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The Framers Refuted: Originalism and Constitutional Meaning after 1867. This essay is the final installment in a three-part series on Confederation that provides critical historical context for Canada#8217;s sesquicentennial anniversary. The first two parts were posted on the 26th and 28th of June. In 1882, during oral arguments at monitoring ethics, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council for one of the first court cases about the meaning of the BNA Act, a federal lawyer tried to use some historical context about business vs american Confederation to make a point about the division of powers. The judges rejected that approach, with Sir Montague Smith telling the monitoring ethics lawyer that I do not think there is anything so obscure in the construction of the [BNA Act] that renders it necessary to go into the history of it.[1] Smiths comment proved prescient. While some Canadian courts in the immediate aftermath of 1867 did invoke the political contexts and purposes of Confederation and the intent of its framers, many scholars argue that this methodology was soon marginalized by Subjects Law Essays, JCPC judges like Smith who regarded everything beyond statutory text as irrelevant in court. With the Privy Council reigning at the top of the judicial hierarchy in Canada until the 1940s, that bench had decades to shape the Canadian constitution without using the history and context of its creation.[2] For better or for worse, history has never bounced back as a force in Canadian constitutional law.[3] Weve largely been spared the furious American debate over whether the original meaning of the constitution is binding today whether, for employee, example, we need to starbucks cpm, look at what the society that ratified the 14 th amendment to the U.S. constitution in employee ethics the 1860s thought about abortion or homosexuality to discern where abortion or gay marriage are guaranteed as constitutional rights now. How Has Culture Impacted Other? But in Canada the political divisions over using history are not as clear as they often are in the U.S.

During the Privy Councils long reign over Canadian constitutional law it more or less eviscerated the federal power to regulate much of the economy under the trade and commerce head in section 91 of the BNA Act. As a result, generations of Canadians who favour national regulatory regimes the 2010 plan for employee monitoring, a national securities regulator, say have argued that those early courts that denied history much of a place in constitutional law have left a disastrous and That Will Never Be Essay, wrong-headed legacy by distorting constitutional text and ignoring the original intentions of its framers. But its not at all clear that the framers claimed or even expected a role for their pre-Confederation ideas and assumptions in post-Confederation constitutional interpretation. Moreover, its not clear that a focus on constitutional text in employee monitoring ethics the absence of context was an imported legacy of distant judges on the JCPC detached from Canadian circumstances. Heres one example, from around the time that Sir Montague Smith declared that it was unnecessary to The Bridge Will Be Essay, go into the history of the BNA Act to understand its meaning. It comes from the ethics Parliamentary debates over a bill presented in business studies grade 1880 and again in 1882 to monitoring, legalize marriage between men and their deceased wifes sister. Business Grade 12 Essays? (This may sound like an archaic and esoteric issue. It was neither.

In the nineteenth and employee ethics, early twentieth centuries jurisdictions around the studies 12 essays world had protracted and impassioned debates over deceased wifes sister and employee monitoring, deceased husbands brother marriages, as I show in an article Im completing now. That, however, is an issue for a different paper.) After the starbucks cpm bill was presented by Quebec Tory MP Desire Girouard, some Quebec MPs and monitoring ethics, senators attacked it as unconstitutional, saying that it violated what they considered to be a binding promise made during the Canadian Confederation debates in 1865. What they meant was this: In 1865, Lower Canada Solicitor General Hector-Louis Langevin issued a formal statement in how has us popular other nations? the Canadian assembly about what the words marriage and divorce meant in the federal powers section of the Quebec Resolutions. The statement arguably constrained federal power to simply prescribing what marriages conducted according to employee, the laws of the individual provinces would be valid in the rest of Canada. Opponents of Subjects of International Law Essays, Girouards bills in 1880 and 1882 used that statement to employee monitoring ethics, demonstrate what they regarded as both the original intent and the original meaning of marriage in the BNA Act. In their view, Langevins statement in 1865 precluded the federal Parliament from starbucks cpm defining who could and couldnt get married. As a result, the marriage debates turned in part on employee monitoring, whether historical sources should shape the interpretation of the new constitution. Opponents of the legislation included Senator J.H. Starbucks Cpm? Bellerose, who had been a member of the Canadian assembly during the Confederation debates. Monitoring Ethics? Although he personally supported legalizing the marriages in question, Bellerose argued that the bill violated the of International meaning of marriage in section 91 which he said had been defined by employee monitoring, Langevin and The Bridge That Will Never Be Essay, fixed in 1867. Having been one of the framers of the constitution it is my duty to maintain the constitution according to its true intent and meaning as understood by the framers of the British North America Act, he told the Senate.

Likewise, Langevin himself spoke up against employee, the legislation, saying that his 1865 statement had crystallized that portion of the constitution. As he told the House of business studies 12 essays, Commons, it is by the intentions of the monitoring framers of a law that you learn its true intent and meaning. But key MPs and Senators rejected the originalist approach, arguing instead for the kind of a-historical textualism espoused and supposedly imported by the Privy Council. Japanese Business? Former house speaker Timothy Anglin declared that the Act of Confederation must be taken as we find it, and we must interpret its meaning as it clearly appears on the face of it, without any regard to Langevins statement. Monitoring Ethics? Likewise, the Nova Scotia senator W.J. Starbucks Cpm? Almon said that he had never heard of a lawyer trying to argue in court that a statute did not mean what its words convey, or quoted the speeches of those who framed it to ethics, explain what it meant. According to Almon, any judge would reject such an approach out of hand. Feminist Essay? Moreover, one of the key members of the Great Coalition before Confederation also rejected using the statements of the framers to define the terms of the BNA Act after 1867. Justice Minister Sir Alexander Campbell told the employee monitoring House that the time at which these expressions of belief were uttered has gone by and we are now to deal not with what was then expected We cannot now interpret the [BNA Act] by referring to what was said by individuals either speaking for themselves or on behalf of the Government. Instead, he said, they must interpret it by reference to The Bridge That Be Essay, the language which it contains. In other words, the constitution should be understood through its text and not its context or history.

Another MP quoted a report by Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald in which he noted that the constitution must of course be construed according to employee monitoring ethics, its terms, and not according to the assumed intention of business grade 12 essays, its framers. In the employee monitoring ethics end, the deceased wifes sister bill passed by Will Be Essay, large majorities in the House and Senate in 1882. While Bellerose and a small group of Quebec MPs and senators petitioned the monitoring Governor General to reserve the bill, again wielding Langevins 1865 statement as binding on Parliament, the starbucks cpm Cabinet rejected their plea and the bill became law. But their efforts to block the bill on constitutional grounds echo starkly two of the forms of originalism that have been so central in recent U.S. constitutional debates. In explicitly invoking the intent of the framers, Bellerose and his allies foreshadowed what some scholars now call Old Originalism, a technique that many originalists have abandoned and monitoring, which is sometimes depicted by opponents as a process of transgenerational mind-reading, in the words of two current Canadian legal scholars.[4] Yet Bellerose and his side also relied on the technique which has largely supplanted the search for japanese business culture vs american, intent, namely the focus on original public meaning. According to employee ethics, that side in starbucks cpm the marriage debates Langevins statement indicated not simply the intent of the framers but a meaning which was stated and accepted by the society in which the Quebec Resolutions were ratified and transformed into a constitution.

As a result, when Parliament heard, considered, and ignored the originalist case it made a decision that we should bear in mind now when we wonder whether the past has a role in shaping how we interpret constitutional text. Employee Ethics? While originalism has long played only a minor role in vs american Canadian law, there are flickers of employee, a new originalist movement. New scholarly work continues to appear arguing for originalist approaches in Canadian constitutional law and Stephen Harpers government appointed several avowed originalists as appellate judges. Moreover, a provincial court in New Brunswick decided the constitutional case R. v. Comeau last year on explicitly originalist grounds, aided by expert testimony from Canadian historian Andrew Smith. The Bridge That Will Never? The provincial court of appeal declined to review the case, but the New Brunswick government appealed to the Supreme Court, arguing in part that the judge erred by deferring to the original intent of the employee ethics constitutional provision at vs american, issue. In May of this year the ethics court agreed to hear the appeal.[5] It may be tempting for those of us who make a living reading, writing, and teaching history to champion its role in constitutional debates and in cases like Comeau . But we may not like the business grade 12 essays results we get from doing so, and monitoring ethics, its far from clear that the officials of the past wanted their views about the constitution to survive outside its text. SSHRC provided funding for That Will Never, the research on which this essay is employee monitoring ethics, based. [1] Sir Montague Smith, quoted in John T. Saywell, The Lawmakers: Judicial Power and the Shaping of culture, Canadian Federalism . Monitoring? (Toronto: Osgoode Society and business grade 12 essays, University of Toronto Press, 2002), 73. [2] See Saywell, The Lawmakers . Monitoring? [3] Some recent writers argue with varying degrees of success that Canadian judges have not rejected originalism as completely as if often claimed.

On this, see Leonid Sirota and Benjamin Oliphant, Originalist Reasoning in of International Canadian Constitutional Jurisprudence, UBC Law Review , forthcoming: 2017; Oliphant and Sirota, Has the Supreme Court of Canada Rejected Originalism?, Queens Law Journal , 42(1), 2016, 107-164; J. Gareth Morley, Dead Hands, Living Trees, Historic Compromises: The Senate Reform and Supreme Court Act References Bring the Originalism Debate to Canada, Osgoode Hall Law Journal , 53, 2016, 745-798. It should be noted that an exception to the irrelevance of history in employee constitutional interpretation is the adjudication of Indigenous rights disputes under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. On this, see John Borrows, Challenging Historical Frameworks: Aboriginal Rights, The Trickster, and vs american, Originalism, Canadian Historical Review , 98(1), 2017, 114-135. [4] Sirota and Oliphant, Originalist Reasoning, 510. On the varieties of originalism at play in contemporary legal thought, see Grant Huscroft and Bradley Miller [No relation!], eds., The Challenge of Originalism: Theories of Constitutional Interpretation. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011). [5] Supreme Court to monitoring, hear #8216;polarizing#8217; border-beer case, Globe and Mail , 4 May 2017: https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/supreme-court-to-hear-case-on-interprovincial-alcohol-purchases/article34893813/ (retrieved 23 June 2017). On the case see Benjamin Oliphant, Originalism, Beer, and Inteprovincial Trade Barriers, Policy Options : http://policyoptions.irpp.org/2016/05/06/originalism-beer-interprovincial-trade-barriers/ On Harper and originalism, see Sean Fine, Stephen Harpers Courts, Globe and Mail , 25 July 2015, F1. Featured Image : The Fathers of Confederation by Frederick Spronston Challener, 1917-1919, Government of Ontario Art Collection, Accession no. 605057, Archives of Ontario. Gareth Morley says: I think it would be useful to have more dialogue between historians and lawyers on these issues, but there is always a danger of The Bridge Be Essay, misunderstanding each other. Nineteenth century lawyers would never look at what we now call #8220;legislative history#8221; to interpret a statute (and from the employee Judicial Committee#8217;s perspective, the British North America Act was just another statute).

They had constitutional reasons for this, arising out of understandings of Parliamentary privilege and the nature of statutes as the joint act of the Lords, Commons and monarch. Of International? On the other hand, the ethics English courts sometimes had to interpret medieval statutes, and the late Victorians were much more interested in legal history than lawyers today. So there were principles that the court would look to the history to interpret statutes where there had been semantic drift. There was also the #8220;mischief rule#8221;, which allowed consideration of historical context, but not parliamentary debates. Some of the Judicial Committee decisions under the BNA Act only make sense with this in mind (Parsons, for example, is based on a theory of the Quebec Act and Confederation as a concession to the distinct legal traditions of French Canada). Some of the comments you quote would be typical of common law lawyers in relation to legal texts, whether contracts, statutes or constitutions.

They would inevitably say that the intention has to be judged objectively. This is not really saying it has to be judged without reference to historical context. Essay? Of course, for a judge who feels himself to be part of the same context, this won#8217;t really be remarked on. It is hard to get in the mindset of Victorian lawyers, and it certainly reflected Victorian ideas of history, but I would dispute that it was ahistorical. On the monitoring other hand, in most moods, they had more faith in the #8220;plain meaning#8221; of the text on the face of it, then subsequent generations.

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Employee monitoring ethics

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From audit (2 yrs) to senior financial analyst, am I leaving too soon? 2 years in Big 4 audit (financial services) for almost 2 years. Got my CPA. BS and MS in Accounting with a Information system minor. About to be a senior this year (hopefully), and I've been doing senior work since last October. Metro-NYC. Been thinking about leaving lately.

People keep telling me the longer you stay the better, but I seriously don't want to spend any year in public accounting, the hour, the pressure, the complaints I hear every single day. Ethics? Just.. The Bridge Will? NO! Can't take it. I'd like to employee ethics pursue a senior financial analyst job (corporate finance) in industry (not financial services). How realistic is starbucks cpm that? Most job descriptions say minimum 3-4 years post undergraduate experience. Do they value B4 experience more than other acccounting jobs? Anyway, I've also considered internal audit, but most people I talked to voted against this track.

I hate walkthroughs, so I guess that won't work. Your opinion will be greatly appreciated! The title Financial Analyst is a catch all. Whats the job description like? This. Was in employee monitoring ethics, a similar situation to you last year and grade 12 essays went into employee, an interview for a senior financial analyst position, which turned out to be nothing more than a glorified staff accountant. Make sure you understand what youre going to be doing on a day to day basis and Feminist and Gender Essay dont just get wooed by a title. I agree. I will read the job description very carefully.

Thanks for taking the time to post. OP here, doesnt know how to edit. Employee Ethics? My goal is to japanese business culture vs american do FPA in corporate finance, not accounting stuff. It would be interesting to do some forecasting rather than journal entries and financial reporting. Employee Ethics? But I dont have a finance background or CFA. sigh. Spoiler: You will still probably be doing accounting entries and you wont need a CFA. Depending on the industry get a CMA or pick up Benningas book to Be Essay get some practice in for employee ethics, financial modeling. FPA gets shit on on forums like wallsreetoasis, where 80% of posters there want to be Patrick Bateman or something. But its a good place to be in to get the kind of experience if you ever want to transition into more accounting-related roles down the line (and ot helps if you want to be CFO one day; again, depending on how has us popular culture impacted other nations? the industry.

It doesnt really help in financial services for example). That being said, it might have been best to employee monitoring wait till after your first Senior year to give yourself a bit more technical accounting experience and credibility. But two years isnt a bad jump. Especially if your goal is more VP of us popular impacted nations? Finance kind of thing. If you want some advice, Id spend a bit on linkedin premium, and monitoring do a bit of linkedin stalking in your area.

Itll give a great ideat of The Bridge Will Never what kind of employee monitoring background people in FPA have in that industry, as well as what the progression looks like. Just make sure you put your settings so that you show up as anonymous when viewing profiles, so you dont look like a weirdo haha. Only caveat in all this is that type of industry matters. So take what I say with a grain of Will Be Essay salt. Monitoring Ethics? In my industry no pne has a CFA in FPA. Could be different for other industries in NY. Haha, thank you so much for your answer! I think we want to Theories go into consumer goods as my next move.

And Ive been stalking a lot of people on linkedin. There are 2 companies I want to monitoring ethics work for, and Ive literally stalked everyone that has a financial analyst title for those 2 companies. A lot of them have a few years cost accountant background from small companies here and there, none of Law Essays them are CPA. Thats why I wonder if they will take Big 4 experience as a thing. I also went through WSoasis and found some interesting points about monitoring ethics FPA. apparently industries value MBA more than CPA than CMA, and starbucks cpm CFA is the last thing they prefer. They also suggested 3 years in public accounting. But I dont see how much more I will learn in the next year as senior 1 cause I will be doing the exact same work as Im doing this year if I stay on the same clients. If I switch clients, I might have exposure to various financial derivatives and valuation etc. and thats not that useful for industury.

I want to start looking now, cause it takes time and certain opportunities. But anyway, I wont take up a shitty job just to get out of big 4. My situation right now is really not bad compared to my friends. The ideal path im looking for is to do FPA on the forecasting side and gradually transit into employee ethics, operation. Again, its consumer products Im talking about, not private equity or investment banking that I will never be able to transit into operation. Thank you so much for your advice! Much appreciated. I also went through WSoasis and found some interesting points about FPA. Starbucks Cpm? apparently industries value MBA more than CPA than CMA, and employee monitoring CFA is the last thing they prefer. Yeah, WSO is always looking at studies the big time positions. And theyre very MBA-leaning.

So its not surprising that youll see a lot of MBA MBA MBA. over there. That being said, doing a top 20 MBA after enough relevant experience is a good path to get a VP of employee ethics Finance role at a midsize public company. Starbucks Cpm? But its not a necessity. Employee Ethics? Our CFO, for example, had a Big 4 audit background before going to business grade industry and employee ethics she made it to VP of Finance before becoming the CFO. And she only has a BA in accounting. So basically there are multiple ways to skin a cat. Yeah a top 20 MBA is more of The Bridge Be Essay a guarantee for a good position, but its by no means necessary. Besides, you can always do an executive MBA and have your company pay for it. Employee? Outside of the top 20, an MBA is of International fast becoming one of the check the box sort of employee monitoring ethics things for VP positions. Second CFA not really relevant.

2-3 years of japanese business big 4 audit experience and moving into ethics, a finance role is a great background. Japanese Culture? If youre going to be promoted to senior in employee monitoring, October, maybe stick out if you want but not super required. If youre already a senior then go ASAP if you dont want to do IA, financial reporting, controllership type things. Edit: I didnt see your post below. How Has Us Popular Culture Nations?? Can you switch into a manufacturing service line?

If you want to get into ethics, consumer goods then financial services isnt really all that related. You will want to get a lot of COGS and inventory experience, not so much derivatives. Business Studies Grade? Another thing is that at the senior level, you are getting that supervisory experience which you might be getting on some levels as a staff 2, but not as much of the big picture project management aspect. I was in the same exact place as you about a year ago (2 years Big 4 FS experience). I couldnt do audit any longer and I decided I had to get out before the next busy season. I ended up getting a Senior Financial Analyst role at a bank, with a significant pay bump. So far the hours have been.

45/week. My role is basically budgeting and employee ethics forecasting operating expenses, which still isnt the sexiest thing in the world, but beats the hell out of audit and how has us popular other nations? accounting IMO. Decision makers actually come to you looking for advice and insight; youre not just bugging them all the time to beef up your documentation or answer review notes. I wont lie though, there were times in the. 6 month search that I almost gave up.

Many places wont even consider a 2 year auditor for FPA type roles. Most companies I applied turned me down without even a phone screen. Basically the employee monitoring, only skills that transfer from audit to FPA are excel and Law Essays introductory accounting knowledge. In that sense doing another year in Big 4 wont really help you that much; itll be just as hard to switch then as it is now. Employee Ethics? I think I got lucky on this job because it was within my industry, and someone within the company referred me. Japanese Business? See if anyone in your network is at a company that has a job youre looking for- they dont necessarily need to be in finance or accounting to refer you. That gives you instant credibility to the recruiter who likely screens you first.

How far in the interview process you go after that is up to you. Good luck! It will be hard but with some determination you can do it- dont listen to the doubters and go after what you really want for monitoring, your own career. Wow I envy you! I think I should keep this non-financial-service thing to myself and tell the recruiters Im open to any industry as long as the business studies, job is what i want to do. Thank you for monitoring, your opinion! I took a similar route left after 3.5 years. Starbucks Cpm? Staying longer does not benfit you more. However as quixote said, financial analyst can mean a lot of different things. You should focus on doing more FPA type work like forecasting, budgetting, variance analysis.

Dont discourage financial analyst from snr financial analyst in general senior is employee monitoring ethics better but this position title is very vague some senior financial analysts want like 7 years of experience and starbucks cpm mean it. Id recommend a small and fast growing company, but thats personal bias. Ethics? I went a small ( 100 people) company and will get to work on due dilligence for aquisitions that we will be making. As it is smaller, I feel like my recommendations matter and also the starbucks cpm, processes are very bare so everything that im doing is new which makes it really fun. Pluggin in the PL for a large company and reviewing the variances quarterly would get boring, but im not on the inside so I dont know.

My advice is to stay very selective. It took me about 10 months of employee monitoring searching, including talking to all the Feminist and Gender Essay, recruiters that blow up my linkedin. I almost gave up and went for an accounting role and an internal audit role. Thank god. Employee Monitoring? Stay strong its a natural move from audit to financial analyst positions it can just sometimes take longer. Id highlight on your resume any analyical procedures that youve done (including quarterly flux) or substantive analytic where youre predicting revenue or payroll for example. Ask them (if youre curious about the That Will Never, amount analysis youll be doing) what percentage of your workload will be the period end close.

If its mostly ad hoc projects and forecasting, its the right move. Sometimes they bring in a financial analyst just for the accruals and employee monitoring rev rec which can take 10% or 80% of someones times. Appologize for length lots of coffee and remember being in your shoes. Very well said. Definitely watch out for the recruiters trying to push you into Internal Audit/Accounting. They make more money on those positions because theyre harder to fill! (i.e. noone wants to do that crap, with good reason) For the record I suggested one more additional year for the following reasons:

1. Subjects? At the public accounting firm I was at, as well as my companys current auditors, you get access to real PL analytics besides just fluxing prior year around the senior level. You need to interact with both accounting and FPA to monitoring really make these work sometimes. And in clients where there is studies 12 essays COGS and OPEX there will be opportunities to really drive these analytics. Especially with the PCAOBs push for more analytics the last two years. Employee? Is it forecasting or modelling? No, but its the closest youll get to 12 essays actual FPA work. 2. Monitoring Ethics? Senior year just gives you more of an starbucks cpm, opportunity to talk about stuff youve done during the interview. I mean you basically drive the day to day activities of the employee ethics, audit. The Bridge That Will Never? You respond to ad hoc requests from Sr Managers who are wasting everyones time. You interact with higher level personnel.

Youre one of the main faces of the employee, team. Essay? Its just a better fit to have that experience since youll need those skills to employee communicate with your business partners in FPA. Plus, if FPA is your end goal then an additional year gives you the business grade 12 essays, opportunity to seek out the best experiences you can get to fit with a future FPA position (i.e. Analytics and the right type of clients). But overall most people are right that another year is not like a slam dunk or anything. An FPA director once told me that the perception is that Big 4 people struggle because of the employee monitoring, lack of Feminist Theories and Gender Essay modeling skills as well as the fact that they only have a backward thinking view of the employee, financials.

So getting past that stereotype can be difficult. FWIW the same director told me that passing at least level 1 of the CFA is That Will Never a way to stand out. I mean it shows you understand IRR, NPV, and Capital budgeting in a sense. Or at least more than most Big 4 auditors anyway. But then again he took level 1 and 2 and eventually left to go to do an ethics, MBA and then to a top consulting firm. So maybe he was just biased

I agree with your #2. Doing a year as a senior definitely wouldnt hurt you, its solid experience and will be a boost to culture impacted other your resume. That being said, the crap they feed you inside the firm about you need to stay until X years is mostly BS and employee monitoring ethics is 100% for their benefit. The firms know they will have attrition so they have to counter it with some strong messaging to keep those few poor souls who are on the fence about leaving until senior, or manager, or senior manager. OP, if your end goal is to Feminist and Gender go into Operations, as you said, staying until Senior definitely isnt essential to ethics your career path. The Bridge? If you see yourself possibly ending up back in Accounting at employee some point, it may be worth it. In jumping to studies grade FPA, youre going to start at the same position (Analyst/Sr. Analyst) whether you leave now or in a year.

It may just be easier to land the employee ethics, job if you have senior experience. Hope that makes sense. Did you use to starbucks cpm have a blog when you were trying to get into the Big 4? The name of the employee monitoring ethics, blog was Big 4 bound, and how has us popular other nations? I randomly remember that blog. Then again, I dont think he made it to ethics the big 4, so I guess not? There was a blog that I didnt realize existed called big4bound,wordpress or something, but it shut down before I started the site. Yeah, that was it.

That was way back when there was a ton of accounting blogs due to blogs being the in thing to do. Also, your website is Subjects of International Law Essays flagged by Norton as unsafe just FYI. Thank you very much for your input! i definitely appreciate the employee, length. How Has Us Popular Culture Impacted? I think you made a good point that I should stay selective. Im not in monitoring ethics, the live or die kind of situation. I get along with my teams and enjoy huuuuuuge flexibility in the firm. Will keep looking until something good come along. I am a Big 4 boomerang. Spent 2.5 years in other, public accounting and left for a nice pay bump and a senior financial analyst position in private.

Very low level in employee monitoring ethics, the accounting world. I made two more jumps in business, private industry before realizing that my career was going nowhere. So I went back to public accounting. My advice is to figure out your long-term plan. If you know where youre going, its easier to make decisions to get there.

If you havent thought about employee monitoring your long-term goals yet, I recommend you do so before making any job changes. Interesting. I didnt know that. Are you back in industry after your second public accounting gig? Yes. Starbucks Cpm? Im in a much higher position in employee monitoring, industry now than I was after the first time I left public accounting (which was the plan when I went back to the firm). I always say that if you want to The Bridge Will have a career in accounting, and you are capable of sticking it out in public accounting, then you should try to get that manager title. On the employee monitoring ethics, other hand, if you dont want to be an of International Law Essays, accountant, then GTFO of public accounting stat. I actually left my firm as a second year senior going to my third (aka right before manager). Employee? So its interesting to hear that you had some setbacks in your career when you left the first time. Mind sharing what those were specifically?

Also, I recall you saying that you should leave after your first senior year (providing a good network), so its surprising to hear you say that you think manager is now the level to Feminist Theories leave at. Am I remembering that incorrectly? Or maybe it was something to do with not needing a headhunter? *shrug* Im getting old I guess. I dont think I ever said that. I do think that a year or so after a promotion is generally a good time to leave public accounting though. You have the new title with greater responsibilities, and youve done the job for employee monitoring, a little while (but not too long). I think the BEST time is after youve been a manager for starbucks cpm, a year or two.

My setbacks were basically that I left the firm too soon and went into monitoring, pretty low level positions in private that were not challenging after the first few months (i.e. when I was still learning the job) and Feminist Theories Essay did not offer a clear path for rapid advancement. In public accounting (specifically Big 4), you move up the ladder every year. Not so in private industry. Often, something has to change for employee monitoring ethics, you to get a promotion in private (e.g. someone leaves, a new position gets created, etc.). In my experience, going back to public and Subjects Law Essays making manager put me in a position to employee monitoring ethics jump to a much higher level in the the company when I was ready to go back to private. Regarding your headhunter point, I will say that the longer you are in public accounting, the us popular culture other, more network contacts you will obtain, and those contacts will be at monitoring higher levels (often decision-makers and hiring managers) in private industry. You will be more likely to get a good career opportunity through a network contact, as opposed to through a recruiter who doesnt give a shit about of International Law Essays you and generally isnt trying to fill the best and most coveted jobs (the best companies often dont need to monitoring pay a headhunter 30% or 35% to find good candidates who want to work for them).

Networking is a major component in of International Law Essays, a successful business career. Public accounting provides the ethics, opportunity to meet a lot of different people at all levels in a lot of different companies. Being in private takes more effort to build your network. I want to starbucks cpm thank everyone for your genuine help! Already put the highlights of your comments into my job searching notebook. Employee Monitoring? Maybe I wont care whether the title is senior financial analyst or just FA any more.

Additional question, does anyone know whats the equivalent opportunity inside Big 4 to and Gender transit into FPA? At EY I heard about monitoring ethics TAS, but its a very broad idea. Any specific group youve heard about? Thanks again everyone! I will post my progress if I made it one day.

Ex-Big Four that spent almost two years in audit before transitioning to corporate development here. Your first move is to start looking immediately. Spruce up your LinkedIn and work with headhunters. A decent one will hear you out The Bridge That Will Be Essay about your career aspirations and will then tell you what he has available and what you should be doing to get the employee monitoring ethics, role you want. They will know more about whats required from a senior FPA role in impacted other nations?, your area than us. Secondly, dont leave your job before you have one lined up. To find a good match can take several months.

Be prepared to have every headhunter/recruiter try to sway you to consider senior accountant or internal audit roles. Also, in general, the longer you stay in a specific profession/industry/function, the harder it will be to transition to something unrelated. Theyll believe youre only an auditor or accountant type and that you lack the employee monitoring, analytical skills for FPA, so in general, it would be best to studies leave as soon as possible. Start looking actively now. If you are that unhappy, leave now. But, in monitoring ethics, my opinion, 3 busy seasons or 5 busy seasons is the right amount of time to get in before leaving (if you are not looking for starbucks cpm, a career in public). Monitoring Ethics? When I see a resume with two, I think that the pressure of starbucks cpm audit forced you out before that make or break third year, which is typically the monitoring, first year of us popular culture other nations? being a real, functioning senior with staff reporting to you. But, everyone is different. I would stay at least three years (busy seasons) if you want use your audit experience as a foundation for your future. Employee Monitoring? Also, you will learn a lot in that third year.

I spent 2 years in studies 12 essays, audit, but I had 4 busy seasons already. In big offices, there are busy seasons all year round, not just Jan and Feb. Thanks though. Yeah, i guess Dallas is a small market with small offices.

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What Are the Ethical Implications of Observing

7 Great Ways to Get Your Resume Noticed. Monitoring! Getting your resume noticed is the first step towards a successful employment, and it may lay down the path of the rest of the recruitment stages. Sure, your working experience, skills and personalities may very well be the deciding factor as to japanese culture vs american, whether you or the monitoring, next candidate get employed or not. Yet, if you do not present your qualities in a coherent manner, the recruiter would not be able to objectively assess you as a suitable candidate. Starbucks Cpm! Sometimes, recruiters may be carried away by drudgery of work or deadlines and simply missed out a potential employee because the resume doesn’t look very different from the rest of the ethics, cohort. It would be such a waste. You need to create a resume that brings out the best of japanese business culture, what you possess , and monitoring, do it in such a way that it looks appealing enough to get their attention . Earlier on, I showcased an entry with some really exceptional resumes that are perhaps more fitting for graphic designing posts: Land Your Dream Job With 25 Innovative Resume Ideas. The Bridge! In this post, however, I’m giving some pointers for those who are more comfortable with the ‘traditional’ kind of resumes where the unspoken rule is to look professional. Even so, there are still ways to tweak and tune your resumes to employee monitoring ethics, make it unique and secure you that follow-up interview. After reading one resume after another, the japanese culture vs american, HR personnel would probably get sick of a couple of reused words common among resumes. Monitoring! Words and phrases to culture, describe your past work experiences such as ‘responsible for’, ‘successfully’, ‘developed’, etc, lost their meanings in the pile of seemingly similar resumes.

If you wish to stand out and get chosen from employee monitoring, that crowd, you’ve got to play around with unfamiliar wordings or phrasings . Do a simple search on the net and vs american, you can easily find power verb lists like this one from ResumeEdge. Also equally important, you need to present evidence on what you label yourself as . Everyone had a different experience as to what leads them to call themselves ‘innovative’ or ‘team player’, for employee ethics, instance. It is these experiences which distinguish each individual candidate. Explain what you meant by being a ‘team player’ that you are. One example would be to say that you willingly sacrifice your interest for the good of the team in us popular impacted other, a particular project. Monitoring Ethics! The more specific you are, the Subjects of International Law Essays, more you can stand out from the rest. As much as possible, don’t send the employee, same resume to Subjects of International Law Essays, every organization which you are applying for. It’s better to modify your resumes in accordance to the job requirements stated for the particular post. In other words, you should have a resume which ‘adapts’ to the situations.

Now, how should you do that? First, you need to consider the format of the resume. When you list down your work experience and skills, should you use a functional or reverse chronological style? A functional resume categorizes your work experience and skills by ethics, skill area of job function. Starbucks Cpm! For example, if you had worked under a variety of executive posts in monitoring ethics, the past, you might have amassed a substantial amount of experience in project managements, planning-related tasks and so forth. What you can do is business studies 12 essays, you create headings such as ‘Project Management’ and ‘Planning’, and you list down in employee, bulleted style the studies grade 12 essays, different accomplishments you have under the appropriate headings. We are more accustomed to the reverse chronological style where we simply list down our work experience over the past decade or so, starting with the most recent one. The recruiter can easily read and comprehend how the candidate progressed in employee ethics, his or her career over time, and see what were the competencies gained through each stage of the progression.

As you probably can tell, a functional resume allows the recruiter to how has culture impacted other nations?, easily assess the skill sets you possess, and is especially helpful if they are matched to the job requirements. This will be great for those who are making a career switch because they would have lack relevant work experiences pertaining to the new post. Employee Monitoring Ethics! Yet, they will be able to single out specific responsibilities they held in their past jobs that are applicable to this post. Starbucks Cpm! On the other hand, a reverse chronological resume would benefit those who sticking to their career path as they apply for monitoring, the new post. This is because those previous posts would be deemed related in terms of job scopes to the current post you are applying. Secondly, the resume should illustrate how you, as a potential employee, can help the organization with your skills and experience . Every organization is different when it comes to their vision, values and culture. You would need to do your research well enough to know how you can contribute to the organization, and sell that through your resume.

By selling, I mean you need to know what they look for in a candidate, and show that you have those qualities. When writing a resume, you can imagine that the person reading it has a really short attention span. If he or she reads for 20 seconds and don’t see any point reading further, your resume will be placed on japanese culture vs american, the ‘rejected’ pile. This is understandable because they need to go through hundreds and employee ethics, hundreds of resumes like yours. This is how has us popular culture, why you will need to get to the point and captivate the recruiter enough to examine your piece. Writing on and on with chunks of words wouldn’t help the recruiter assess whether you are the right person for the job. If they need to pick out your skills and experience for you, then you have failed. You will need to help them do that by writing in monitoring ethics, bulleted style to enhance the readability. There’s no one specific format to follow for bullets, but just keep in mind that the purpose is to organize information about yourself clearly for them. Given that recruiter has only that limited amount of us popular impacted, time for each resume, do remember to keep your resume short.

A rule of the thumb is to restrict it to two pages maximum . Monitoring! Well, you may have lots of things to say about yourself, but choose those stuffs which are especially relevant for the job. Pick words wisely, choosing those that strikes a balance between being overly cliché and starbucks cpm, being informative. When you are doing your editing, you will be surprise by how many words you can actually leave out without compromising your content. 4. Write a Career Summary/Objective. It will be time consuming for any recruiters to read every single resume in its entirety, so most of them would only monitoring ethics browse through and That Never, pick out the main draw of your resume. Why not help them do that by employee monitoring, having a career summary or objective at the beginning? That way, you can score point for us popular culture nations?, consolidating your facts into a neat paragraph for clarity, and you can orientate the recruiter to areas which you wish to employee, highlight. Some articles on Will Never Be Essay, resume-writing assert that career summary or objective may be outdated because employers are less interested in what you want to achieve in your career than what you can do for them. However, I believe that any job recruitment process involves two parties; the job applicant and the employer . A seasoned employer would recognize the importance of job-fit between the applicant and the job as a good predictor of future performance and company loyalty.

A career summary or objective would allow you to voice out your aspirations so that the recruiter can assess whether you would belong in employee, the company. You can declare your own career goals , but at the same time, try to relate those to how you can contribute to the company . At the same time, highlight your past major achievements to the recruiter such that you can induce him or her to read further and discover more about you. And as always, try to keep it short, concise and straight-to-the-point. 5. Quantify Achievements Wherever Possible. If you are out there trying to catch the eye of the Law Essays, recruiter through your resume, you’ve got to include in details which would separate yourself from the employee ethics, rest of the crowd. Other Nations?! You may be in charge of a team for a specific project in your previous company, but you need the numbers to back you up and strengthen your claims. Instead of simply putting ‘Led a team in research project’, you should also say how many people were in your team, and what the output was in quantifiable amount. Now, the claim become much more complete when you write, ‘Led a team of 5 in research project which cuts down annual operational costs of company by $xxxxx. You see, there are many people out there who can lead a team, implement programs or whatever.

The only way to differentiate yourself is through the monitoring, results of what it is that you do. Assigning numbers to studies, these accomplishments ultimately translate into what you can value-add to employee ethics, the company you are applying for, and that’s what really appeals to recruiters out there. One of the Feminist and Gender, things you can be sure that the recruiter would ask you in your interview are those gaps in employee monitoring ethics, your resume. If you make it to the interview, that is. To be safe, fill in the gaps for them even in starbucks cpm, your resume. Briefly explain why you were unemployed for a year or two, and what you did during those times. If you simply leave the monitoring, gap unaccounted for in your resume, it might give the recruiter the impression that you have something to hide, or that you didn’t check through your piece.

It’s possible that rather than setting up an interview to find out what it was all about, the The Bridge Never, recruiter might just prematurely conclude that it would be a waste of time to do so. You wouldn’t want to take that chance with your dream company. Employee Ethics! According to CNN, 51% of Feminist and Gender, all resumes are processed via a tracking system that works by monitoring, detecting keywords. These keywords are chosen based on starbucks cpm, what the recruiters are looking for in candidates, and are usually found in the job advertisement itself. With the employee ethics, increasing number of online submissions of resumes, turning to Theories and Gender, such system is an obvious solution for the recruiter to effectively screen out candidates. Employee Ethics! As such, you as an applicant should do some research on your own to find out what qualities or skill sets are expected of candidates . Fortunately, this tracking system is likely to be only used at the early stages of screening, so all you need to do is starbucks cpm, make sure that you enter in employee ethics, the most basic prerequisites of the job. I’m sure that when most of you think of resumes, the business, first few things that come into your mind is that they have to be professional, neat and employee monitoring ethics, preferably in Feminist Theories, no-nonsense black-and-white.

But if you are also hoping that yours would be able to be distinct from other resumes, you wonder if colors or visual appeals would make a difference. Yes, it probably would, but you don’t want yours to stand out for the wrong reasons. In ‘Land Your Dream Job With 25 Innovative Resume Ideas‘, you see lots of really creative and out-of-the-box ideas for resumes, something that you would least expect from resumes. Like I said, if you are going for graphic designing jobs, you might consider those ideas to illustrate your designing capabilities. But if you are eyeing for a position which has little to employee ethics, do with graphics, I suggest you go conservative with visual appeals. Now, what can you do to make your resume a little different? First of all, you have to remember that visual appeal has the primary purpose of facilitating the recruiter in reading the resume . Of International Law Essays! It should not distract him or her . In fact, it should be used to accentuate keywords . So, bold or italicize your texts in areas which you want to emphasize. If you do use colors, try to limit the range of employee monitoring, colors that you use; it can get too distracting. Personally, I only use a light blue background and dark blue lines to segregate the starbucks cpm, various headings and sections. I applied them because it easily enables the reader to see where each section begins and ethics, ends.

Essentially speaking, stick to the rule of clarity, clarity and more clarity. Hongkiat.com (HKDC). Subjects Of International Law Essays! All Rights Reserved. 2017. Employee Monitoring Ethics! Reproduction of japanese business culture, materials found on this site, in any form, without explicit permission is prohibited.

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examples term paper How to monitoring ethics Write Term Papers. Writing a term paper is one of the most common requirements for an upper-division course such as the one for which this book was probably assigned. Such term papers usually count for a significant part of your final grade. Culture? Yet many, perhaps most, students have never received formal instruction about how to write a good research report. The following pages are meant to help you write an A paper by monitoring, giving you some guidelines about how has culture other, how to go about employee monitoring ethics, your research and starbucks cpm, writing. Why do instructors assign papers? Answering this question is monitoring ethics a good place to Subjects start thinking about term papers because if you know why papers are such a common assignment, then perhaps you can approach the task with added enthusiasm and employee monitoring, dedication.

Two goals usually motivate this assignment. One goal relates to the specific subject of the course; the other goal is based on your professional development. The first course-specific goal is to increase your expertise in some particular substantive area. The amount that you learn from this or almost any other course will be expanded significantly by doing research and by The Bridge That Will Be Essay, writing a paper. The effort will allow you to delve into the intricacies of a specific topic far beyond what is possible in monitoring the no doubt broad lectures that your instructor must deliver in class. Your research will go beyond the necessarily general commentary found in this text. The second and probably more important goal behind a paper-writing assignment extends beyond the specific content of the japanese course. The object is to sharpen your analytic and writing skills in preparation for the professional career that you may wish to pursue after graduation. Do not underestimate the importance of such thinking and communications skills. Most professional positions that college graduates seek will eventually require that you find information, analyze it, and convey your conclusions and recommendations to others, including your boss. You will be judged by your product.

A survey of ranking business executives a few years ago asked them what accounted for the rise of their most successful young subordinates compared to the failure or slow progress of other junior executives. Communications skills was one of the factors most mentioned by the top executives. Monitoring Ethics? No matter how smart you are, no matter how much you know, these assets will be hidden unless you can communicate well. The evaluation of your academic and professional work will be based partly on That Will Never Be Essay its substantive quality. A well-researched, clearly organized, incisively analyzed, powerfully written report will enhance your professional standing; a poorly done report will cast a shadow on ethics your professional competency. It is also important to realize that your report will be judged in part by such standards as neatness, grammar, and business culture, spelling, and other such technical criteria. It is not uncommon for monitoring university instructors to Feminist and Gender Essay get papers that represent a good research and analytical effort but that are sloppy, contain numerous grammatical errors, are full of employee monitoring misspellings, or are burdened by other such technical deficiencies. Such shortcomings make you look bad. It is very difficult for an instructor (or, later on, your boss) to be dazzled by your intellectual acumen while being simultaneously appalled by your English usage.

Also do not delude yourself with the common refrain, When I get on the job, I will do it right. It takes practice to do things well. That is true for rollerblading, shooting baskets, and playing the guitar. It is Law Essays also true for doing a research paper. Now, in college, is the time to practice and learn. Monitoring? Your instructor is likely to be more patient and helpful than your boss will ever be. Most successful efforts require some planning. Here are two hints about how has, what to monitoring ethics do before you begin to do research on, much less write, your paper. Both hints are tritely obvious; both are regularly ignored to the student's disadvantage. 1. Follow instructions.

Your instructor will (or at least should) let you know what is expected. Far too often, students write papers that do not fulfill the us popular impacted other nations? assigned task. If you do not understand the employee monitoring assignment, if you have any doubts at all, discuss it with your instructor. It is not uncommon in class or on the job for a person to get instructions, to not understand them, but to business grade be reluctant to ask for clarification for fear of seeming dumb. Monitoring? This is starbucks cpm a significant error. In the first place, your boss will probably not think less of you for asking for clarification.

In the second place, asking for supplementary instructions is far, far better than doing a report that does not meet the needs of your boss and ethics, is not what he or she wanted. That really makes you look dumb. 2. Do not wait until the vs american last minute. Last-minute efforts usually read like last-minute efforts! Plan backward from the date the paper is due to allow plenty of time to get it done. A good paper requires careful preparation, research, critical thinking, and writing. These steps take time.

Also, allow time for the unexpected. Computers crash or files get erased; printer toner or ribbons run out and have to be replaced; personal crises arise. You need to be able to cope with these and still get the paper done on time. My hard disk crashed is one of the modern excuses of choice; it is no more acceptable than the classic, My dog ate my paper. Being late with reports in class or on the job is employee ethics a very, very bad idea.

The next step in your progress toward an award-winning research paper is to choose your topic carefully. If you are responsible for choosing your own topic, put some thought into this decision. First, as mentioned, make sure any topic you select fulfills the paper assignment. Second, if possible pick a topic that interests you. The more interested you are in a topic, the easier it will be for you to devote time and energy to studying it and to writing about Subjects Law Essays, it. Third, ensure that you select a topic that fits the length of the paper that you intend to employee write, the research resources that are available to Subjects of International Law Essays you, and your analytical tools. Length: If you attempt to write a 10-page paper entitled The President and monitoring ethics, Congress Struggle for Power: Two Centuries of Constitutional Conflict, then your paper is That Never Be Essay destined to be a mile wide and an inch deep, as they say.

It is better to do something more narrowly focused and to do it well than to employee monitoring ethics give a superficial treatment of a large subject. Research Resources: Trying to write a paper on Secret Military Operations in business studies the Persian Gulf War would also be a mistake because the government has not released the relevant information. You should take the holdings of your library into account. Employee Ethics? If you are at grade a major research university, you can probably find whatever you need. Even at large libraries, however, you may have trouble finding good sources to support a research paper on ethics U.S.-Sri Lankan relations or U.S. policy regarding international cooperation in the development of mining technology. As your library holdings decrease, your ability to study unusual or narrow topics decreases as well.

So be careful not to Never choose a topic that destines you to fail. Analytical Tools: If you are going to pick a topic such as The Use by the Federal Reserve of the Discount Rate to employee monitoring ethics Influence Monetary Relations, then you had better be sure you have the background to The Bridge understand the complexities that you will encounter. Similarly, ensure that you have the proper statistical skills if you are going to analyze votes in Congress to see whether length of service, party affiliation, constituency interest, or the margin of victory is most closely associated with a senator's support of presidential proposals. For all of these issues, rule number 1 here and throughout this writing guide is check with the instructor if there is any doubt in your mind. Indeed, it is a very good idea to employee monitoring write a paragraph on what you intend to analyze, show it to the professor, and get his or her reaction. Now the project begins in earnest. Good research is the foundation of your paper. It stands to reason that without a solid foundation, the paper you build will inevitably be weak. As a general rule, your paper will be stronger if you use a good variety of the most up-to-date, and the most specific and expert, resources. The Library: The place to do research is the library. Do not be intimidated if the library on starbucks cpm your campus is big and unfamiliar.

Even the most experienced faculty member needs help sometimes, particularly when using such specialized sources as government documents. The good news is that assistance is readily available. This appendix will presently outline some of the main resources you may find in your library. Monitoring Ethics? The list can serve only as a very brief introduction, however, so it is Subjects Law Essays important to make use of the monitoring ethics library's staff. Business Studies? When you get lost, as we all do, ask the monitoring ethics nearest librarian for of International help. Employee Monitoring Ethics? Actually just standing around and looking confused will suffice sometimes to summon aid. Research Strategies: When you are doing your research it is important to business 12 essays be creative. Here are a few tips:

1. Start out by reading a general study or two on your subject. This will give you a broad grasp of employee monitoring your topic and will help you identify what is important and on what you need to focus your research. Impacted Nations?? Simply jumping in and beginning to do research in specialized studies can often waste a considerable amount of your time. Textbooks can also be helpful. For many topics, one starting point might be a U.S. Employee Monitoring Ethics? diplomatic history text such as American Foreign Policy (Paterson, Clifford, Hagan, 1991a, b). A general introduction to international relations such as International Politics on the World Stage (Rourke, 1995) might also prove helpful to gain an overview of a topic. 2. Treat research like a detective story. Search under a variety of us popular nations? subject headings when looking for sources in the physical or computerized card catalog, in an index, or any other finding aid. If, for example, you are doing a paper on Vietnam, do not limit yourself to employee looking under V for Vietnam. Other likely subject headings might be Asia, Southeast; Ho Chi Minh; Kissinger, Henry; Johnson, Lyndon B.; Nixon, Richard M.; U.S.-Foreign Relations; or U.S.-History.

3. Look at the most recent books and starbucks cpm, journal articles first. These sources will usually contain a bibliography and notes that list earlier works on the subject. This can be an invaluable as well as a time-saving step in locating supplementary source material. 4. Photocopy important material. If you can afford it, photocopying is much faster than taking notes and employee ethics, there is less chance for error. Vs American? If you take written notes, use index cards. Larger cards are better than smaller ones. Employee Monitoring? Use one card for business grade each quote, statistic, or other piece of research that you collect. Employee? Cards work well because they can be arranged easily. And Gender? For topics with distinct parts, you might even want to try a different color card for each part.

Some people use portable computers to take notes. If you do, be sure to make a backup copy on a floppy disk. 5. Employee? Make a careful and how has us popular other, complete notation of the source of monitoring your material. Later on we will cover why and how to cite material, but there is nothing more frustrating than having to go back to the library to look up a citation that you should have noted clearly and completely in the first place. Your library contains many types of resources that you can utilize to do your research. The following list is a mere beginning. Use it, but also go to your library, wander about a bit looking at its various sections and the resources that each contains, and ask librarians about what is and Gender Essay available. You may be surprised at monitoring ethics how many resources you discover.

Reference Works: One of the most important places in us popular your library is the reference room. We will mention some of the resources you will find there, but if you follow our advice about exploring this resource area, you may save yourself many hours later on. The materials in the reference room are valuable resources for beginning to monitoring structure the basic outline of your topic. Political science encyclopedias and dictionaries are one type of resource. There are many. For an American foreign policy course you might wish to look at sources such as the Dictionary of American Diplomatic History (Findling, 1989) or, at the most general level of political science, you might wish to Feminist Theories Essay consult The Encyclopedic Dictionary of American Government (Dushkin, 1991). Monitoring Ethics? There are similar works, such as The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (Krieger, 1993), that are global in scope. Then there are resources such as Editorial Research Reports , the Political Handbook of the World , or the Index to International Public Opinion that deal with particular topics, give summaries of how has impacted various governments, or take other specialized approaches. Such works are normally acceptable sources; general-purpose encyclopedias (such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica , the World Book , etc.) typically are not suitable, although the bibliographies they include with individual topics may prove helpful.

In a U.S. foreign policy class, an often overlooked place to start is the series of works published by Congressional Quarterly. Weekly updates come in the form of the Congressional Quarterly Weekly Reports . Information on ethics an annual basis comes out in the Congressional Quarterly Almanac . Multiyear summaries called Congress and the Nation are available as well. These contain the basics of most U.S. foreign policy actions. Besides coverage of congressional policy making, summaries of presidential or executive branch actions are included as well. The reference room also has bibliographies of works on various subjects. These are classified under Z. Check with the reference librarians. They may save you time. Books: Use your library's computer access system or card catalog for books on your subject.

A good place to start is with the Library of That Never Congress Subject Headings for ways to cross-reference your search for employee monitoring books. In the Library of Congress system, most U.S. history is under the letter E. For economics, look at H; for world history, consult books under D. Under H, the subsets of HC, HG, and HJ are particularly good for economics. The letter J encompasses most works on political science. As subsets, the letters JK focus on U.S. politics; JL, JN, and JQ cover other parts of the world; and JX covers international politics. Military affairs are under U. How Has Culture Other? It is valuable to know these letters because sometimes it is ethics worthwhile to The Bridge That Never simply go to employee monitoring ethics the stacks where those letters are shelved and browse a bit to uncover resources that you may have missed in your computer or card catalog search. The shelves in the reference room are partly arranged using the studies grade Library of Congress system. Older books are also sometimes catalogued under the Dewey decimal system with the 300s and ethics, 900s of especial relevance to of International Law Essays political science and history. Scholarly Journal Articles: Some topics, like U.S. Ethics? diplomacy during the Feminist recent fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina, may be so contemporary that there are few or no books yet available. In such cases, scholarly journals are more likely sources of monitoring ethics information and analysis. You should consult journals even for noncontemporary topics because scholars may have found new information or conducted new analyses. The places to find journal articles are the starbucks cpm Public Affairs Information Service , the Social Sciences Index , the S ocial Sciences Citation Index , and employee, the ABC Pol Sci . You should be able to find most, if not all of these, in your library's reference room.

Just a few of the leading journals in Feminist foreign policy and international affairs are Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, International Affairs, International Organization, International Security, International Studies Quarterly, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Journal of monitoring ethics International Affairs, Orbis, and World Politics. There are also many journals such as the Feminist and Gender Essay American Political Science Review that contain general political science research. Government Publications: You may also find valuable information that has been published in a report of a governmental agency, in hearings or reports of a congressional committee, or in the transcripts of the proceedings of Congress. The United Nations and employee monitoring ethics, a number of other international organizations also publish proceedings and reports. There are several indexes available.

The Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications provides a comprehensive list of sources. Of International? The CIS/Index by monitoring ethics, the Congressional Information Service abstracts and That Never, indexes congressional hearings and reports. Debates and other proceedings of Congress are found in the daily Congressional Record. At some schools, accessing government documents can be a challenge. Monitoring Ethics? See your reference librarians for help with government publications. Newsmagazines and 12 essays, Newspapers: If you are covering a current topic or need to have a day-by-day account of events and cannot find one elsewhere, you may be forced to turn to newsmagazines and newspapers. Be sure, however, to check with your instructor to ensure that these are considered acceptable sources for employee monitoring your assignment. Mostly they are useful for facts or for contemporary quotes and culture impacted, are usually not good sources of analysis.

Your library may have a computerized access system such as InfoTrac to assist you. Employee Monitoring? The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature also helps access this material. Additionally, major newspapers like the New York Times, Washington Post, and Los Angeles Times are indexed. How Has Culture Nations?? Some are now available on CD-ROM, allowing you to use the computer to search by subject and then print out the relevant stories. For instance, InfoTrac is one CD-ROM-based system that among other things indexes the New York Times, Washington Post, Christian Science Monitor, Wall Street Journal, and Los Angeles Times. The Lexis/Nexis computer database will not only employee monitoring, provide you with indexed citations of Subjects of International Law Essays journalistic articles, but also with the monitoring text of the article in most instances. See the reference librarians for help with such resources.

There are sources such as Facts on starbucks cpm File and Keesing's Contemporary Archives that are compilations of weekly news events and are indexed. World Wide Web (WWW) Electronic Resources: Over the employee monitoring past few years it has become increasingly easy to us popular find research information by using the Internet. Until recently the Gopher system of data archives was the dominant form of Internet information access, but now most governmental and nongovernmental organizations, universities, and even many businesses have developed access to their research resources over the graphic environment on the World Wide Web. The following are a number of Web sites that will get you started in searching for information you may need in writing your research paper. Although some of the Uniform Resource Locators (URL) listed below are for specific information sources, most provide you with hot-linked lists that will get you to employee monitoring ethics where you might want to look for information. It is important to note that URLs change frequently.

If any of these do not work for you, double-check the URL or contact the organization sponsoring the page. Miscellaneous Sources: Our listing here can only begin to cover what is in your library. There may be a map room. There may also be an audio-visual section. Some libraries contain archives or a rare book collection.

Talk to a librarian or your professor for added information. Also realize that no library has everything. Consequently, you may find references to sources that are not found in your library. You can usually order such sources from other libraries through the interlibrary loan program. Of International? Check with your reference librarians to learn how to use this service. Be advised, however, that interlibrary loans take some time. Employee Ethics? So order any needed sources as early as possible. External Sources: Knowledge is not confined to libraries or even campuses.

A surprising number of students know someone who knows something about the The Bridge That specifics of some U.S. foreign policy issue. Even if you do not know someone personally, you might find it interesting and possible to conduct an interview with a decision maker or some other relevant person. Some students have been known to telephone the State Department for information successfully. Others have called the United Nations Missions or local consulates of employee other countries involved to get information from culture impacted other, them. For advice on unconventional sources, see your instructor. The keys to effective papers are good organization and presentation of ideas and error-free technical skills. There are a number of sources that you can access to help you both organize and write your paper. Some are: Writer's Guide: Political Science (Biddle Holland, 1987); The Chicago Manual of Style (1993); The Write Stuff (Cronin, 1986); Writing with Power (Elbow, 1981); The Elements of Style (Strunk White, 1979); and A Manual for Writers of monitoring ethics Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian, 1987). Our comments on writing a paper that follow may prove helpful to you, but they are not substitutes for the fuller discussions you will find in these writing guides. There are three organizational issues to consider. Business Studies 12 Essays? They are the outline, the parts of the paper, and the approach.

Outline: No one would think of building a house, computer, or other important and complex project without a plan. Employee Monitoring? Students regularly write papers without a plan. That Never Be Essay? As a result, poor organization is employee a common weakness of undergraduate term papers. Japanese Business Culture? The best way to employee monitoring construct your plan and to organize information for of International maximum effect is to put together an outline. An outline serves to lay out your paper's structure, to ensure that it is employee monitoring complete and logical, and to prevent you from getting off the track. Determine what you wish to accomplish in the paper; then prepare an outline specifying every step from Introduction to starbucks cpm Conclusion. Linear writing is crucial in professional papers and reports. A good outline also serves to help you later: It ensures that you stay on track, write an accurate summary for your conclusions, and cover all of the relevant information and arguments.

Parts: All papers should have three basic parts: an introduction, a main body, and a conclusion. The introduction is the employee key to letting your reader know where you are headed and what you will accomplish. Remember always that while the organization of your paper may be clear to you, it is not clear to japanese culture vs american your reader. Employee Monitoring? Therefore, the introduction is something like a road map that acquaints the Theories and Gender Essay reader with the journey ahead. Employee Ethics? This will make it easier for the reader to The Bridge That Will understand what follows and will improve the reader's evaluation of your work. Tell the reader in concise terms (1) what the subject of the paper is, (2) what it is employee monitoring that you hope to find out, and (3) how you will go about it. If you are writing an advanced, theoretical paper, your introduction might well also include a review of the existing scholarship on the subject, a section in which you identify how you collected your data and other information, and a discussion of the The Bridge That Never Be Essay methodology you will use. Wolfinger (1993) is a guide for such advanced papers. The main body is the largest part of the paper. It should have a logical organization. Especially if the paper is long, it is often a good idea to divide the main body into sections designated by headings and subheadings.

Look at almost any text, including this one, and you will see that it uses headings to help keep the reader aware of the organizational structure. Also with regard to your main body, do not assume knowledge on the part of the reader. Include all important information, explain its significance, and detail your logic. Monitoring Ethics? Write your paper as though its reader will be a reasonably intelligent and Theories, informed person but not an expert on your topic. Your instructor wants to know what you know and will not read into the paper information that is not there. The conclusion should sum up what you have found and stress the employee monitoring evidence that supports your analysis. There is starbucks cpm something very human about wanting to have things summed up, so do not leave your reader hanging without a conclusion. Approach: There are several ways to approach your paper.

A common organizational approach is a chronological one. The advantage of employee monitoring this approach is That Will Never Be Essay that it uses the passage of time as its organizing mechanism. The disadvantage of a chronological approach is that it can easily become a laundry list of events, both important and unimportant. Students often list everything they find, leaving it to employee monitoring ethics the reader to determine which factors are most important. Chronologies are also no substitute for analysis. There is nothing wrong with a chronological approach if it is done well; just be sure to put more emphasis throughout on why things happened than on japanese culture what happened.

A more analytic approach would be organized around a set of factors, or variables, that are important to employee the subject of the paper. Theoretical approaches can also be used to organize a paper. See Allison's (1971) Essence of Decision for an illustration of starbucks cpm such an analytic approach. Whatever approach you choose, bear in mind that a cardinal rule is, analyze, analyze, analyze! Summarizing your findings in monitoring ethics the conclusion does not mean that this is the only place to how has other put you in the paper.

Your analysis should appear throughout the paper. A big error that many novice writers make is to use the main body of the paper to create a heap of facts and to wait until the conclusion to say what they mean. This approach is monitoring ethics boring and will not impress your readers with your analytical ability. The best papers by and Gender, far are those that draw data, events, and other material together and interpret them throughout. Besides organization, the other hallmark of a good paper is monitoring clarity in writing. Remember that if a paper fails to communicate well, then its research-no matter how well done--will have little impact. There is an old piece of advice that says, write like you speak.

This is terrible advice, at least for formal papers. Good written communication is somewhat different from good spoken communication. When you speak to someone, especially face to face, you can convey meaning through voice inflection, gestures, and studies 12 essays, other methods in employee ethics addition to your words. These methods are not available in written communications. Therefore, choice of words, punctuation, and studies 12 essays, other considerations are particularly vital when you write. Good writing can be divided into employee ethics three parts: effort, style considerations, and technical matters. Effort: Thomas Alva Edison once supposedly commented that Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration. That is The Bridge That Will Never true whether one is employee monitoring inventing the starbucks cpm lightbulb or creating an essay, a report, or a book.

Writing and polishing drafts of a paper take time and effort. Employee Monitoring? They cannot be done the night before the and Gender paper is employee due. If you sit down at your word processor the night before your report is due and write it into the wee hours of the morning, you will almost certainly leave your reader as bleary-eyed when he or she reads the paper as you were when you wrote it. Two things to japanese business culture do are to employee monitoring write drafts and to get others to read your paper. 1. Write a draft, preferably more than one. No professional writer would dream of sending a manuscript out for review or to The Bridge Be Essay press without writing multiple drafts. Indeed, the more one writes, the more one feels the need to do drafts. Only undergraduates have the hubris to keyboard a paper into the computer, print a copy out, hand it in, and employee, wait confidently for that rave review and business 12 essays, an A grade from the instructor. A better idea is to write a first draft.

Note here that the adjective rough does not precede draft. Your draft should be complete and carefully done. Once your smooth draft is done, put it aside for a few days so that you can gain perspective. Employee Monitoring Ethics? Then reread it. You may be surprised at how many ways you find to Subjects Law Essays improve what you have written when you look at it with fresh eyes. The same is true for employee your third and subsequent drafts. 2. Starbucks Cpm? Get help.

There are many people who can help you write a first-rate paper. One person is your instructor. Discuss your topic and your ideas with your professor. Employee Ethics? He or she may be able to Feminist Theories help you refine your topic, avoid pitfalls, identify resources, or plan the paper's organization. Submit drafts to employee your professor far enough ahead of the The Bridge Never Be Essay deadline to give the instructor time to suggest revisions.

It may prove helpful also to ask a classmate, a family member, or someone else to read your paper. Most people are not good judges of monitoring their own writing. We tend to read what we meant to say, not what we actually wrote. Starbucks Cpm? A fresh reader will be able to employee monitoring point out technical errors and lapses in your argument and organization. Writing centers are another source of help at many colleges and business culture, universities. You may have already paid for such assistance with your tuition dollars; you might as well use it. Style Considerations: It may take innate talent to become a great literary figure, but achieving a reasonably pleasing literary style is possible for monitoring everyone who exercises a little care. Business Vs American? A few suggestions should help you write a paper that has literary, as well as intellectual, merit. 1. Watch your sentence structure. Students and monitoring, scholars too often seem to assume that long, complex sentences are symbolic of profundity. They are not; they are mostly just cumbersome.

Simple, subject-verb-object sentences are best. They are powerful. And Gender? Still, if you do not vary them occasionally, numerous short sentences do not read well. Monitoring? So, after several simple sentences, add a longer one. But do not go too far the other way. Consider Rourke's Rule of 2s: Sentences more than two lines long or with more than two commas are probably too long to be understood easily, especially if there have been two in a row. 2. Starbucks Cpm? Rely on active tense, action verbs.

Avoid the passive tense (No: Politicians are disliked by ethics, many people. Yes: Many people dislike politicians.). The Bridge That Never Be Essay? Similarly, action verbs (made, jumped, went) are better than verbs of being (is, are, were). In general, active/action verbs generate more interest. 3. Employee? Use standard English. Colloquial English typically does not make a good impression unless you are writing fiction.

Obscenities and other forms of That Will Never Be Essay gutter English are almost never acceptable. 4. Avoid starting too many sentences with adverbial or adjectival clauses or phrases. Employee Monitoring? These are the short phrases (such as In the us popular culture impacted other morning, we went. ) that are often followed by a comma. Also shun beginning or ending sentences with words or phrases such as: however, though, for example, for instance. 5. Watch your paragraph length. Paragraphs over one page in length are usually too long. They may contain redundant statements or more than one major idea. Rework such paragraphs to delete unnecessary text or to separate ideas into employee monitoring ethics additional paragraphs. At the other extreme, one-sentence paragraphs are not acceptable. Remember that each paragraph should have a topic sentence and several others that explain or develop that topic.

6. Rely on how has culture transitions between paragraphs. Conventions like On the other hand, Still, Also, Nevertheless, Thus, However, or As a result help the reader get from one thought to another. Monitoring? They smooth the culture vs american reading process. 7. Avoid clichés. They fought like cats and dogs over which policy to adopt. Ugh! 8. Monitoring? Get to the point. Subjects Of International Law Essays? Do not beat around the bush; save a tree; avoid word pollution. Technical Matters: Your paper must be free of common writing mistakes.

Cautions about some of these are: 1. Avoid sentence fragments. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb. 2. Check your spelling. Misspelled words make you appear uneducated, careless, or both. Keep in mind that misspelled words and typographical errors cannot be distinguished from each other by a reader. Both are unacceptable. Some professional proofreaders read a manuscript backwards to check for spelling. Try it. Do not rely on just your own sense of how words are spelled.

Use a dictionary, a spell check program if you have a computer, and a second reader to proofread your drafts. Beware of spell checkers, though! Consider this sentence: Its necessary to get there attention or we may loose the vote. These three mistakes (its for it's, there for their, and loose for lose) are common ones that would not be caught by most spell check programs. Thus it is crucial to have a human scan your words.

3. Make sure subjects and verbs agree. Subject-verb disagreement is most likely to occur when the employee monitoring two are separated in the sentences by several other words. 4. Be careful of nations? verb tense. Employee? Many poor writers use only present tense. Us Popular Impacted Other Nations?? Use past tense, future, and other tenses as appropriate. Also be careful to monitoring ethics keep verb tense consistent within paragraphs. 5. Make pronouns mean what they say. The Bridge That? Misuse of pronouns is ethics very common. A pronoun refers to business studies grade 12 essays the last noun of the same person and gender. Consider the sentences, John F. Kennedy was shot by Lee Harvey Oswald, who was subsequently also shot and monitoring, killed. Many Americans wept at his death.

What this means literally is starbucks cpm that many Americans wept when they heard of Oswald's death because his refers to the closest prior singular masculine noun (Oswald). Also, do not normally use pronouns more than twice in a row to employee refer to the same noun. Use the The Bridge Will Be Essay noun or a variation thereof again for clarity. While we are on the subject of employee ethics pronouns, it is business culture vs american seldom correct to use a gender-specific pronoun (he, she, him, her) to employee monitoring ethics refer to an inanimate object. The United States, for example, is an studies it, not a she. 6. Do not split infinitives. Except when absolutely necessary to avoid misinterpretation, to and the verb should not be separated by an adverb. 7. Avoid the use of ethics contractions. Words like can't, won't, or don't are too informal for Theories a formal writing assignment.

8. Be careful of abbreviations. Do not start sentences with abbreviations or numbers (unless spelled out). For countries, avoid using the monitoring ethics abbreviation as a noun (No: The U.S. Culture Impacted? did. ); but the abbreviation is acceptable as an adjective (Yes: Current U.S. foreign policy. ). The first time you name someone, give his or her full name and the title if appropriate. Also do not use an acronym unless it is very common without first spelling out the full name, as in, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). 9. Do not end sentences with prepositions. This rule is being relaxed, but repetitive use of prepositions at the end of employee ethics sentences is indicative of Feminist and Gender poor sentence structure.

10. Know when and how to use specific punctuation. The various style manuals mentioned earlier elaborate on the proper usage of commas, colons, semicolons, parentheses, brackets, and the like. All good research papers rely on employee ethics information compiled by and analysis done by others. If you write a research paper without consulting other works, then you have written an essay, not a report. If you do rely in part on the work of other people and you do not cite them, you have failed in your responsibilities.

A research paper must cite the work of others. There are two reasons that citations are mandatory. The first is to allow the reader to explore the subject further by consulting the Never works that you have utilized. Without regular and complete citations, such further exploration by your reader is difficult or impossible. Second, intellectual honesty requires citations. Failure to use them is employee monitoring plagiarism, which is unacceptable in any form. Plagiarism is the theft of the starbucks cpm thoughts, facts, or knowledge of others by not giving them proper credit. When to Cite: Follow these guidelines to protect yourself: 1. Anytime you quote or paraphrase the thoughts or work of others, cite the source. Employee? It is incorrect to believe that only quotations require citations. You should also insert a note whenever you are relying on someone else's thoughts or research, even if you are only paraphrasing (putting it in your own words).

2. Simple, commonly known facts need not be footnoted. A rule of thumb is that if you did not know the information before you started the paper, then you should use a citation to show where you found the information. Also, even if you know something when you start, you should cite the source of starbucks cpm any controversial fact (Ireland's St. Brenden and the Vikings came to the New World before Columbus). 3. When in doubt, cite the source. Plagiarism is unethical. Instructors and other readers take it very seriously. Grades, reputations, and ethics, academic careers have been ruined by plagiarism. Err on business studies grade 12 essays the side of employee ethics safety. One citation too many is far better than one citation too few.

How to Cite: The use of a correct format for citations used in business vs american endnotes or footnotes and in a bibliography often seem a bit complex and cumbersome, but doing so has two good points. Those advantages are completeness and consistency. Most styles fall into employee ethics one of two categories, notation styles and reference-in-text styles. Notation style involves the use of numbers to business culture indicate each citation. Each number's corresponding note may be at the bottom of the page as a footnote or at the end of the paper as an endnote. In either case, you should provide comprehensive information on each source the first time it appears as a footnote or an endnote, with shortened versions appearing in later footnotes or endnotes. At the end of the paper, a bibliography repeats the full documentation of these sources, listing them alphabetically by author.

Bibliographies have their own formatting styles. A number of works demonstrate both citation and bibliography format styles, including A Manual for Writers of monitoring ethics Term Papers, Theses, and starbucks cpm, Dissertations (Turabian, 1980) and ethics, The Chicago Manual of Subjects Style (1993). A r eference-in-text style uses the author's name and employee monitoring ethics, the year of starbucks cpm publication of the work, which are placed in parentheses and inserted at the appropriate place in the text. A page number is also included for direct quotes and in some other cases. Then at the end of the paper or book there is a References or Works Cited section that contains the full documentation for all the sources cited throughout the body of the work. These sources are listed alphabetically by author. Reference-in-text styles are increasingly the norm in social science, and most are some variant of the style developed by the American Psychological Association (APA). Monitoring Ethics? For details of how to use such styles, see the APA's Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1983); Writer's Guide: Political Science (Biddle Holland, 1987); or use this book as an Never Be Essay illustration.

Whatever citation style you choose, use it correctly and be consistent. Your job is employee monitoring ethics not quite finished. After writing the paper, you must prepare its physical presentation. Studies Grade? Unless told otherwise, you should type your paper double-spaced, with one-inch margins on all four sides of each page. Your paper should feature a title page, the body of the paper, and then the bibliography, Works Cited, or References page(s). If your instructor prefers some variation of this model, that will usually be specified in monitoring ethics advance.

Once again, it is important to stress that a paper is a whole product. A paper that contains impeccable research, cogent analysis, and grade, brilliant writing will still evoke a negative reaction from the reader if it is wrinkled, printed sloppily, or barely readable because the ink on the ribbon is exhausted. Some general guidelines include: 1. Printed material is preferable. Most instructors will not accept handwritten reports. Even if printing is not mandatory, a printed report has a more professional image than does a handwritten report.

2. Make sure the ethics print is easily legible. When you type or print your report, make sure that the japanese business culture vs american ribbon or ink cartridge is up to par. 3. Do not play the margin, spacing, and font game. Professors are not naive and have read veritable mountains of papers. Having extra-wide margins; leaving extra spaces between paragraphs, headings, and excerpts; or using larger-size type or fonts to stretch a paper out (or doing the opposite to squeeze it in) are very obvious. You will not fool the instructor or anyone else. So, why bother? 4. Employee Monitoring? Number your pages. It is not uncommon for students to The Bridge Will Never turn in papers with the pages out of order. Numbering the monitoring pages cuts down on this mistake. Also, unbound papers sometimes fall apart and must be reassembled.

Numbered pages will facilitate this. 5. Securely fasten the Essay paper together. Paper clips are a bad idea. Staples or one of the various types of binders sold by your bookstore are better. 6. Employee Monitoring Ethics? Read your paper one last time. Even if the The Bridge Never Be Essay paper seems finished, you can still find mistakes that prior proofreading missed.

A last-minute pen-and-ink (never pencil) correction that is inserted neatly is better than an error. 7. Go home and monitoring, relax. Get a pizza, watch some television, catch a movie! You deserve it after working hard and Will Never Be Essay, writing a great paper. Congratulations!