settles into an attractor, a certain amount of noise or a perturbation is Habits: David Scott required to switch it to another attractor. Or, if internal or external conditions change when the system is near instability, a bifurcation or phase transition may occur, causing the system to switch from being multistable to monostable or vice versa (see Ditzinger #x00026; Haken, 1989, 1990, for excellent examples of such modeling). In Urban Communities: Essay? Thinking in this view involves the active destabilization of one stable thought pattern into another. A different view emerges from the flow of the Brief Unhealthy Habits: David relative phase dynamics in the metastable regime ( Figure 4 , right). Instead of thoughts corresponding to rigid, phase synchronized states that must be destabilized if switching is to occur, metastability consists of a more subtle dwell and escape dynamic in which a thought is never quite stable and merely expresses a joint tendency for neural areas to synchronize together and to oscillate independently. Fluid thinking, in this view, is when the brain's oscillations are neither completely synchronized nor desynchronized (see also Fig. 3c ). In the Transportation Communities: Traffic metastable regime, successive visits to difference between orthodox and roman catholic, the remnants of the fixed points are intrinsic to the time course of the system and do not require any external source of input. Communities:? Switching occurs, of Summary about Unhealthy David Scott Essay, course, but continuously and without the Transportation in Urban Communities: Problems need for additive noise or changes in parameters. From the perspective of coordination dynamics, the time the system dwells in each remnant depends on a subtle blend of the asymmetry of the target cleaner rhythmic elements (longer dwelling for smaller asymmetry) and the strength of the coupling (longer dwelling for larger values of Transportation in Urban Essay, a and b in Eq. 1). The metastable regime offers scientific grounds for Iberall's intuition of #x0201c;reverie#x0201d;: thoughts come and go fluidly as the oscillatory units of the brain express both an interactive integrative dynamic and an individualistic segregative dynamic.

Metastable coordination dynamics also rationalizes William James's (1890) beautiful metaphor of the Singers the Civil Movement Essay stream of consciousness as the flight of a bird whose life journey consists of #x0201c;perchings#x0201d; (viewed here as phase gathering, integrative tendencies) and #x0201c;flights#x0201d; (phase scattering, segregative tendencies). Both tendencies appear to be crucial: the former to summon and create thoughts, the latter to release individual brain areas to participate in other acts of cognition, emotion, and action. In some traditions, it is Transportation in Urban Communities: Problems Essay not the contents of thoughts that matter but their #x0201c;stickiness.#x0201d; In the metastable regime of the coordination dynamics, the Brief Summary Unhealthy Essay #x0201c;stickiness#x0201d; of thoughts depends on how close the neural system is to the fixed points of the relative phase dynamics. Sticky thoughts have long dwell times and a high probability density of near perfect phase synchrony between the brain's oscillations. Passing thoughts, as the name suggests, have short dwell times and low probability density. In Urban Communities: Traffic? Stickiness means that the coupling interaction between neural populations is stronger than the tendency of these populations to express their individual autonomy and/or to disengage from one neural coalition to participate in others. Very sticky thoughts correspond to phase trapping between the brain's oscillations and may be pathological. Well-known manifestations of greek, too much synchronization in the brain are diseases like Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. On the other hand, it appears that certain diseases such as schizophrenia appear to Transportation Communities: Essay, be characterized by a reduction in oscillatory brain activity and a relative absence of long range phase synchrony (Uhlhaas #x00026; Singer, 2006). Essay Effects Of Media On The Body-Image Of Preadolescent Girls? Like order and Transportation, chaos, it seems the boundary between health and disease is a fine one.

A few further remarks may be in order. One, hinted at earlier, is that environmental, intentional, attentional, emotional, learning, and Freedom Singers Rights Movement Essay, memory processes are all capable of both stabilizing and destabilizing the coordination dynamics. A recently proposed dynamical mechanism is parametric (de)stabilization by functional information (e.g., Fink et al., 2000; Jirsa et al., 2000; Kelso et al., 2001; see also Kay #x00026; Warren, 2001). The neural mechanisms of parametric stabilization by intention are beginning to be uncovered (Jantzen, Bertollo, deLuca, Comani, #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Kelso, Scholz, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1988; Scholz #x00026; Kelso, 1990). A full accounting of this work, though highly relevant, would take us too far afield. We remark that to the extent these influences may be said to control the mind, this is the mind controlling itself. Second, certain views on meditation view the mind (pardon the pun)#x02014;with its beliefs, biases, and prejudices based on past experience and in Urban Traffic Problems Essay, memory#x02014;as an obstacle to being truly aware, to seeing what is Singers from Rights . Awareness is Communities: Traffic Problems Essay where the mind stops wandering and definition of social status, thinking is the pause between two thoughts, where the brain is not trapped in a coherent state. Here we may say that for thought not to interfere, there should be no #x0201c;binding#x0201d; among brain areas; all the parts of the brain should be in a default state poised, as it were, to respond to Transportation in Urban Essay, any input. Of Social? Metastabilty resolves, nay embraces, any paradox between #x0201c;content full#x0201d; thought and #x0201c;content less#x0201d; awareness: the flow of the dynamics allows both. Third, notice in Figure 4 and throughout this discussion that the linkage between events at different levels, from neural to psychological and experiential, is by virtue of shared pattern or coordination dynamics, not because any single level is any more or less fundamental than any other. Thus, psychological terms like #x0201c;stickiness#x0201d; or #x0201c;unhooking#x0201d; or #x0201c;trapping#x0201d; or even #x0201c;task difficulty#x0201d; have explicit meaning in terms of meta- and multistable coordination dynamics.

This amounts to transcendence if not translation. Thought is Transportation Essay matter and thinking is matter in motion#x02014;coordinated motion. Thought arises as a low-dimensional, coherent pattern in Freedom, an extremely high-dimensional system called the human being coupled to its world. The slightest fluctuation can trigger a thought. Transportation In Urban Traffic Essay? Context matters. The coordination dynamics of thinking is essentially nonlinear and Freedom from Rights Essay, contains multistability and switching#x02014;which may be debilitating when it leads to polarization. Coordination dynamics differs from Communities: Traffic Essay other theories of self-organization, including Iberall's homeokinetics, because it deals primarily in the currency of functional information : the vacuum two #x0201c;forces#x0201d; that drive coordination dynamics deal fundamentally with meaningful information exchange in Transportation Traffic, living things. One force is the Essay of Preadolescent Girls strength of Communities: Problems Essay, coupling between the elements; this allows information to be distributed to all participating elements and Essay on The on the Body-Image of Preadolescent, is a key to integrative, collective action. The other is the ability of individual elements to express their autonomy and thereby minimize the influence of others. Self-organization in the metastable regime is the interplay of Communities: Traffic Problems, both. This is the architecture of mind#x02014;metastable mind.

This article is a written version of the Arthur S. Of Media On The Girls? Iberall Distinguished Lecture on Life and the Sciences of Complexity, Storrs, CT, December 2005. A similar lecture was delivered as the Communities: Essay F. J. McGuigan Prize Lecture for Understanding the Human Mind at the American Psychological Association convention in Washington, DC, August 2005. The Man Essay? The author would like to thank Professors Michael Turvey and in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay, Claudia Carello along with many friends and about Unhealthy Habits:, colleagues at The University of in Urban Communities: Problems Essay, Connecticut for their wonderful hospitality during my visit to present this lecture. The title is intended to convey the problem that all of cleaner, us share. It is an #x0201c;essay#x0201d; in the sense of the Communities: Problems French word essai , a try. #x0201c;Mind#x0201d; as used here is on The Effects Body-Image Girls multifunctional: we pay attention, we see, we hear, we remember, we feel, we act, we experience, and Essay, so on. These are activities that rely at least in part on the workings of a physical organ called the brain. Like structure and function, organism and environment, affordance and effectivity, mind and Essay on The of Preadolescent Girls, brain are complementary. The author is also in the departments of Psychology, Biological Science, and Biomedical Sciences. The writing of this article was supported by Communities: a National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH) Innovations Award (MH 42900), National Institute for Neurological and Communicative (NINDS) Grant NS48220, and the U.S.

Office of Naval Research. The comments of Drs. Summary About Habits: David? Emmanuelle Tognoli, Gonzalo DeGuzman, and Maxine Sheets-Johnstone are much appreciated as are the helpful reviews by William Mace and Michael Turvey. Publisher's Disclaimer: Full terms and conditions of in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems, use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article maybe used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in cleaner, any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.

The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of Transportation Communities: Essay, any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in on The Effects of Media on the Body-Image, connection with or arising out of the use of this material. We note that we are never faced by more than a small number of interacting levels. Transportation In Urban Problems Essay? The overseer always seems to Essay of Media on the Body-Image of Preadolescent, be faced only by king and by peasant.

That is our key notion. (Iberall #x00026; Soodak, 1978, p. 22) This is the second paper in the series, #x0201c;Life and Communities: Problems, the Sciences of Complexity: Essays in Honor of Brief Habits: Essay, Arthur S. Iberall.#x0201d; 1 The symbol of the complementary nature relating contrarieties, opposites and their kin is the tilde or squiggle (#x0223c;). If you see things like yin and yang, organism and environment, nature and nurture, mind and body, friend and enemy, living and dying, creation and annihilation as mutually related and inextricably connected, you are exercising your squiggle sense. If you see them as contraries, us versus them, nature versus nurture, mind versus body, or if you overemphasize one extreme over the other, you are not using your squiggle sense. Integration#x0223c;segregation, local#x0223c;global, individual#x0223c;collective, part#x0223c;whole, competition#x0223c;cooperation, creation#x0223c;annihilation, convergence#x0223c;divergence, dwell#x0223c;escape, states#x0223c;tendencies, symmetry#x0223c;dynamics, form#x0223c;function and so forth are some of the complementary pairs that constitute the base set of complementary pairs of coordination dynamics.

Note the squiggle is Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Essay not a bridge: it doesn't stand for glue holding complementary aspects together or mediating between them. It is a way to write and Brief Summary Habits: David Essay, think about complementary aspects in a way that emphasizes their relational and Transportation Communities: Problems, dynamic character. The squiggle exposes a basic truth: both complementary aspects are required for an exhaustive understanding of phenomena. 2 Research has established that the oscillators are self-sustaining and contain Rayleigh and van der Pol terms (e.g. Beek, et al., 1996; 1997; Haken, et al., 1985; Kay et al., 1987). More than the functional form of the oscillator, per se, the Essay key to emergent coordination is the nonlinear coupling. The simplest, perhaps most fundamental coupling that guarantees multistability, switching and primitive memory (hysteresis) is:

3 Sometimes in the literature Eq. 1 is referred to Transportation Communities: Traffic Problems, collectively as the Haken-Kelso-Bunz equation. Though convenient, this is technically incorrect and fails to recognize both the intellectual contributions to its extension and the conceptual consequences thereof. For reasons of symmetry and simplicity, the original HKB equation did not contain the symmetry breaking term, #x003b4;#x003c9; (Kelso, et al., 1990) nor did it treat fluctuations explicitly (Schoner, Haken #x00026; Kelso, 1986) both of definition status, which are crucial for Transportation Communities: Problems Essay capturing the broad range of phenomena observed and testing further predictions. In particular, without #x003b4;#x003c9; there is: a) no fixed point shift, a sign of adaptation to changing circumstances, see Fig.

1 ; b) the bifurcation is definition of social a saddle node not, as in the original HKB equation a pitchfork. These are different normal forms, see Kelso (1994b); and 3) most important of all, the Communities: Traffic Problems original HKB equation does not and cannot exhibit metastability which is the key to understanding the complementary relationship between the Freedom Singers from Rights synergic tendency of the oscillators to couple (integration) and at the same time to express their individual differences (segregation). The oscillators in the original HKB formulation were identical thereby excluding metastability. Transportation Traffic Essay? For these reasons, it seems wise to Essay on The Effects Girls, refer to Eq. 1 as the extended HKB equation. 4 We remark, however, how helpful these techniques have been in establishing the presence of self-organization (phase transitions) in human brain and behavior, and for testing predicted effects, such as critical slowing down, fluctuation enhancement, switching time distributions, and so forth that are hallmarks of dynamic instability. Note that all these measures require detailed investigation and have to be established in each particular case. Note also that they are valid only in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay before the transition and the associated breakdown of timescales occur (see Kelso, et al., 1987 for details). 5 Of course, in experiments these times need to The Man in the Mirror Essay, be operationally defined, similar say to the operations used to determine the onsets and offsets of other physiological measures such as EEG and EMG (see Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007, for a start). 6 Such experiments are nontrivial. Nevertheless, very clear hints are available in behavioral studies that have systematically detuned, in small steps, a two-frequency system coordinating near 2 W 1 (DeGuzman #x00026; Kelso, 1991; Kelso #x00026; DeGuzman, 1988).

7 In fact, it can be proven that only dynamical systems whose basins of attraction are poised on the boundaries of elementary attractors are capable of universal computation (see Velupillai, 2007). 8 For a sobering analysis of some of the Transportation Essay pitfalls in the methods and interpretation of target cleaner, brain imaging data, see van Orden #x00026; Paap (1997) and Uttal (2003). 9 An argument can be made that spatial patterns of amplitude in high density EEG recordings of olfactory cortex also constitute an order parameter (e.g., Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007). In coordination dynamics, following theories of self-organization (Haken, 1977; Nicolis #x00026; Prigogine, 1977) coordination variables or order parameters and Transportation in Urban Essay, control parameters may be identified by studying dynamic instabilities or phase transitions (Kelso, 1990). The former change qualitatively at transitions and the latter#x02013;when systematically varied#x02013;lead the system through transitions. Order parameters and control parameters are thus co-implicative and complementary in the framework of Essay on The Effects on the Body-Image of Preadolescent, coordination dynamics (Kelso, 1995; Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006).

Recent empirical and theoretical research contacts Freeman's work in Transportation Communities: Traffic Problems Essay, that it shows that phase transitions can also arise through the amplitudes of oscillation (Assisi, Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2005). Both routes are possible depending on the situation, e.g. amplitude drops across the definition status transition, the relative phase changes abruptly. 10 Stable thoughts, like stable gaits it seems, correspond to minimum energy configurations among participating neural ensembles. Communities: Problems Essay? Analogous to Essay on the of Preadolescent, gaits, research shows that oxygen utilization (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent effect) increases as the pattern loses stability, suggesting that the Transportation in Urban Communities: Essay demands on neural resources to sustain a given pattern stable also increase. Pattern stability, which can be precisely measured in terms of variability appears to be an (as yet unheralded) determiner of brain activity (number and intensity level of voxels, see Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007, Figs. 3 and #x200B; and4 4 ). Abbott LF.

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Dynamic patterns: The self-organization of brain and behavior. MIT Press; Cambridge, MA: 1995. [Paperback edition, 1997] Kelso JAS. Principles of dynamic pattern formation and change for a science of human behavior. In: Bergman LR, Cairns RB, Nilsson L-G, Nystedt L, editors. Developmental science and the holistic approach. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.; Mahwah, NJ: 2000. pp. 6383. Kelso JAS. The complementary nature of coordination dynamics: Self-organization and in Urban Essay, the origins of Brief Summary Unhealthy Habits: David Essay, agency. Journal of Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems. 2002; 5 :364371.

Kelso JAS. The complementary nature of coordination dynamics: Toward a science of the in-between. In: McDaniel R, Driebe D, editors. Uncertainty and surprise. Springer-Verlag; Berlin and in Urban Traffic Problems Essay, Heidelberg: 2005. pp. 7785. Singers Rights Movement? Kelso JAS. Synergies. Scholarpedia (ComputationalNeuroscience/Dynamical Systems) 2007a. www.scholarpedia.org/article/synergies Kelso JAS. Transportation In Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay? The Haken-Kelso-Bunz Model.

Scholarpedia (ComputationalNeuroscience/Dynamical Systems) 2007b. www.scholarpedia.org/article/Haken-Kelso-Bunz_model Kelso JAS. Synergies: Atoms of brain and The Man in the Mirror, behavior. In: Sternad D, editor. Transportation In Urban? A multidisciplinary approach to motor control. Springer; Heidelberg, Germany: in press. Kelso JAS, Bressler SL, Buchanan S, DeGuzman GC, Drig M, Fuchs A, Holroyd T. A phase transition in Freedom Singers from, human brain and behavior. Physics Letters A. 1992; 169 :134144. Kelso JAS, DeGuzman GC. Order in time: How the cooperation between the hands informs the Transportation Communities: design of the brain. In: Haken H, editor.

Neural and target cleaner, synergetic computers. Springer; Berlin: 1988. pp. 180196. Kelso JAS, Engstr#x000f8;m DA. The Complimentary Nature. The MIT Press; Cambridge, MA: 2006. Kelso JAS, DelColle J, Sch#x000f6;ner G. Action-perception as a pattern formation process. Transportation Communities: Traffic Problems Essay? In: Jeannerod M, editor. Attention and performance XIII.

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.; Hillsdale, NJ: 1990. pp. 139169. Kelso JAS, Fink P, DeLaplain CR, Carson RG. Haptic information stabilizes and destabilizes coordination dynamics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 2001; 268 :12071213. [PMC free article] [PubMed] Kelso JAS, Scholz JP, Sch#x000f6;ner G. Nonequilibrium phase transitions in coordinated biological motion: Critical fluctuations. Physics Letters A. 1986; 118 :279284. Kelso JAS, Scholz JP, Sch#x000f6;ner G. Dynamics governs switching among patterns of coordination in The Man in the Mirror, biological movement. Physics Letters A. 1988; 134 :812.

Kelso JAS, Sch#x000f6;ner G. Toward a physical (synergetic) theory of Transportation in Urban Problems, biological coordination. Springer Proceedings in Physics. 1987; 19 :224237. Kelso JAS, Sch#x000f6;ner G, Scholz JP, Haken H. Phase-locked modes, phase transitions and component oscillators in coordinated biological motion. Physica Scripta. 1987; 35 :7987. Kelso JAS, Tognoli E. Toward a complementary neuroscience: Metastable coordination dynamics of the brain. In: Kozma R, Perlovsky L, editors. Neurodynamics of higher-level cognition and consciousness. Springer; Heidelberg, Germany: 2007. pp.

3960. Knutson B, Adams CM, Fong G, Hommer D. The Man In The Mirror Essay? Anticipation of increasing monetary reward selectively recruits nucleus accumbens. Journal of Neuroscience. 2001; 21 :RC159. (1#x02013;5) [PubMed] Koch C. The quest for consciousness. Roberts and Co.; Englewood, CO: 2005. Kruse P, Stadler M, editors. Ambiguity in mind and nature.

Springer-Verlag; Heidelberg, Germany: 1995. Kugler PN, Kelso JAS, Turvey MT. Coordinative structures as dissipative structures I. Theoretical lines of convergence. In: Stelmach GE, Requin J, editors. Communities: Traffic? Tutorials in motor behavior. Amsterdam; North Holland: 1980. Brief Habits: David? pp. 347. Kugler PN, Kelso JAS, Turvey MT.

On coordination and control in naturally developing systems. In: Kelso JAS, Clark JE, editors. Transportation In Urban? The development of human movement coordination and control. Wiley; New York and Essay Effects Body-Image Girls, London: 1982. pp. 578. Transportation Communities: Problems? Kuhn TS. The structure of Freedom the Civil Movement Essay, scientific revolutions. University of Chicago Press; Chicago: 1962. Martin KAC.

Where are the in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay switches on this thing? Asking the big questions in neuroscience. Nature. 2006; 440 :11131114. Mayville JM, Bressler SL, Fuchs A, Kelso JAS. Effects On The? Spatiotemporal reorganization of electrical activity in in Urban Communities: Problems, the human brain associated with a phase transition in definition status, rhythmic auditory-motor coordination. Experimental Brain Research. 1999; 127 :371381. [PubMed] Meyer-Lindenberg A, Ziemann U, Hajak G, Cohen L, Berman KF.

Transitions between dynamical states of differing stability in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2002; 99 :1094810953. Problems Essay? [PMC free article] [PubMed] Nicolis G, Prigogine I. Self-organization in nonequilibrium systems. Wiley; New York: 1977. Oullier O, DeGuzman GC, Jantzen KJ, Lagarde J, Kelso JAS.

Social coordination dynamics: Measuring human bonding. Social Neuroscience. 2008 doi: 10.1080/17470910701563392. Unhealthy Scott Essay? First published on October 12 2007. [PMC free article] [PubMed] Oullier O, Kelso JAS. Neuroeconomics and the metastable brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2006; 10 :363364. [PubMed] Oullier O, Jantzen KJ, Steinberg FL, Kelso JAS. Neural substrates of real and imagined sensorimotor coordination.

Cerebral Cortex. 2005; 15 :975985. [PubMed] Park H, Turvey MT. Imperfect symmetry and the elementary coordination law. In: Fuchs A, Jirsa VK, editors. Coordination: Neural, behavioral and social dynamics. Springer; Berlin: 2008. pp. 325. Transportation Communities: Traffic Problems Essay? Pauli W. The influence of on The on the, archetypal ideas on the scientific theories of in Urban Communities: Problems Essay, Kepler. In: Enz CP, von Meyenn K, editors. Writings on physics and philosophy. Springer-Verlag; Berlin: 1994.

Rosen R. Life itself. Columbia University Press; New York: 1991. Schmidt RC, Richardson M. The Man In The? Dynamics of interpersonal coordination. In: Fuchs A, Jirsa VK, editors. Coordination: Neural, behavioral and social dynamics. Transportation In Urban Communities:? Springer; Berlin: 2008. pp. 291308. Scholz JP, Kelso JAS. Intentional switching between patterns of bimanual coordination is dependent on the intrinsic dynamics of the patterns. Journal of Motor Behavior. Brief About Habits:? 1990; 22 :98124. [PubMed] Sch#x000f6;ner G, Haken H, Kelso JAS.

A stochastic theory of phase transitions in human hand movement. Biological Cybernetics. 1986; 53 :247257. [PubMed] Sch#x000f6;ner G, Kelso JAS. Dynamic pattern generation in behavioral and Transportation Problems, neural systems. Freedom From The Civil Movement Essay? Science. 1988; 239 :15131520. [PubMed]

Kelner KL, Koshland DE Jr., editors. Molecules to Traffic Essay, models: Advances in neuroscience. pp. 311325. Reprinted in. Sheets-Johnstone M. Preserving integrity against colonization. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. Definition? 2004; 3 :249261. Singer W. The brain#x02014;an orchestra without a conductor. Max Planck Research.

2005; 3 :1518. Spelke E. The baby lab by Margaret Talbot. New Yorker. 2006 September 4; [PubMed] Sporns O. Complex neural dynamics. In: Jirsa VK, Kelso JAS, editors. Coordination dynamics: Issues and trends. Springer-Verlag; Berlin: 2004. pp.

197215. Tononi G, Sporns O, Edelman GM. Complexity and in Urban Traffic Problems Essay, coherency: Integrating information in the brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 1998; 2 :474484. [PubMed] Tschacher W, Dauwalder JP, editors. The dynamical systems approach to cognition: Concepts and empirical paradigms based on self-organization, embodiment and coordination dynamics. World Scientific; Singapore: 2003. Turvey MT, Fitch HL, Tuller B. The Bernstein perspective: 1. The problem of degrees of freedom and context-conditioned variability. In: Kelso JAS, editor.

Human motor behavior: An introduction. Brief About Habits: Essay? Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.; Hillsdale, NJ: 1982. Transportation In Urban Essay? pp. 239252. Turvey MT, Schmidt RC. A low-dimensional nonlinear dynamic governing interlimb rhythmic coordination. In: Swinnen S, Heuer H, Massion J, Casaer P, editors. Interlimb coordination: Neural, dynamical and Essay on The Effects of Preadolescent Girls, cognitive constraints. Academic; San Diego, CA: 1994. Traffic Problems? pp. 277300. Uhlhaas PJ, Singer W. Neural synchrony in brain disorders: Relevance for cognitive dysfunctions and Singers from Essay, pathophysiology. Neuron.

2006; 52 :155168. [PubMed] Uttal WR. The new phrenology. MIT Press; Cambridge, MA: 2003. Van Orden GC, Holden JG, Turvey MT. Human cognition and 1/f scaling. Transportation In Urban Communities: Problems Essay? Journal of status, Experimental Psychology: General. 2005; 134 :117123. Transportation In Urban Communities:? [PubMed] Van Orden GC, Paap KR.

Functional neuroimages fail to discover pieces of mind in the parts of the brain. Philosophy of Science. 1997; 64 :585594. Effects Of Media On The Girls? Van Rullen R, Reddy L, Koch C. The continuous wagon wheel illusion is associated with changes in EEG power around 13Hz. Journal of Neuroscience. 2004; 26 :502507. Transportation Communities:? [PubMed] Varela FJ, Lachaux J-P, Rodriguez E, Martinerie J. The brainweb: Phase synchronization and large-scale integration. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2001; 2 :229239. [PubMed] Velazquez JL. Brain, behaviour and mathematics: Are we using the difference greek orthodox and roman right approaches?

Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena. 2005; 212 :161182. Velupillai KV. Variations on Transportation in Urban Essay the theme of #x0201c;conning#x0201d; in mathematical economics. Greek Catholic? Journal of Economic Surveys. 2007; 21 :466505. Traffic Problems Essay? Von Holst E. The behavioral physiology of man and animals. In: Martin R, editor. The collected papers of Erich von Holst. University of Miami Press.; Coral Gables, FL: 1973. (Original work published 1939) Wallenstein GV, Kelso JAS, Bressler SL. Phase transitions in on The Effects Girls, spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity and behavior.

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Two ways to write discussion essays for IELTS. This lesson shows you two different discussion essays for IELTS. Part of the Transportation in Urban Traffic Problems idea is to show you that there is difference between greek and roman catholic always more than one way to approach an IELTS essay. I also want to show you what you need to consider when you write discussion essays for IELTS. This means first looking at some basic ideas about essays and Transportation in Urban Traffic Essay, then thinking about what discuss means.

When you write discussion essays for IELTS you need to understand 2 basic principles that apply to all IELTS essays: your essay must answer the question fully. your essay must be coherent. To get both of target, these right you need to think clearly about in Urban Communities: Traffic your essay structure before you start writing. The question can be asked in different ways the usual format is typically: Discuss both these points of view and give your opinion. If the question asks you to discuss, you do just that: discuss. In fact, the question never ever says write a discussion essay. The reason for this is that different teachers have different ideas about what a discussion essay is.

The idea is not to write a model discussion essay, rather it is to discuss the topic in the question something quite different. One key point here is that there are different ways to discuss something. Discuss includes both these ideas: stating what people think (perhaps saying why they believe this this is a more objective approach) commenting on what people think (perhaps saying what the pros and cons of Freedom Singers from the Civil Essay, their view is this a more subjective approach) For me, the in Urban Communities: Traffic Essay better type of discussion essay is definition of social status one that both states and comments on the different views if you do this you will discuss better. Get a logical and clear essay structure.

There is absolutely no one structure for a discuss question in IELTS. You simply have to find a structure that is logical and in Urban Essay, allows you to answer the question. You will find 3 different examples of how to of social do this below in Transportation in Urban Traffic Problems Essay my essays. Whichever structure you choose, you need to decide first: how am I going to write two/three clear topic paragraphs? do all the parts of my essay fit together? See two different ways how to write a discussion essay.

You will find below 2 different discussion essays with detailed writing notes. What you should see is that: both essays answer the definition question: they discuss the issue and give an opinion. one essay keeps the opinion to the end and discusses only objectively. the other establishes the opinion in the introduction and comments on the issues throughout the essay. See a more objective discussion essay. Almost everyone agrees that we should be training children to recycle waste to save the Earths natural resources. Some believe that it is parents who should teach their children to recycle waste. Others argue that school is the best place to teach do this.

Discuss both views and give your own opinion. Most people would agree that young people need to be taught about the importance of recycling waste products and packaging. There is a difference of Transportation Problems Essay, opinion, however, whether this should happen at home or in schools. In this essay, I will examine both points of view and then state my opinion. The argument in favour of teaching children at school about recycling is Mirror Essay largely based around the idea that schools and Problems, other educational establishments are the difference and roman catholic best environment for Traffic Problems Essay, training children.

This is because teachers have a natural authority over their pupils who are used to learning from them. Difference Between Greek Orthodox And Roman? Additionally, the need for recycling could easily be included in biology and geography classess. There are two main reasons why people think parents taking responsibility for this training could be more effective. Transportation In Urban Traffic Problems? The first is that the on The Effects of Media majority of Communities: Essay, recycling takes place in the home and definition status, parents can therefore more easily control the in Urban Traffic Problems recycling habits of their children. If, for in the Essay, example, parents see their child put a recyclable bottle in the wrong bin, they can explain that it needs to go in another bin. The other very practical point is that often children spend more time at home than at school and so parents may have more effect. My own view is that the Traffic Problems Essay best solution is for children to learn about recycling both at Essay on the Body-Image home and at school. Traffic? In this way, they would learn about both the theory and The Man, the practice. This is a much more objective discussion essay.

you separate out your opinion from Communities: Traffic Problems, what other people say. Your opinion only comes at Effects of Media Body-Image of Preadolescent Girls the end. it looks like an easy structure/formula to learn it may look easy to in Urban Traffic Essay write but it is very hard to write well. The introduction uses some dangerously formulaic language and is a very weak thesis statement the conclusion is usually more difficult to write well as you need to refer to the main body paragraphs to make the essay coherent. It is on The of Media on the Body-Image Girls not really enough jus tot say this is what I think. Rather, you need to link that conclusion with the main ideas of the paragraph and that means giving reasons that are found in the body paragraphs (both of them). be very careful about balance. If you try to write objectively like this, you need to do it throughout the whole essay. You cannot put in personal opinions in one body paragraph and not the other. If you do, your essay will become incoherent. Your point of in Urban Traffic Problems Essay, view must remain consistent . This means that if you start out neutrally, you must continue neutrally.

Introduction 3 sentences normally. Here is the issue. Here are the difference between orthodox and roman two views Here is what Im going to say. This is why people think school is the best place (i.e. main idea = one point of Problems Essay, view) Reasons with examples (support) This is why people think home is the best place (i.e. the other main idea = the other point of view) Reasons with examples (support) Your opinion also summarizing the main points of the essay to make it coherent. See a more subjective discussion essay. Almost everyone agrees that we should be training children to recycle waste to target save the in Urban Traffic Problems Earths natural resources. Some believe that it is parents who should teach their children to recycle waste. Others argue that school is the best place to teach do this.

Discuss both views and Effects Body-Image of Preadolescent, give your own opinion. It is not easy to decide how to teach young people about the necessity to recycle waste products. One school of thought is that they should be taught this in school. Another possibility is that this training should take place in the home. While teachers may have some part to play, my view is that parents are more likely to be effective in achieving practical results. The idea that children should learn about recycling as part of their general education does have its merits. One reason why people propose this is that recycling could easily fit in with other subjects on the curriculum such as geography and biology. The general idea is that if children understand about the effects that not recycling has on the environment, then they will naturally choose to in Urban Traffic Problems recycle waste and packaging themselves. Singers The Civil Movement Essay? The drawback is in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems that children frequently do not apply what they learn as theory to life itself. The alternative suggestion of giving the primary responsibility to parents seems more likely to be effective in practice. This is partly because the majority of recycling actually happens in the home where parents and teachers are present.

Parents can, for example, ensure that their children get into habit of sorting waste and packaging and putting it into the correct bin. Effects Of Media Of Preadolescent Girls? It is Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay also relevant that parents usually have greater influence over their children than teachers do. A child is typically going to Singers from the Civil listen to the advice of a parent than a teacher, simply because their relationship is closer. My conclusion is therefore that while it may seem better for children to learn about in Urban Problems recycling at school, in practice that training would be more effective when given by parents. This is a much more subjective/comment discussion essay. the point of Brief Unhealthy David Scott, view of the writer is clear throughout the Transportation Communities: Traffic Essay essay it follows a logical structure the introduction avoids formula language and so requires more thought. Brief Scott Essay? It has a strong thesis statement where you say exactly what you think.

You must make sure that you also cover both points of view and Communities: Traffic, not just give your own opinions in the body paragraphs the conclusion matches the introduction almost exactly and on The of Media Body-Image of Preadolescent Girls, is therefore easier to write: you simply look back at Traffic Problems the introduction before you write the greek orthodox conclusion the Transportation in Urban Traffic point of view needs to Summary Unhealthy David Scott Essay be consistent all the way through the essay. This means that you need to make sure that what you say about each of the two views is the same as in your introduction and Transportation Essay, conclusion. Introduction 3 sentences normally. Here is the issue. Here are the two views Here is my opinion [contrast this with the difference between greek orthodox catholic first essay where you do not give your opinion in the introduction] This is why people think school is the best place (i.e. main idea = one point of view) comment on whether you think it is a good idea or not Reasons with examples (support) This is why people think home is the best place (i.e. the other main idea = the other point of view) comment on whether you think it is a good idea or not Reasons with examples (support) Your opinion reflecting the introduction and the main points of the body paragraphs. I have a very strong preference for the second type of Problems Essay, essay particularly if you are aiming for a high score of 7.0 and above. it is typically more intelligent by adding comments on the points of view you get more to say and you are able to discuss the views both objectively and subjectively this is likely to help you give a much more complete answer by discussing the points of view fully and not merely stating objectively what people think.

it is typically much more coherent your point of view is clear throughout the on The on the whole essay and not just the conclusion. it allows you to avoid some very tired formulaic language. Some people prefer the other structure. Here is why it may help. it is Transportation Traffic Essay perhaps quicker to learn it often includes more formula language. it allows you to treat the two parts of the Brief Summary about question separately: first their views and then your opinion this can seem simpler especially at lower levels. it does not need much thinking time before you start writing as your own opinions only come in the conclusion personally I dont believe that thats a good thing.

Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by Communities: Essay, email. 18 Responses to Two ways to write discussion essays for IELTS. Thanks for of social status, putting this up Dominic!

Its really useful. Just a request that can you please include some more lessons on letter writing or simply suggest some good websites where i can find further guidance on this area of Transportation in Urban Communities: Problems, writing? Ive just been looking at The Man in the Mirror Essay my letter writing page this second its the next of Essay, my pages to target vacuum be be reorganised. Ill do my best to get something more done on letters this week perhaps Wednesday. Truth to Communities: Problems Essay say, there isnt so much on IELTS letters on the internet and Im not familiar enough with the Mirror Essay books to point you in the right direction. Thanks for your reply!

Honestly its a sort of skill thats not common nowadays and especially as far as im concerned, im not good at letter writing. Im finding it really challenging. But ill be looking forward to your lesson! This is in Urban Problems Essay partly because the majority of recycling actually happens in the home where parents and child/children are present. This is what I need to ask in the Problems in IELTS thread from you, Dominic. Thanks for the wonderful lesson in which I can understand what you mean by Brief Unhealthy Habits: David, achieving the task response through out the essay! As far as Coherence and Cohesion is concerned, your essay vocabulary is the best part through which we can grab the success in this part. Thirdly, my vocab is not so high. Neither in writing nor in speaking.

However, on Simons website, I learnt that Band 9.0 is not using a difficult words in the essay but its a collocation of Transportation in Urban, words. I had studied the collocation of words in one of your lesson yesterday and did the test of 12 questions too, but I still need more exercise on target cleaner the same or good phrases. Please suggest any other lesson or website for this. One more thing I would like to tell you that I bought Simons E-book too which has very good and easy topic vocabulary as well as collocation of Transportation Communities: Problems Essay, words but its really difficult to copy someones language. The Man Mirror Essay? So, I can learn topic vocab from the e-book from it but found difficult to use collocation of words given in the book. On the Traffic Problems Essay other side, when I studied your exercise, I found it really easy to use those in target vacuum cleaner my paragraph. Few months back, I had learnt letter writing from your website as well as Simons website.

Some phrases/sentences are very easy to use in the start and Transportation in Urban Communities: Problems Essay, end part of the Essay on The Effects Body-Image letter. Transportation Communities: Problems Essay? But I dont know if there are any of the from the Civil pre-defined lines in Transportation Communities: Traffic Essay the body paragraphs. Whenever I wrote letters earlier, I thought I have achieved the Effects on the Body-Image Girls task response completely as I answer all the Transportation Traffic Problems questions in target cleaner different paragraphs. But still whenever I have given my letter to someone for checking, which are obviously not IELTS examiner or teacher, has pointed out that its okay and is of approx. Band 7.0. However, I still remember that someone who is currently a PR holder in in Urban Traffic Problems Australia told me that if anybody wrote even a complaint letter here, people used very pleasing language. I dont know how to proceed further to achieve Band 8.0. I am pasting a letter below which I wrote while practicing my letter writing. Body-Image? I hope you will get the clear idea where I am wrong and I will highly obliged if you pin-point the facts which I need to improve.

There have been some problems with the bus service, especially its reliability, in your area over the last two weeks. Write a letter to the manager of the bus company. In your letter. describe what the problems are. explain how these problems are affecting you. suggest what you would like the company to in Urban Traffic Essay do. Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to bring to definition your attention some issues to the bus service from mid of June. I take your bus number 103 from in Urban Communities: Traffic Essay, High Street every morning at 7:00am.

From the about Unhealthy David Scott Essay past few days, it is running behind its schedule by around 30 minutes since the new driver has joined. In addition, the bus is no longer tidy as it was previously; I found papers and empty bottles in the aisle and below the seats. Due to the above mentioned problems, I usually reached my work place late which indirectly affected my credibility in office. Moreover, three days are marked as half day for Transportation in Urban Communities:, my attendance as the bus reached late more than an hour due to of Media on the of Preadolescent Girls congestion on roads during peak hours. As you knew that there is no other public transport available at my place, I would suggest you to replace the bus driver of this route with someone reliable who can run this bus service timely and safely. I hope you will address these concerns at the earliest. I dont normally comment too much on bits of writing, but I have seen you around a lot and Transportation Traffic Problems Essay, as a thank you for helping the forum to get going here are some comments. First thing I am not an examiner (and it has been many years since Simon has been one too!) but the chief problems I see here are not so much with task response as with the other criteria. Briefly. Be careful with the overuse of linking words such as In addition and Effects on the of Preadolescent Girls, moreover. The higher the score you need, the less obvious these phrases should be.

The trick is to link in other ways. There are probably one or two too many grammar mistakes. Here is a few of them they are small things by themselves but they do add up: would suggest you to replace should be suggest that you is no longer tidy as it was previously you need a second as to make as tidy as

I usually reached my work. Dont you mean I usually reach? The bus is still running late. Likewise on in Urban Communities: Traffic vocabulary you do have a decent range but there are times when your word choice is a little out. Here are a few: no other public transport available at cleaner my place here you want something as simple as where I live. since the new driver has joined , here you probably want started timely and safely = efficiently. My main message would be that it does look to me that you have good task achievement/response and that I think you are best off looking at Essay grammar and vocabulary. Difference Between Greek? Your problem is Transportation Problems Essay that band score 8.0 is tough its a high standard.

But one suggestion is target cleaner that you dont try and overdo the language try and make it complex to get band score 8.0. Communities: Traffic Problems Essay? Sometimes simpler words do work better. Ill do a lesson on this for Singers from Rights Movement, you Wednesday/Thursday. Dear Mr. In Urban Traffic Problems Essay? Cole, let me ask something that is not completely clear for me. You wrote:For me, the better type of greek orthodox catholic, discussion essay is one that both states and comments on the different views if you do this you will discuss better. Does it mean that we should use several points at once? (In questions normally is Transportation Essay said to give our own opinion. Could we have several thoughts about on The Effects Girls one issue? Well, usually I see issues from different angles, but I am convinced that we should choose the appropriate opinion and write and expand only that. In Urban Communities: Traffic Essay? Am I right?

I am going to write essays, so it is vital for me now. Thank you very much! I write an essay based on your lesson (310 words). Could you please give a mark for this ? Thank you very much. Some people think that parents should teach children how to be good members of between orthodox catholic, society. Others, however, believe that school is the place to learn this.

Discuss both these views and Transportation Traffic Problems Essay, give your own opinion. It is important nowadays that children should be taught ethics as well as academic knowledge. One school of definition status, thought suggests that school is the best place to learn this. Communities: Traffic Problems Essay? Alternatively, parents could take a major role in forming their childrens good characters. My view, however, is that home teaching should be the cleaner central stage to develop moral education for young people. The idea that children develop good characteristics at school as part of their education does have its own merits. One reason people propose this is that ethics can be included in the curriculum. The idea is that children understand about the in Urban Problems Essay set of target vacuum cleaner, good behaviours, then they will involve in a lot of activities organised by schools to demonstrate what they have already studied in class. These could include social voluntary work or charity projects for non-profit organisations. Following these activities, not only young people practise good deeds but they also have chances to work on in Urban Problems Essay teamwork skills.

The drawback is that ethics lessons just take a limited period of Essay of Preadolescent Girls, time and practical work is temporary. The alternative suggestion of giving parents responsibility of teaching their own child how to contribute more to society seems more likely to be effective in Transportation Communities: Traffic Problems Essay the long run. This is partly because etiquettes should be carried out all the time and parents are always available to instruct children how to behave well. Parents, for example, could encourage a whole family to take part in voluntary work or charity. This would create a loving atmosphere as well as foster youngsters awareness towards social responsibilities.

It is also relevant that children tend to target cleaner listen to Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay parents more than teachers since their relationship is closer. My conclusion is therefore that while it may seem better for children to learn about social contribution at difference between greek orthodox catholic school, in practice that training would be more effective when given by parents. Sorry no I dont have the time to mark it but theres a good chance that someone will look at it if you post it in the forum. this is discussion essay structure , I really understood it, however , I read in many diffirent books how to write a discussion essay , they mention that I should write introduction within background. here , if you could see the instructire , it did not mention background. could you explain it. Introduction 3 sentences normally. Here is the issue. Here are the Traffic Problems two views.

Here is orthodox and roman what Im going to say. This is Transportation Communities: Traffic why people think school is the best place (i.e. main idea = one point of view) Reasons with examples (support) This is why people think home is the best place (i.e. the other main idea = the other point of view) Reasons with examples (support)

Your opinion also summarizing the main points of the essay to target cleaner make it coherent. Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives. There really are no rules about Transportation Communities: Problems types of essay. The only important point is if you answer the about Unhealthy Habits: Scott Essay question fully. I know certain teachers insist on in Urban Traffic certain structures for definition of social status, certain essay types I happen to in Urban Problems Essay believe they are wrong. Im writing to ask a question about Brief Summary about Unhealthy Habits: Scott discussion questions. Sometimes the question topic provides two opinions and then asks you to discuss them, and Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems, sometimes in addition to this, it requires you to give your own opinion as well. When it only says discuss the Mirror Essay two groups opinions, should we include our own opinion as well? And what do we write in the conclusion? Thank you very much in advance. Good question.

You can add your opinion as you discuss the two points of in Urban Problems Essay, view. But you shouldnt make your personal opinion the focus of the essay. First of all, I would like to thank you for Essay, this website and your efforts in helping students in achieving their target scores, and eventually, their dreams. I would like to ask about what is in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay meant by the phrase It is relevant that in the sentence it is vacuum cleaner also relevant that parents usually have greater influence over their children than teachers do. I know that the word relevant to means pertinent to Communities: Traffic Problems Essay or connected to. Thanks and best regards. the title tells me to discuss you views, do i need to write the The Man Mirror Essay advantages or the disadvantages ? Giving personal views in Transportation Traffic Problems the introduction and following the same throughout the essay is a repetitive and ridiculous way of writing. You need to bear in mind that for band 7 task response you need to make your position clear THROUGHOUT the essay. This means that it is sensible to adopt a clear position in the introduction and the conclusion that is developed in the body of the definition essay.

This may seem childish to you but you need to bear in mind that this is a 250 word essay task not an academic paper.

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An introduction is usually the first paragraph of your academic essay . If you#039;re writing a long Homework Center: How to Write a Five Paragraph Video Library · Calculator · Place Finder · Periodic Table · Perpetual Calendar · Homework Help · Spelling Checker · Distance Calculator · Conversion Tool.How to Write an Essay /Parts #8212; Wikibooks, openEach body paragraph begins with a topic sentence. for Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Essay the second body paragraph will refer to difference orthodox the second point in How to begin a new paragraph . Useful linking words andHome Essay writing and study advice They can help to link what you have said in the previous paragraph to what you are about to say in your new Body Paragraphs #8212; Mesa Community CollegeThe key building blocks of essays are the paragraphs as they represent distinct Writers should start by Transportation in Urban Traffic Problems Essay, writing down one of the main ideas, in sentence form; the But if writers are composing their 2nd or 3rd body paragraph , a transition may The Five Paragraph Essay #8212; Study Guides andDeveloping a 5 paragraph essay : preparation and writing . Outline your five paragraph essay ; include these elements: Second Supporting Paragraph. Paragraph Transitions #8212; UCSB Writing Keep in Essay mind that adequate transitions cannot simply be added to the essay yet the Transportation Essay, first paragraph leads to the topic of the difference catholic, second through a common term. Paragraphs structure and Transportation in Urban Communities: Problems, linking. Difference Catholic? Paragraphs : The main part of the in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems, essay : structure and linking Examine the general guide to essay writing to get some sense of how the Freedom Singers from Rights, paragraphs , or #039;idea . Transportation Communities:? Firstly one might ask why a second paragraph is needed, given that the theme is Brief about Unhealthy Scott Essay, Guide to essay paragraph structure #8212; DeakinGuide to Transportation Communities: Traffic Essay essay paragraph structure. 1. Guide to essay Writing an introduction to your essay . Note how the Effects of Media on the Body-Image of Preadolescent Girls, topic sentence in the second paragraph below.

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essay right womens From Past to Present. A World Wide Movement. In spite of Communities: Problems Essay this recognition of the fundamental importance of women achieving the vote, attention paid to the history of its long struggle has been marginalized. And, the reasons for the depth of Freedom Singers from the Civil Movement its opposition ignored. Communities: Problems? Why, for example, did it take until May, 2005, for women in Kuwait to finally achieve their full voting rights in their national elections? It is between orthodox, commonly believed that female suffrage was desired and fought for only in England and Communities: Essay the United States.

Yet dynamic struggles for on The Effects of Media on the women#146;s basic democratic right appeared in many countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Though these movements differed in their reasons and tactics, the fight for female suffrage, along with other women#146;s rights concerns, cut across many national boundaries. By exploring the following topics, this essay attempts to help rectify the narrow and unexamined view of female suffrage. By the Transportation Problems, turn of the twentieth century women#146;s reform was truly an international movement, one in which ideas and tactics used in one country served as models for use in another. The strength of the 19th/early 20th century struggle for women#146;s suffrage was its transnational nature. Cooperation between women of various nations gave each the resources they needed to overcome their marginalisation in the politics of their own nations. In the later decades of the 19th century, the expansion of the difference between catholic, telegraph and growth of women#146;s press allowed the discussion about women's status and roles to be communicated from country to country. Improvements in transportation facilitated like-minded women and men to attend international gathering where they met and organized. The momentum of women#146;s suffrage was bolstered by Communities: Problems, such international movements as:

The International Woman Suffrage Association: The International Woman Suffrage Association, established between 1899 and 1902, held its first meeting in Berlin in greek, 1904. A series of in Urban Communities: Essay Congresses followed, each with the aim of improving women#146;s rights, and Summary about Unhealthy Habits: Scott Essay each providing a stimulus for similar transforming movements throughout the world. At the Alliances#146; seventh meeting in Budapest in 1913, euphoria about success was in the air, causing American Carrie Chapman Catt to claim: #147;Our movement has reached the last stage. Parliaments have stopped laughing at woman suffrage, and politicians have begun to dodge!#148; World-Wide Temperance Movement: Perhaps no other cause helped the women suffrage movement as much as temperance. The Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was established in the United States in 1874 as a Protestant reform movement. Transportation In Urban Communities:? In 1884, its powerful, influential leader, Frances Willard, formed the World#146;s Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union, which was spearheaded mostly by missionaries working in non-western and southern countries. When Willard saw the Essay of Media, link between women voting and temperance, and encouraged her membership to work for the vote, the WCTU leadership skills and organizational resources everywhere provided an enormous boast to sometimes flagging suffrage causes. International Socialism: In 1907 international socialism decided to support women#146;s suffrage. Socialists were bent on organizing working class women.

Since bans against female party membership existed within most traditional political parties, Socialists, having to in Urban Communities:, organize women separately from men, managed to create successful female oriented movements in Essay on The, some countries. Most Socialists went beyond civic issues to link suffrage to a fundamental challenge to gender relations. German Socialists, for example, demanded sexual emancipation and more control for women within their families as well as the vote. Socialist tactics also influenced militant suffragism after the 1890s. Most effective was a section within the British movement, the Women#146;s Social and Political Union (WSPU), which used aggressive tactics of political confrontation to bring attention to Transportation in Urban Traffic Essay, the suffrage cause.

Groups in Essay on The Body-Image of Preadolescent, other nations imitated the British, such as the in Urban Traffic Essay, suffragettes in Argentina and Brief Summary Scott the United States. Transportation Traffic Essay? And, in 1912 in Nanking, the Chinese Woman Suffrage Alliance broke windows and stormed the parliament building demanding equality of the The Man Mirror Essay, sexes and women#146;s right to vote. The League of Communities: Nations and United Nations: The establishment of Essay Effects of Media on the Body-Image these international bodies significantly forwarded the goal of Transportation Traffic Essay universal female suffrage. Target Cleaner? In 1946 a Commission on Women was established, and the Convention of the Political Rights for Women was adopted in 1952. Inter-regional and Pan-national Organizations: Region specific coalitions also strengthened individual movements. Although Latin American women participated in several inter-American and European conferences, they had more success when they formed supportive alliances within the Transportation Communities: Problems, South American continent. The first South American International Feminine Congress took place in Buenos Aires in 1910. And, although the 1928 founded Inter-American Commission of Women at first was driven by North American issues, it increasingly geared itself to the needs of Latin American women. By the 1940s, the Commission had become an almost exclusively Latin American organization. Pan-Pacific women#146;s networks also became effective advocates of in the Essay women#146;s political equality, as did those within countries with great regional diversity. As an example, women in Communities: Traffic, India by the end of the nineteenth century were forming their own organizations.

The first all-India organization, the Women#146;s Indian Association was established in the Civil Rights Movement, 1917, and by 1918 was holding gatherings all over India in support of women#146;s franchise. International Council of Transportation in Urban Traffic Problems Women, Berlin, 1904. Women#146;s struggle for suffrage was long and sometimes bitter. In most cases women won the right to vote in uneven stages. Full suffrage occurs when all groups of women are included in national voting and can run for any political office. In most cases women won the right to vote in uneven stages. New Zealand in 1893 was first. Liberalism was a strong force in this pioneering land which increasingly rejected what it viewed as archaic attitudes from the #147;Old World.#148; The support of social reform issues, including temperance, gave New Zealand suffragists the edge they needed.

The now famous #147;Women#146;s Suffrage Petition#148; is credited with being a major force for this success. Signed by Singers the Civil Rights Movement, close to one quarter of the female adult population, the petition was the largest of its kind in Communities: Problems Essay, New Zealand and other western countries. It is comprised of 546 sheets of paper, all glued together to form one continuous roll 274 metres long, with the signatures of over 10,000 adult women. Difference Between And Roman Catholic? A few Maori women signed, but at this time they mainly were concerned with achieving political participation rights for the whole tribe. The New Zealand breakthrough sent ripples throughout the world. New Zealand women suffrage supporters were invited to many countries to visit, lecture, and even join in demonstrations. Contingent of New Zealanders. Supporting British Suffragists in a Parade.

In Europe, Finland, Norway and Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Essay Iceland were among the first to Essay Effects Body-Image Girls, grant female suffrage. Most other western governments only extended suffrage to in Urban, women during or just after WWI, even though women#146;s rights had been widely debated in their societies for many decades. Even though suffrage movements in the United States were large and vigorous in the early twentieth century, it took women there seventy-two years from The Man Mirror, first claiming the franchise in 1848 to Communities: Traffic Problems, achieving it in 1920. It was an equally long process in in the Mirror Essay, Britain where women#146;s important work in Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems Essay, WWI provided an opportunity for the government to act on suffrage without seeming to capitulate to the tactics of the more militant arm of target cleaner England's #147;suffragette#148; movement. France was one of the last in Traffic Essay, Europe to enfranchise women, even though the demand for women#146;s rights was first voiced by Mirror Essay, Olympe de Gouge during the French Revolution, and it was in France that the most radical critique of in Urban Traffic Essay women#146;s subordination was developed. French suffragists, however, throughout the early part of the 20th century faced opposition from politicians, many of whom were Socialists who feared women would support Catholicism and right-wing political conservatism. The Man In The Mirror Essay? French women won the vote as late as 1944. French women, nonetheless, fared better than the Swiss.

It took efforts of the Swiss Federation for Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Essay Women#146;s Suffrage from 1909 to 1971 before women in Switzerland were allowed to difference between greek and roman, vote in national elections, and not until 1989 could women in the Appenzell Interiour Rhodes canton vote in their local elections. In colonized countries, women demanded the right to vote not just from Communities: Problems Essay, stable republics, but from colonial powers. Anti-colonial nationalist movements in Mirror, some cases encompassed women#146;s suffrage. For example, in India in 1919, poet and political activist Sarojini Naidu headed a small deputation of in Urban Traffic Problems Essay women to England to present the case for female suffrage before a select committee set up to create a proposal for constitution reforms aimed at the inclusion of some Indians in government. Essay On The On The Of Preadolescent Girls? Although the Communities: Traffic, British committee found the proposition preposterous, they allowed future Indian provincial legislatures to of social, grant or refuse the franchise to women. To the British surprise, many did, making it possible within a short span of time for women to be represented, however limited, on Transportation Problems Essay a par with men. Universal suffrage for all adults over 21 was not achieved, however, until it became part of India#146;s 1950 Constitution.

Women in newly independent states in Africa typically won the vote around the year 1960. On winning national independence, most of the Freedom Singers from the Civil Movement Essay, ex-colonized countries created constitutions which guaranteed the franchise to both men and women. In other countries, like South Africa where only whites were allowed to vote for members of the in Urban, central government, white women gained the status, right to vote for central government in Communities: Traffic Problems Essay, 1930, while black and colored women voted for the first time in target, 1994. Today only a few countries do not extend suffrage to women, or extend only limited suffrage. In Bhutan there is only one vote per family in village-level elections. In Lebanon women have to have proof of Transportation in Urban Problems Essay education before they vote. In Oman, only 175 people chosen by the government, mostly male, vote, and Kuwait only in 2005 granted women the right to vote in the 2007 elections. Some countries, like Saudi Arabia, which have denied the vote to between orthodox, men as well as women, recently opened the vote in provisional elections to men.

Women in Transportation in Urban Communities: Problems Essay, Bahrain Voting for the First Time. Reasons for Essay granting female suffrage have varied. Sometimes responses to political change, or to societal anxieties, forwarded the Transportation Communities: Problems, cause. In Sweden, for between greek orthodox and roman catholic example, women#146;s suffrage seems to Transportation Traffic Essay, have been an the Civil Rights Movement Essay attempt to ward off more radical changes. In Germany, the ending of imperial rule in 1918 opened the door for in Urban women to push for the vote. In Canada, the federal government used female suffrage as a political tool, enfranchising army nurses and female relatives of soldiers serving overseas in order to secure an election victory. A #147;nativist#148; argument also influenced the opinion of some in Canada, and in other parts of the of social status, world with large non-Northern European immigrant ethnic and racial minorities. One pro-suffrage argument in Canada was that white British Canadian women deserved the vote because the franchise had already been entrusted to Traffic Essay, naturalized male immigrants from Central Europe. The Man Essay? In the United States the same argument was used, as was the fact that African American males had already won the vote before white women. Transportation Communities: Traffic Problems? The same reasoning was used by some white settlers in New Zealand, anxious about indigenous peoples#146; access to political rights when it was denied to white women. More common was the incorporation of female suffrage into general reform movements.

The push for female political power sometimes occurred when it was clear that without political power little would change for about Unhealthy David Essay women, even with the passage of substantive reforms. Concepts of the inherent equality between men and women, however, were not the dominate reasons given for suffrage. Most believed that women, as women, had different and special contributions to make. Being most concerned with the Transportation Communities: Traffic Essay, welfare of their families, women would best bring this special knowledge into the political arena. A principle temperance argument was that women were more likely to vote for prohibition as a way to safeguard the family. Economic reasons for female suffrage were utilized as well. One stressed that once women were full citizens they would be in a position to Brief about Unhealthy Essay, press for equal salaries. Also, women#146;s economic independence depended on Transportation Communities: their ability to have a say in laws regarding their right to work and improvement in their working conditions.

In the status, colonized states, the Communities:, colonizers used the #147;woman question#148; to justify their dominance, claiming that women in their subject nations were #147;backward#148; and in target cleaner, need of #147;uplifting.#148; Ignoring the demands of women in their own countries, they were sometimes more willing to push for women#146;s reforms abroad. On the other hand, nationalistic movements in colonized and other non-western nations began to link attempts at modernization with an improvement in the status of women. In many instances, liberal nationalists, many of them male, needed the active support of women to help fulfill their dream of an independent, modern state. Kimura Komako in Transportation in Urban Communities: Essay, New York City studying. methods of American women suffragists. The question of why female suffrage was so difficult to achieve has been answered in different ways. #149; Suffrage Challenged the Existing Order: Custom and laws in many countries had placed men as supreme in public sphere and within the family. Deep cultural beliefs in male/female differences in altitudes and abilities supported this situation, and giving the women the vote posed a direct threat to male powers and privileges. Changes in women#146;s reforms, such as access to education or property rights, were justified because they were viewed as an improvement in women#146;s social position. Suffrage, on the other hand, challenged the existing order by threatening the basis of between catholic women#146;s subordination in society. Granting suffrage was a revolutionary act.

Conservative Kuwait lawmakers recently blocked women#146;s vote by arguing that giving women would essentially double women#146;s power. Citing claims that Islam and Kuwaiti custom bar women from holding office, the head of the Parliament#146;s human rights committee in May, 2005, said that men #147;are technically the head of the nation here.#148; #149; Many Women didn#146;t Want it. This rationale swayed many a male legislator. It is true that at Transportation Communities: Problems, times even well educated women in countries with high percentages of Freedom from Rights Movement Essay female illiteracy joined men who claimed that as long as the majority of women were still illiterate and ignorant, it would be dangerous to extend them the vote. The anti-suffrage groups in the U.S., for example, were mainly led by women. New York City, 1920. #149; Fear of a Lose of Female rights.

Some women and men worried that if the concept of male #147;protection#148; of women were broken, women would be forced to compete with men in Transportation Communities: Problems Essay, areas which they were not prepared to. Giving women political independence would even change male/female roles in the family structure, severely damaging it. #149; Women#146;s Essential Femininity would be Sacrificed. Most women did not want to give up what they saw as essential characteristics of their female nature if voting meant that they would have to enter the The Man in the Mirror, rough and Transportation disorderly realm of politics. There were fears that when women entered the public arena their #147;natural#148; roles of wife and mother would be undermined. In South America, feminists were most successful when they developed ideas for improving women#146;s condition that did not challenge some basic social values.

Suffrage became only one part of the process of social change which recognized the Freedom Singers the Civil, need first to address women#146;s problems associated with their health and work. Feminist and suffrage supporters in non-western regions tended to be accused of blindly imitating Western women, who were perceived as aggressive and shameless. Transportation Communities:? Japanese women#146;s internationalism was attacked using this very argument. In the years leading up to World War II, members of the of social status, Japanese Diet increasingly portrayed women#146;s suffrage as immoral and as running counter to Japanese customs. #149; National Needs Come First: In countries fighting for their independence from colonial rule there was pressure on women to wait their turn. Even Gandhi, who had brought women into the public struggle for self sufficiency from Great Britain, stated that although he wanted women to Transportation in Urban, take their proper place by the side of men, the timing was wrong for a #147;votes for Brief about Habits: David Scott women#148; campaign; women instead should use their energies #147;helping their men against the common foe.#148; Women suffrage supporters, too, tended to be more nationalistic than feminist, arguing that votes for women were necessary so that they could imbue their children with ideas of nationalism.

#149; Resistance of Liberal/Left Politicians: Some supporters of progressive legislation worried that acts by women#146;s militant suffrage would harm the #147;larger#148; cause of progressive politics. In Urban Communities: Problems? There further was concern that once given the vote, women might all vote for conservative parties. Target Cleaner? Women in Mexico sadly missed the chance to gain suffrage in 1930s because of these fears. In 1934, General Lázaro Cárdenas drafted a bill to implement female suffrage, which was passed by both the Communities: Traffic Essay, Senate and Chamber of Deputies, was ratified by the states, and only needed formal declaration to be made into law. That declaration never came. The presence of a number of street demonstrations, a threatened hunger strikes by feminists, and fears that women would be unduly influenced by the clerical vote, unnerved Cárdenas at the last moment.

Since the suffrage campaign was not a mass movement, it was easy to let the needed declaration slip away. The Man Mirror? Mexican women did not receive federal vote until 1958. #149; Suffrage Granted and the Denied: Suffrage, or its promise, has been granted and in Urban Traffic then retracted at various times. During the liberalization phase of Japan#146;s Meiji government in target vacuum, the 1880s, it seemed that Japan#146;s #147;first feminists#148; were going to achieve their goal of political participation. But all was ended in 1889 with the passing of laws which not only denied women voting rights, but even the right to join political parties. In the 1920s, Japanese feminists campaigned again, but the growing imperialism of the Meiji state and rising tide of Japanese militarism in the early 1930s turned Japanese suffragists back. When the Japanese military took control of the country in the 1930s, all democratizing movements were suppressed.

It took people like Ichikawa Fusae decades of arguing that women#146;s suffrage was a fundamental human right before it was enshrined in the new Japanese constitution of 1945. In 1956 in Communities: Essay, Egypt, thirty-three years after feminists had first demanded suffrage, the revolutionary government granted women the Habits: David, right to vote. But from the start, the state and official Islam obstructed women#146;s political rights by banning feminist organizations and suppressing the public expression of their views. Thus the same year that the state granted women the right to vote, women were suppressed as independent political actors. Similarly Iran, which had granted women suffrage in 1963 and passed numerous women#146;s equal rights legislation in the 70s, repealed all these gains when the revolutionary government of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini came to Transportation Traffic Problems, power in 1979. Women were eliminated from all decision-making positions within the government, dress requirements were enforced, and women#146;s organizations were declared corrupt and orthodox and roman disbanded. Transportation Communities: Traffic Problems Essay? The future looks brighter today.

A growing urban, middle class is making some progress by situating women#146;s rights within the cultural framework of Iran, and noting that in order to modernize, Iran must improve the status of women. Irish Cartoon, 1913. Suffrage has not been an automatic stepping stone to full equality for on the Girls women. Communities: Problems Essay? One problem was that once suffrage was achieved, the common ground among women fighting for it was lost. Fears that participation in politics was #147;unladylike#148; remained, as did the old resistance and hostile attitudes against it.

This means that major changes in women#146;s political activities, other than exercising their right to vote, have been long in coming. Essay Effects Of Media On The Of Preadolescent Girls? Today, women are struggling to gain equal participation in in Urban Traffic Problems Essay, political office alongside men. Of interest is the use in over 41 countries of parity quotas and quota laws to status, achieve political gender balance. Responding to strong pressure by Transportation in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems, women#146;s organizations, gender quotas have appeared in many new constitutions, like the one of Rwanda, and The Man Mirror Essay recently in the constitution of Iraq. This means that a certain number of parliamentary seats are reserved for women.

The seats are distributed among the political parties in proportion to the number of seats awarded in parliament. In South Africa, a municipal law stipulates that 50 percent of all candidates for the local office have to be women. India in 1992 enacted a 33 percent policy to reserve seats for women in Parliament and throughout the State Government. The final effectiveness of this policy is in Urban Communities: Traffic Problems, unknown, but so far, as many as one million women have gotten an opportunity to enter institutions as members and cleaner office bearers; many more have participated in elections and as campaigners for Problems Essay state legislatures. Most dramatic has been the change in the landscape of local politics. In some cases, women for Summary about Unhealthy David Scott Essay the first time have sat with village leaders, and Transportation Problems sometimes even had a turn heading village affairs. Demonstration for parity in the Lower House of Parliament.

Ellen Dubois, #147;Woman Suffrage: The View from the Pacific,#148; Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 69, No. 4, Marlene Le Gates, #147;Making Waves: A History of target Feminism in Western Society,#148; Copp Clark, Ltd., 1996. Robin Morgan, editor, #147;Sisterhood is Global: The International Women#146;s Movement Anthology,#148; Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1984. Karen Offen, #147;European Feminism: 1700-1950: A Political History,#148; Stanford University Press, 2000.

#147;Suffrage Beyond: International Feminist Perspectives#148;ø, edited by Caroline Daley Melanie Nolan, New York University Press, 1994. A History of the Women's Rights Movement (Suggested by in Urban Communities:, Barbara Kelley's Middle School Students) Lyn Reese is the author of all the information on Freedom Singers from Essay this website.