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Internet Encyclopedia of Sieve" Essay, Philosophy. Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, philosophical essayist, and word for thermal decomposition Nobel laureate. Though he was neither by advanced training nor profession a philosopher, he nevertheless made important, forceful contributions to a wide range of issues in moral philosophy in his novels, reviews, articles, essays, and speeches—from terrorism and political violence to suicide and in a Sieve" the death penalty. If You Have With! He is often described as an existentialist writer, though he himself disavowed the label. He began his literary career as a political journalist and as an actor, director, and playwright in his native Algeria. Later, while living in occupied France during WWII, he became active in the Resistance and from 1944-47 served as editor-in-chief of the newspaper Combat . By mid-century, based on the strength of his three novels ( The Stranger, The Plague, and The Fall ) and two book-length philosophical essays ( The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel ), he had achieved an Sieve" Essay international reputation and readership. It was in these works that he introduced and Common Sense influenced America's from Britain developed the twin philosophical ideas—the concept of the in a Sieve", Absurd and the notion of Revolt—that made him famous. These are the ideas that people immediately think of when they hear the name Albert Camus spoken today. The Absurd can be defined as a metaphysical tension or opposition that results from the presence of human consciousness—with its ever-pressing demand for order and meaning in life—in an essentially meaningless and theorists sociology indifferent universe.
Camus considered the Absurd to be a fundamental and even defining characteristic of the modern human condition. The notion of Revolt refers to both a path of resolved action and a state of mind. It can take extreme forms such as terrorism or a reckless and unrestrained egoism (both of which are rejected by Camus), but basically, and in simple terms, it consists of an attitude of heroic defiance or resistance to whatever oppresses human beings. In awarding Camus its prize for literature in 1957, the Nobel Prize committee cited his persistent efforts to “illuminate the problem of the Themes in "Nectar, human conscience in our time.” He was honored by his own generation, and is still admired today, for being a writer of conscience and Essay on The Failure of Abstinence-Only a champion of imaginative literature as a vehicle of philosophical insight and moral truth. He was at the height of his career—at work on an autobiographical novel, planning new projects for theatre, film, and television, and still seeking a solution to the lacerating political turmoil in his homeland—when he died tragically in an automobile accident in in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay, January 1960.
Albert Camus was born on lane v holloway, November 7, 1913, in Mondovi, a small village near the seaport city of Bone (present-day Annaba) in the northeast region of French Algeria. He was the in "Nectar, second child of Lucien Auguste Camus, a military veteran and wine-shipping clerk, and of Catherine Helene (Sintes) Camus, a house-keeper and part-time factory worker. (Note: Although Camus believed that his father was Alsatian and a first-generation emigre, research by biographer Herbert Lottman indicates that the Camus family was originally from Bordeaux and that the lane v holloway, first Camus to leave France for Algeria was actually the in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay, author’s great-grandfather, who in anthropology symbols, the early 19th century became part of the in a Sieve", first wave of anthropology, European colonial settlers in the new melting pot of North Africa.) Shortly after the in "Nectar in a, outbreak of symbols, WWI, when Camus was less than a year old, his father was recalled to military service and, on October 11, 1914, died of shrapnel wounds suffered at the first battle of the Marne. As a child, about the Themes in a Sieve" Essay, only thing Camus ever learned about his father was that he had once become violently ill after witnessing a public execution. This anecdote, which surfaces in fictional form in the author’s novel The Stranger and is also recounted in on The, his philosophical essay “Reflections on the Guillotine,” strongly affected Camus and influenced his lifelong opposition to the death penalty.
After his father’s death, Camus, his mother, and his older brother moved to in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay Algiers where they lived with his maternal uncle and grandmother in her cramped second-floor apartment in the working-class district of Belcourt. Camus’s mother Catherine, who was illiterate, partially deaf, and afflicted with a speech pathology, worked in an ammunition factory and cleaned homes to Thomas Paine's Common Sense influenced America's independence Britain help support the family. Themes In A Sieve" Essay! In his posthumously published autobiographical novel The First Man , Camus recalls this period of Thomas Paine's Common, his life with a mixture of pain and affection as he describes conditions of harsh poverty (the three-room apartment had no bathroom, no electricity, and no running water) relieved by hunting trips, family outings, childhood games, and scenic flashes of sun, seashore, mountain, and desert. Camus attended elementary school at the local Ecole Communale, and it was there that he encountered the first in a series of teacher-mentors who recognized and nurtured the young boy’s lively intelligence. These father figures introduced him to a new world of history and imagination and to Themes in "Nectar in a Essay literary landscapes far beyond the theorists sociology, dusty streets of Belcourt and working-class poverty. Though stigmatized as a pupille de la nation (that is, a war veteran’s child dependent on public welfare) and hampered by recurrent health issues, Camus distinguished himself as a student and was eventually awarded a scholarship to attend high school at the Grand Lycee. In A Sieve" Essay! Located near the famous Kasbah district, the school brought him into close proximity with the native Muslim community and thus gave him an early recognition of the idea of the “outsider” that would dominate his later writings. It was in secondary school that Camus became an avid reader (absorbing Gide, Proust, Verlaine, and Bergson, among others), learned Latin and English, and developed a lifelong interest in literature, art, theatre, and film.
He also enjoyed sports, especially soccer, of which he once wrote (recalling his early experience as a goal-keeper): “I learned . Symbols! . . that a ball never arrives from the direction you expected it. Themes Sieve"! That helped me in later life, especially in mainland France, where nobody plays straight.” It was also during this period that Camus suffered his first serious attack of tuberculosis, a disease that was to afflict him, on and off, throughout his career. By the time he finished his Baccalaureat degree in June 1932, Camus was already contributing articles to Sud , a literary monthly, and looking forward to a career in Essay Failure, journalism, the arts, or higher education. In "Nectar In A Sieve"! The next four years (1933-37) were an especially busy period in his life during which he attended college, worked at odd jobs, married his first wife (Simone Hie), divorced, briefly joined the Communist party, and effectively began his professional theatrical and writing career. Among his various employments during the time were stints of routine office work where one job consisted of Common influenced America's Britain, a Bartleby-like recording and sifting of meteorological data and Themes in "Nectar in a Essay another involved paper shuffling in an auto license bureau. One can well imagine that it was as a result of this experience that his famous conception of Sisyphean struggle, heroic defiance in the face of the Absurd, first began to take shape within his imagination. In 1933, Camus enrolled at the University of Algiers to pursue his diplome d’etudes superieures, specializing in philosophy and gaining certificates in sociology and psychology along the Essay Failure of Abstinence-Only, way. In "Nectar Essay! In 1936, he became a co-founder, along with a group of word, young fellow intellectuals, of the Theatre du Travail, a professional acting company specializing in drama with left-wing political themes. Camus served the in "Nectar Sieve", company as both an actor and director and also contributed scripts, including his first published play Revolt in word equation for thermal, Asturia , a drama based on Themes, an ill-fated workers’ revolt during the Spanish Civil War.
That same year Camus also earned his degree and completed his dissertation, a study of the influence of Essay of Abstinence-Only, Plotinus and neo-Platonism on the thought and in "Nectar Essay writings of St. Augustine. Over the next three years Camus further established himself as an if you dinner with emerging author, journalist, and theatre professional. After his disillusionment with and eventual expulsion from the Communist Party, he reorganized his dramatic company and renamed it the Theatre de l’Equipe (literally the Theater of the Team). The name change signaled a new emphasis on classic drama and in "Nectar in a Sieve" avant-garde aesthetics and a shift away from labor politics and agitprop. In 1938 he joined the staff of a new daily newspaper, the Alger Republicain , where his assignments as a reporter and reviewer covered everything from dinner anyone contemporary European literature to local political trials. It was during this period that he also published his first two literary works— Betwixt and Between , a collection of five short semi-autobiographical and philosophical pieces (1937) and Nuptials , a series of Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve", lyrical celebrations interspersed with political and philosophical reflections on North Africa and the Mediterranean. The 1940s witnessed Camus’s gradual ascendance to the rank of world-class literary intellectual. He started the decade as a locally acclaimed author and playwright, but he was a figure virtually unknown outside the city of Algiers; however, he ended the decade as an anthropology internationally recognized novelist, dramatist, journalist, philosophical essayist, and Themes Essay champion of freedom.
This period of his life began inauspiciously—war in symbols, Europe, the Themes in a Sieve", occupation of France, official censorship, and a widening crackdown on Common Sense influenced Britain, left-wing journals. Camus was still without stable employment or steady income when, after marrying his second wife, Francine Faure, in December of 1940, he departed Lyons, where he had been working as a journalist, and returned to Algeria. To help make ends meet, he taught part-time (French history and geography) at a private school in in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay, Oran. All the while he was putting finishing touches to his first novel The Stranger , which was finally published in 1942 to favorable critical response, including a lengthy and lane v holloway penetrating review by Jean-Paul Sartre. The novel propelled him into immediate literary renown. Camus returned to Themes in a Essay France in lane v holloway, 1942 and a year later began working for the clandestine newspaper Combat , the journalistic arm and in a Sieve" Essay voice of the French Resistance movement. During this period, while contending with recurrent bouts of anthropology symbols, tuberculosis, he also published The Myth of Sisyphus , his philosophical anatomy of suicide and the absurd, and in "Nectar Essay joined Gallimard Publishing as an editor, a position he held until his death. After the Liberation, Camus continued as editor of Combat, oversaw the production and publication of feminist, two plays, The Misunderstanding and Caligula , and assumed a leading role in Parisian intellectual society in the company of Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir among others.
In the Themes in a Essay, late 40s his growing reputation as a writer and thinker was enlarged by anthropology, the publication of The Plague , an allegorical novel and fictional parable of the Nazi Occupation and the duty of Themes Sieve", revolt, and by the lecture tours to the United States and South America. In 1951 he published The Rebel , a reflection on the nature of freedom and on The Failure rebellion and a philosophical critique of revolutionary violence. This powerful and controversial work, with its explicit condemnation of Marxism-Leninism and in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay its emphatic denunciation of unrestrained violence as a means of Essay on The Failure Education, human liberation, led to an eventual falling out with Sartre and, along with his opposition to in "Nectar in a Sieve" the Algerian National Liberation Front, to his being branded a reactionary in the view of many European Communists. Yet his position also established him as an outspoken champion of individual freedom and as an feminist sociology impassioned critic of tyranny and terrorism, whether practiced by the Left or by the Right. In 1956, Camus published the short, confessional novel The Fall , which unfortunately would be the last of his completed major works and which in the opinion of some critics is the most elegant, and most under-rated of all his books. During this period he was still afflicted by Themes in "Nectar Sieve", tuberculosis and if you could have with was perhaps even more sorely beset by the deteriorating political situation in his native Algeria—which had by now escalated from demonstrations and occasional terrorist and guerilla attacks into open violence and insurrection. Camus still hoped to Themes in a champion some kind of rapprochement that would allow the native Muslim population and the French pied noir minority to live together peaceably in symbols, a new de-colonized and largely integrated, if not fully independent, nation. Alas, by this point, as he painfully realized, the in "Nectar, odds of such an Thomas Common from outcome were becoming increasingly unlikely. In the fall of 1957, following publication of Exile and the Kingdom, a collection of short fiction, Camus was shocked by news that he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.
He absorbed the announcement with mixed feelings of gratitude, humility, and amazement. Themes! On the one hand, the award was obviously a tremendous honor. On the feminist, other, not only did he feel that his friend and esteemed fellow novelist Andre Malraux was more deserving, he was also aware that the Nobel itself was widely regarded as the kind of accolade usually given to Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve" artists at the end of a long career. Yet, as he indicated in his acceptance speech at Stockholm, he considered his own career as still in mid-flight, with much yet to accomplish and even greater writing challenges ahead: Every person, and assuredly every artist, wants to be recognized. So do I. But I’ve been unable to comprehend your decision without comparing its resounding impact with my own actual status. Have Anyone! A man almost young, rich only in in "Nectar in a Sieve", his doubts, and with his work still in progress…how could such a man not feel a kind of panic at hearing a decree that transports him all of lane v holloway, a sudden…to the center of in "Nectar Essay, a glaring spotlight? And with what feelings could he accept this honor at a time when other writers in Europe, among them the very greatest, are condemned to silence, and even at could have anyone a time when the country of his birth is going through unending misery? Of course Camus could not have known as he spoke these words that most of his writing career was in fact behind him.
Over the next two years, he published articles and continued to write, produce, and direct plays, including his own adaptation of Dostoyevsky’s The Possessed . He also formulated new concepts for film and Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay television, assumed a leadership role in a new experimental national theater, and continued to campaign for peace and a political solution in theorists, Algeria. Unfortunately, none of in "Nectar Sieve" Essay, these latter projects would be brought to fulfillment. On January 4, 1960, Camus died tragically in a car accident while he was a passenger in a vehicle driven by his friend and publisher Michel Gallimard, who also suffered fatal injuries. The author was buried in the local cemetery at Lourmarin, a village in Provencal where he and his wife and daughters had lived for nearly a decade. Upon hearing of Camus’s death, Sartre wrote a moving eulogy in the France-Observateur , saluting his former friend and political adversary not only for his distinguished contributions to French literature but especially for the heroic moral courage and “stubborn humanism” which he brought to bear against the “massive and deformed events of the day.” According to Sartre’s perceptive appraisal, Camus was less a novelist and more a writer of philosophical tales and symbols parables in the tradition of Voltaire. This assessment accords with Camus’s own judgment that his fictional works were not true novels (Fr. romans ), a form he associated with the densely populated and richly detailed social panoramas of writers like Balzac, Tolstoy, and Proust, but rather contes (“tales”) and recits (“narratives”) combining philosophical and psychological insights. In this respect, it is also worth noting that at no time in his career did Camus ever describe himself as a deep thinker or lay claim to the title of philosopher.
Instead, he nearly always referred to in "Nectar in a himself simply, yet proudly, as un ecrivain —a writer. This is an important fact to keep in mind when assessing his place in intellectual history and in Thomas influenced, twentieth-century philosophy, for in a Sieve" Essay, by no means does he qualify as a system-builder or theorist or even as a disciplined thinker. He was instead (and here again Sartre’s assessment is Thomas Common America's from Britain, astute) a sort of all-purpose critic and modern-day philosophe : a debunker of mythologies, a critic of fraud and superstition, an enemy of terror, a voice of reason and Themes compassion, and an outspoken defender of freedom—all in all a figure very much in the Enlightenment tradition of Voltaire and Diderot. For this reason, in assessing Camus’s career and work, it may be best simply to take him at his own word and characterize him first and foremost as a writer —advisedly attaching the equation for thermal, epithet “philosophical” for sharper accuracy and definition. 3. Camus, Philosophical Literature, and the Novel of Ideas. To pin down exactly why and in what distinctive sense Camus may be termed a philosophical writer, we can begin by comparing him with other authors who have merited the designation.
Right away, we can eliminate any comparison with the Themes in a Sieve", efforts of Lucretius and Dante, who undertook to unfold entire cosmologies and philosophical systems in epic verse. Camus obviously attempted nothing of the lane v holloway, sort. On the other hand, we can draw at least a limited comparison between Camus and writers like Pascal, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche—that is, with writers who were first of all philosophers or religious writers, but whose stylistic achievements and literary flair gained them a special place in the pantheon of world literature as well. Here we may note that Camus himself was very conscious of his debt to Kierkegaard and Sieve" Nietzsche (especially in lane v holloway, the style and in "Nectar in a structure of The Myth of Sisyphus and Thomas Common Sense The Rebel ) and that he might very well have followed in their literary-philosophical footsteps if his tuberculosis had not side-tracked him into fiction and Sieve" Essay journalism and prevented him from pursuing an academic career. Perhaps Camus himself best defined his own particular status as a philosophical writer when he wrote (with authors like Melville, Stendhal, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka especially in mind): “The great novelists are philosophical novelists”; that is, writers who eschew systematic explanation and create their discourse using “images instead of arguments” ( The Myth of Sisyphus 74). By his own definition then Camus is a philosophical writer in the sense that he has (a) conceived his own distinctive and if you have dinner anyone original world-view and (b) sought to convey that view mainly through images, fictional characters and Themes in "Nectar Sieve" Essay events, and via dramatic presentation rather than through critical analysis and direct discourse. He is also both a novelist of ideas and if you could have anyone a psychological novelist, and in this respect, he certainly compares most closely to Sieve" Essay Dostoyevsky and Sartre, two other writers who combine a unique and Essay of Abstinence-Only distinctly philosophical outlook, acute psychological insight, and a dramatic style of presentation. (Like Camus, Sartre was a productive playwright, and Dostoyevsky remains perhaps the most dramatic of all novelists, as Camus clearly understood, having adapted both The Brothers Karamazov and The Possessed for the stage.) Camus’s reputation rests largely on the three novels published during his lifetime— The Stranger, The Plague, and The Fall —and on his two major philosophical essays— The Myth of Sisyphus and Themes in a Sieve" The Rebel . However, his body of Essay Education, work also includes a collection of short fiction, Exile and the Kingdom ; an autobiographical novel, The First Man ; a number of Themes in a Essay, dramatic works, most notably Caligula, The Misunderstanding , The State of Essay, Siege , and The Just Assassins ; several translations and adaptations, including new versions of works by Calderon, Lope de Vega, Dostoyevsky, and Faulkner; and a lengthy assortment of essays, prose pieces, critical reviews, transcribed speeches and in "Nectar in a Sieve" interviews, articles, and works of journalism. A brief summary and Essay Failure of Abstinence-Only description of the Themes in "Nectar in a Essay, most important of Camus’s writings is Essay Failure Education, presented below as preparation for a larger discussion of his philosophy and Themes in "Nectar Sieve" Essay world-view, including his main ideas and recurrent philosophical themes. The Stranger ( L’Etranger, 1942)—From its cold opening lines, “Mother died today.
Or maybe yesterday; I can’t be sure,” to Thomas Common independence from Britain its bleak concluding image of a public execution set to take place beneath the “benign indifference of the universe,” Camus’s first and most famous novel takes the form of Themes in "Nectar in a Essay, a terse, flat, first-person narrative by on The of Abstinence-Only, its main character Meursault, a very ordinary young man of unremarkable habits and Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve" unemotional affect who, inexplicably and in an almost absent-minded way, kills an Arab and then is arrested, tried, convicted, and sentenced to death. The neutral style of the novel—typical of what the critic Roland Barthes called “writing degree zero”—serves as a perfect vehicle for the descriptions and commentary of its anti-hero narrator, the ultimate “outsider” and a person who seems to observe everything, including his own life, with almost pathological detachment. The Plague ( La Peste, 1947)—Set in the coastal town of word equation for thermal decomposition, Oran, Camus’s second novel is the in a Essay, story of an outbreak of plague, traced from its subtle, insidious, unheeded beginnings and Thomas Common Sense America's horrible, seemingly irresistible dominion to its eventual climax and decline, all told from the viewpoint of one of the survivors. Camus made no effort to conceal the fact that his novel was partly based on and could be interpreted as an allegory or parable of the rise of Nazism and the nightmare of the Occupation. However, the in a Sieve" Essay, plague metaphor is both more complicated and more flexible than that, extending to signify the Absurd in feminist theorists sociology, general as well as any calamity or disaster that tests the Sieve" Essay, mettle of human beings, their endurance, their solidarity, their sense of responsibility, their compassion, and their will. At the end of the novel, the plague finally retreats, and the narrator reflects that a time of pestilence teaches “that there is word equation for thermal, more to in "Nectar Sieve" admire in men than to despise,” but he also knows “that the plague bacillus never dies or disappears for good,” that “the day would come when, for word for thermal, the bane and the enlightening of men, it would rouse up its rats again” and send them forth yet once more to spread death and in "Nectar Sieve" Essay contagion into a happy and unsuspecting city. The Fall ( La Chute, 1956)—Camus’s third novel, and the last to be published during his lifetime, is in effect an extended dramatic monologue spoken by M. Jean-Baptiste Clamence, a dissipated, cynical, former Parisian attorney (who now calls himself a “judge-penitent”) to an unnamed auditor (thus indirectly to the reader). Set in a seedy bar in feminist, the red-light district of in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay, Amsterdam, the work is a small masterpiece of compression and style: a confessional (and semi-autobiographical) novel, an arresting character study and dinner with anyone psychological portrait, and at in "Nectar Sieve" the same time a wide-ranging philosophical discourse on guilt and innocence, expiation and punishment, good and Essay of Abstinence-Only evil. Camus began his literary career as a playwright and theatre director and was planning new dramatic works for film, stage, and television at the time of his death. In addition to in a Sieve" Essay his four original plays, he also published several successful adaptations (including theatre pieces based on Failure of Abstinence-Only Education, works by Faulkner, Dostoyevsky, and Calderon). He took particular pride in his work as a dramatist and in a Essay man of the anthropology, theatre.
However, his plays never achieved the same popularity, critical success, or level of incandescence as his more famous novels and major essays. Caligula (1938, first produced 1945)—“Men die and are not happy.” Such is the complaint against the universe pronounced by the young emperor Caligula, who in Camus’s play is less the murderous lunatic, slave to incest, narcissist, and megalomaniac of Roman history than a theatrical martyr-hero of the Absurd: a man who carries his philosophical quarrel with the meaninglessness of human existence to Themes in a a kind of fanatical but logical extreme. On The Of Abstinence-Only! Camus described his hero as a man “obsessed with the impossible” willing to pervert all values, and if necessary destroy himself and all those around him in the pursuit of absolute liberty. Caligula was Camus’s first attempt at portraying a figure in absolute defiance of the Absurd, and through three revisions of the play over a period of several years he eventually achieved a remarkable composite by adding to Caligula’s original portrait touches of Sade, of revolutionary nihilism, of the Nietzschean Superman, of Themes in "Nectar in a, his own version of Sisyphus, and even of Mussolini and word for thermal Hitler. The Misunderstanding ( Le Malentendu , 1944)—In this grim exploration of the Absurd, a son returns home while concealing his true identity from his mother and sister. The two women operate a boarding house where, in order to in a make ends meet, they quietly murder and rob their patrons. Through a tangle of misunderstanding and mistaken identity they wind up murdering their unrecognized visitor. Camus has explained the drama as an attempt to capture the atmosphere of malaise, corruption, demoralization, and anonymity that he experienced while living in France during the German occupation. Anthropology Symbols! Despite the play’s dark themes and bleak style, he described its philosophy as ultimately optimistic: “It amounts to saying that in an unjust or indifferent world man can save himself, and save others, by Themes Essay, practicing the most basic sincerity and pronouncing the most appropriate word.”
State of Siege ( L’Etat de Siege, 1948) — This odd allegorical drama combines features of the medieval morality play with elements of Calderon and the Spanish baroque; it also has apocalyptic themes, bits of music hall comedy, and a collection of avant-garde theatrics thrown in for good measure. The work marked a significant departure from Camus’s normal dramatic style. It also resulted in virtually universal disapproval and lane v holloway negative reviews from Paris theatre-goers and critics, many of whom came expecting a play based on in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay, Camus’s recent novel The Plague . The play is set in the Spanish seaport city of Cadiz, famous for its beaches, carnivals, and anthropology symbols street musicians. By the end of the first act, the normally laid-back and carefree citizens fall under the in a Sieve", dominion of a gaudily beribboned and lane v holloway uniformed dictator named Plague (based on Generalissimo Franco) and his officious, clip-board wielding Secretary (who turns out to be a modern, bureaucratic incarnation of the medieval figure Death). One of the prominent concerns of the play is the Orwellian theme of the degradation of language via totalitarian politics and bureaucracy (symbolized onstage by calls for silence, scenes in pantomime, and a gagged chorus). As one character observes, “we are steadily nearing that perfect moment when nothing anybody says will rouse the least echo in another’s mind.” The Just Assassins ( Les Justes , 1950)—First performed in Paris to largely favorable reviews, this play is based on real-life characters and an actual historical event: the 1905 assassination of the Russian Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich by Ivan Kalyayev and fellow members of the Combat Organization of the Socialist Revolutionary Party. The play effectively dramatizes the issues that Camus would later explore in detail in The Rebel , especially the question of in "Nectar, whether acts of terrorism and political violence can ever be morally justified (and if so, with what limitations and in what specific circumstances).
The historical Kalyayev passed up his original opportunity to bomb the Thomas Paine's America's from, Grand Duke’s carriage because the Duke was accompanied by his wife and two young nephews. However, this was no act of Themes in a Sieve" Essay, conscience on Kalyayev’s part but a purely practical decision based on of Abstinence-Only, his calculation that the murder of Themes in a Essay, children would prove a setback to the revolution. After the successful completion of his bombing mission and lane v holloway subsequent arrest, Kalyayev welcomed his execution on similarly practical and purely political grounds, believing that his death would further the cause of revolution and social justice. Camus’s Kalyayev, on the other hand, is a far more agonized and conscientious figure, neither so cold-blooded nor so calculating as his real-life counterpart. Upon seeing the two children in the carriage, he refuses to toss his bomb not because doing so would be politically inexpedient but because he is overcome emotionally, temporarily unnerved by the sad expression in their eyes. Similarly, at the end of the play he embraces his death not so much because it will aid the Themes in "Nectar in a Essay, revolution, but almost as a form of karmic penance, as if it were indeed some kind of sacred duty or metaphysical requirement that must be performed in order for if you anyone, true justice to Themes be achieved. c. Essays, Letters, Prose Collections, Articles, and Reviews. Betwixt and Between ( L’Envers et l’endroit, 1937)—This short collection of semi-autobiographical, semi-fictional, philosophical pieces might be dismissed as juvenilia and largely ignored if it were not for the fact that it represents Camus’s first attempt to if you could dinner with formulate a coherent life-outlook and world-view.
The collection, which in a way serves as a germ or starting point for the author’s later philosophy, consists of five lyrical essays. In “Irony” (“ L’Ironie ”), a reflection on youth and age, Camus asserts, in the manner of a young disciple of Pascal, our essential solitariness in life and death. In “Between yes and no” (“ Entre Oui et Non ”) he suggests that to hope is as empty and as pointless as to despair, yet he goes beyond nihilism by positing a fundamental value to existence-in-the-world. In “Death in Themes Sieve" Essay, the soul” (“ La Mort dans l’ame ”) he supplies a sort of existential travel review, contrasting his impressions of central and Eastern Europe (which he views as purgatorial and morgue-like) with the more spontaneous life of lane v holloway, Italy and Mediterranean culture. The piece thus affirms the Essay, author’s lifelong preference for the color and vitality of the Mediterranean world, and especially North Africa, as opposed to what he perceives as the Failure, soulless cold-heartedness of in a Essay, modern Europe. In “Love of life” (“ Amour de vivre ”) he claims there can be no love of life without despair of life and thus largely re-asserts the Essay of Abstinence-Only Education, essentially tragic, ancient Greek view that the very beauty of human existence is largely contingent upon its brevity and fragility. The concluding essay, “Betwixt and between” (“ L’Envers et l’endroit ”), summarizes and Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay re-emphasizes the Romantic themes of the collection as a whole: our fundamental “aloneness,” the importance of imagination and openness to experience, the imperative to symbols “live as if….”
Nuptials ( Noces , 1938)—This collection of four rhapsodic narratives supplements and amplifies the youthful philosophy expressed in Betwixt and Between . That joy is necessarily intertwined with despair, that the shortness of in a, life confers a premium on if you have anyone, intense experience, and Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay that the world is both beautiful and violent—these are, once again, Camus’s principal themes. “Summer in Algiers,” which is probably the best (and best-known) of the essays in the collection, is a lyrical, at times almost ecstatic, celebration of sea, sun, and the North African landscape. Lane V Holloway! Affirming a defiantly atheistic creed, Camus concludes with one of the core ideas of his philosophy: “If there is a sin against Themes Essay life, it consists not so much in despairing as in hoping for another life and in eluding the implacable grandeur of Essay on The of Abstinence-Only, this one.” The Myth of Sisyphus ( Le Mythe de Sisyphe, 1943)—If there is a single non-fiction work that can be considered an essential or fundamental statement of Camus’s philosophy, it is this extended essay on the ethics of suicide (eventually translated and repackaged for American publication in 1955). It is Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve", here that Camus formally introduces and lane v holloway fully articulates his most famous idea, the concept of the Absurd, and his equally famous image of life as a Sisyphean struggle. From its provocative opening sentence—“There is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and Sieve" that is suicide”—to its stirring, paradoxical conclusion—“The struggle itself toward the heights is word for thermal, enough to fill a man’s heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happy”—the book has something interesting and challenging on nearly every page and Themes in a Sieve" is shot through with brilliant aphorisms and insights. In the end, Camus rejects suicide: the Absurd must not be evaded either by religion (“philosophical suicide”) or by annihilation (“physical suicide”); the task of living should not merely be accepted, it must be embraced. The Rebel ( L’Homme Revolte, 1951)—Camus considered this work a continuation of the critical and philosophical investigation of the Absurd that he began with The Myth of Sisyphus . Only this time his primary concern is not suicide but murder. He takes up the question of whether acts of lane v holloway, terrorism and political violence can be morally justified, which is basically the same question he had addressed earlier in his play The Just Assassins . Themes In "Nectar Sieve" Essay! After arguing that an authentic life inevitably involves some form of conscientious moral revolt, Camus winds up concluding that only in if you could have anyone, rare and in "Nectar in a very narrowly defined instances is political violence justified.
Camus’s critique of revolutionary violence and terror in this work, and particularly his caustic assessment of Marxism-Leninism (which he accused of sacrificing innocent lives on have dinner, the altar of History), touched nerves throughout Europe and led in part to his celebrated feud with Sartre and other French leftists. Resistance, Rebellion, and Death (1957)—This posthumous collection is of interest to students of Camus mainly because it brings together an unusual assortment of his non-fiction writings on Themes in a, a wide range of topics, from theorists sociology art and politics to the advantages of pessimism and Sieve" Essay the virtues (from a non-believer’s standpoint) of Christianity. Of special interest are two pieces that helped secure Camus’s worldwide reputation as a voice of word, liberty: “Letters to a German Friend,” a set of four letters originally written during the Themes Essay, Nazi Occupation, and “Reflections on the Guillotine,” a denunciation of the death penalty cited for special mention by the Nobel committee and Paine's Common influenced from eventually revised and re-published as a companion essay to go with fellow death-penalty opponent Arthur Koestler’s “Reflections on Hanging.” To re-emphasize a point made earlier, Camus considered himself first and foremost a writer ( un ecrivain ). Indeed, Camus’s dissertation advisor penciled onto his dissertation the Themes in "Nectar, assessment “More a writer than a philosopher.” And at various times in his career he also accepted the labels journalist, humanist, novelist, and even moralist. However, he apparently never felt comfortable identifying himself as a philosopher—a term he seems to Essay Failure Education have associated with rigorous academic training, systematic thinking, logical consistency, and a coherent, carefully defined doctrine or body of ideas. This is not to suggest that Camus lacked ideas or to say that his thought cannot be considered a personal philosophy. It is Themes Sieve", simply to point out that he was not a systematic, or even a notably disciplined thinker and that, unlike Heidegger and Sartre, for Failure Education, example, he showed very little interest in metaphysics and ontology, which seems to be one of the reasons he consistently denied that he was an in a Sieve" Essay existentialist. In short, he was not much given to speculative philosophy or any kind of abstract theorizing. His thought is instead nearly always related to symbols current events (e.g., the Spanish War, revolt in Algeria) and is consistently grounded in down-to-earth moral and political reality. Though he was baptized, raised, and educated as a Catholic and invariably respectful towards the Church, Camus seems to have been a natural-born pagan who showed almost no instinct whatsoever for belief in the supernatural.
Even as a youth, he was more of a sun-worshipper and nature lover than a boy notable for his piety or religious faith. On the Themes in a Essay, other hand, there is no denying that Christian literature and philosophy served as an important influence on his early thought and intellectual development. If You With Anyone! As a young high school student, Camus studied the Bible, read and savored the Spanish mystics St. Theresa of Avila and St. In "Nectar! John of the Cross, and was introduced to the thought of St. Augustine St. Augustine would later serve as the subject of his baccalaureate dissertation and become—as a fellow North African writer, quasi-existentialist, and conscientious observer-critic of his own life—an important lifelong influence. In college Camus absorbed Kierkegaard, who, after Augustine, was probably the single greatest Christian influence on his thought. He also studied Schopenhauer and Nietzsche—undoubtedly the feminist theorists, two writers who did the most to set him on his own path of defiant pessimism and atheism.
Other notable influences include not only the major modern philosophers from the academic curriculum—from Descartes and Spinoza to Bergson—but also, and just as importantly, philosophical writers like Stendhal, Melville, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka. The two earliest expressions of Camus’s personal philosophy are his works Betwixt and Between (1937) and Nuptials (1938). Here he unfolds what is essentially a hedonistic, indeed almost primitivistic, celebration of nature and the life of the senses. In the Romantic poetic tradition of writers like Rilke and Wallace Stevens, he offers a forceful rejection of all hereafters and an emphatic embrace of the Sieve" Essay, here and now. There is no salvation, he argues, no transcendence; there is only the if you dinner anyone, enjoyment of Themes in "Nectar, consciousness and natural being.
One life, this life, is America's, enough. Sky and sea, mountain and desert, have their own beauty and in a Essay magnificence and constitute a sufficient heaven. The critic John Cruikshank termed this stage in if you could have dinner with, Camus’s thinking “naive atheism” and attributed it to his ecstatic and somewhat immature “Mediterraneanism.” Naive seems an in "Nectar in a Sieve" apt characterization for a philosophy that is romantically bold and decomposition uncomplicated yet somewhat lacking in sophistication and logical clarity. On the other hand, if we keep in Themes in "Nectar in a, mind Camus’s theatrical background and preference for dramatic presentation, there may actually be more depth and complexity to his thought here than meets the eye. That is to say, just as it would be simplistic and reductive to feminist sociology equate Camus’s philosophy of Sieve" Essay, revolt with that of his character Caligula (who is at best a kind of extreme or mad spokesperson for the author), so in the same way it is possible that the pensees and if you with opinions presented in Nuptials and Betwixt and Between are not so much the Themes in a, views of Camus as they are poetically heightened observations of an artfully crafted narrator—an exuberant alter ego who is if you dinner with, far more spontaneous and free-spirited than his more naturally reserved and sober-minded author. In any case, regardless of this assessment of the ideas expressed in Betwixt and Between and Nuptials , it is clear that these early writings represent an important, if comparatively raw and simple, beginning stage in Camus’s development as a thinker where his views differ markedly from his more mature philosophy in Essay, several noteworthy respects. In the first place, the Camus of Nuptials is still a young man of twenty-five, aflame with youthful joie de vivre.
He favors a life of impulse and daring as it was honored and practiced in both Romantic literature and in the streets of Paine's Common from Britain, Belcourt. Recently married and divorced, raised in in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay, poverty and in close quarters, beset with health problems, this young man develops an understandable passion for clear air, open space, colorful dreams, panoramic vistas, and the breath-taking prospects and challenges of the larger world. Essay Failure! Consequently, the Camus of the period 1937-38 is Themes in a, a decidedly different writer from the Camus who will ascend the dais at Stockholm nearly twenty years later. The young Camus is more of a sensualist and pleasure-seeker, more of a dandy and aesthete, than the more hardened and austere figure who will endure the Occupation while serving in the French underground. Paine's Common Influenced America's! He is a writer passionate in his conviction that life ought to Themes in "Nectar in a Essay be lived vividly and intensely—indeed rebelliously (to use the term that will take on Essay on The Failure of Abstinence-Only Education, increasing importance in in a, his thought). He is also a writer attracted to causes, though he is not yet the author who will become world-famous for his moral seriousness and anthropology passionate commitment to Themes justice and freedom.
All of which is could, understandable. After all, the Camus of the middle 1930s had not yet witnessed and in "Nectar in a Sieve" absorbed the shattering spectacle and disillusioning effects of the Spanish Civil War, the rise of Fascism, Hitlerism, and Stalinism, the symbols, coming into being of total war and weapons of mass destruction, and in a the terrible reign of genocide and terror that would characterize the period 1938-1945. It was under the pressure and in direct response to the events of this period that Camus’s mature philosophy—with its core set of humanistic themes and ideas—emerged and gradually took shape. That mature philosophy is no longer a “naive atheism” but a very reflective and critical brand of unbelief. It is proudly and inconsolably pessimistic, but not in feminist theorists, a polemical or overbearing way. It is unbending, hardheaded, determinedly skeptical. It is tolerant and respectful of world religious creeds, but at the same time wholly unsympathetic to them. In the end it is an affirmative philosophy that accepts and approves, and in Themes in a, its own way blesses, our dreadful mortality and our fundamental isolation in the world. Regardless of whether he is producing drama, fiction, or non-fiction, Camus in his mature writings nearly always takes up and re-explores the same basic philosophical issues.
These recurrent topoi constitute the key components of lane v holloway, his thought. They include themes like the Themes Essay, Absurd, alienation, suicide, and rebellion that almost automatically come to mind whenever his name is anthropology symbols, mentioned. Hence any summary of his place in modern philosophy would be incomplete without at least a brief discussion of these ideas and how they fit together to in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay form a distinctive and original world-view. Even readers not closely acquainted with Camus’s works are aware of his reputation as the philosophical expositor, anatomist, and feminist theorists sociology poet-apostle of the Themes, Absurd. Indeed, as even sitcom writers and with stand-up comics apparently understand (odd fact: the comic-bleak final episode of in "Nectar, Seinfeld has been compared to word equation for thermal The Stranger , and Camus’s thought has been used to explain episodes of The Simpsons ), it is largely through the in "Nectar Sieve", thought and writings of the French-Algerian author that the concept of absurdity has become a part not only of world literature and twentieth-century philosophy but also of modern popular culture. What then is meant by the notion of the Absurd? Contrary to the view conveyed by popular culture, the Absurd, (at least in Camus’s terms) does not simply refer to theorists some vague perception that modern life is fraught with paradoxes, incongruities, and intellectual confusion. In A Sieve"! (Although that perception is certainly consistent with his formula.) Instead, as he emphasizes and tries to make clear, the Absurd expresses a fundamental disharmony, a tragic incompatibility, in of Abstinence-Only, our existence. In effect, he argues that the Absurd is the product of a collision or confrontation between our human desire for order, meaning, and purpose in life and the blank, indifferent “silence of the universe”: “The absurd is not in man nor in the world,” Camus explains, “but in their presence together…it is the only bond uniting them.” So here we are: poor creatures desperately seeking hope and meaning in a hopeless, meaningless world.
Sartre, in his essay-review of The Stranger provides an additional gloss on the idea: “The absurd, to be sure, resides neither in man nor in the world, if you consider each separately. But since man’s dominant characteristic is ‘being in the world,’ the absurd is, in the end, an inseparable part of the human condition.” The Absurd, then, presents itself in the form of an existential opposition. It arises from the human demand for Themes Sieve", clarity and transcendence on the one hand and Thomas Paine's Sense influenced America's from a cosmos that offers nothing of the kind on the other. In "Nectar! Such is if you dinner, our fate: we inhabit a world that is indifferent to our sufferings and deaf to our protests. In Camus’s view there are three possible philosophical responses to this predicament. Two of these he condemns as evasions, and the other he puts forward as a proper solution. The first choice is blunt and in "Nectar Sieve" simple: physical suicide. If we decide that a life without some essential purpose or meaning is not worth living, we can simply choose to kill ourselves. Camus rejects this choice as cowardly. In his terms it is a repudiation or renunciation of equation decomposition, life, not a true revolt.
The second choice is the religious solution of Sieve" Essay, positing a transcendent world of solace and meaning beyond the Absurd. Camus calls this solution “philosophical suicide” and rejects it as transparently evasive and fraudulent. To adopt a supernatural solution to the problem of the Absurd (for example, through some type of lane v holloway, mysticism or leap of faith) is to annihilate reason, which in Camus’s view is as fatal and self-destructive as physical suicide. In effect, instead of removing himself from the absurd confrontation of self and world like the physical suicide, the religious believer simply removes the offending world and Themes Sieve" replaces it, via a kind of metaphysical abracadabra, with a more agreeable alternative. The third choice—in Camus’s view the only authentic and valid solution—is simply to accept absurdity, or better yet to embrace it, and to continue living.
Since the Absurd in his view is an unavoidable, indeed defining, characteristic of the human condition, the only proper response to lane v holloway it is full, unflinching, courageous acceptance. Life, he says, can “be lived all the Themes in "Nectar Essay, better if it has no meaning.” The example par excellence of this option of spiritual courage and metaphysical revolt is the mythical Sisyphus of Camus’s philosophical essay. Doomed to eternal labor at Essay on The of Abstinence-Only his rock, fully conscious of the essential hopelessness of his plight, Sisyphus nevertheless pushes on. In doing so he becomes for Camus a superb icon of the spirit of revolt and of the human condition. To rise each day to fight a battle you know you cannot win, and to do this with wit, grace, compassion for others, and Themes in a Sieve" even a sense of mission, is to face the Paine's Common Sense independence from, Absurd in a spirit of true heroism. Over the course of his career, Camus examines the Absurd from multiple perspectives and through the in a Sieve", eyes of many different characters—from the mad Caligula, who is lane v holloway, obsessed with the problem, to the strangely aloof and yet simultaneously self-absorbed Meursault, who seems indifferent to it even as he exemplifies and is finally victimized by it. In The Myth of Sisyphus, Camus traces it in specific characters of legend and literature (Don Juan, Ivan Karamazov) and also in certain character types (the Actor, the Conqueror), all of who may be understood as in some way a version or manifestation of Sisyphus, the archetypal absurd hero. [Note: A rather different, yet possibly related, notion of the Absurd is proposed and in a analyzed in the work of Kierkegaard, especially in Fear and Trembling and Repetition . For Kierkegaard, however, the Essay on The Education, Absurd describes not an in "Nectar essential and universal human condition, but the special condition and nature of religious faith—a paradoxical state in which matters of will and perception that are objectively impossible can nevertheless be ultimately true. Though it is hard to say whether Camus had Kierkegaard particularly in mind when he developed his own concept of the absurd, there can be little doubt that Kierkegaard’s knight of faith is in certain ways an important predecessor of Camus’s Sisyphus: both figures are involved in impossible and endlessly agonizing tasks, which they nevertheless confidently and even cheerfully pursue.
In the knight’s quixotic defiance and solipsism, Camus found a model for his own ideal of heroic affirmation and on The of Abstinence-Only Education philosophical revolt.] The companion theme to the Absurd in Camus’s oeuvre (and the only other philosophical topic to which he devoted an entire book) is the idea of Revolt. Sieve" Essay! What is revolt? Simply defined, it is the Sisyphean spirit of defiance in the face of the Absurd. Have With! More technically and less metaphorically, it is a spirit of opposition against any perceived unfairness, oppression, or indignity in Themes in "Nectar Sieve", the human condition.
Rebellion in Camus’s sense begins with a recognition of boundaries, of limits that define one’s essential selfhood and core sense of being and thus must not be infringed—as when a slave stands up to his master and anthropology symbols says in effect “thus far, and in "Nectar in a Sieve" no further, shall I be commanded.” This defining of the self as at some point inviolable appears to be an act of pure egoism and individualism, but it is not. In fact Camus argues at considerable length to symbols show that an act of conscientious revolt is ultimately far more than just an individual gesture or an act of Themes in a Essay, solitary protest. The rebel, he writes, holds that there is a “common good more important than his own destiny” and Thomas Sense influenced from that there are “rights more important than himself.” He acts “in the name of certain values which are still indeterminate but which he feels are common to himself and to all men” ( The Rebel 15-16). Camus then goes on to assert that an “analysis of rebellion leads at least to Themes in a Essay the suspicion that, contrary to the postulates of contemporary thought, a human nature does exist, as the Greeks believed.” After all, “Why rebel,” he asks, “if there is Paine's influenced America's independence Britain, nothing permanent in the self worth preserving?” The slave who stands up and Themes in a Sieve" asserts himself actually does so for symbols, “the sake of everyone in Themes in a Essay, the world.” He declares in effect that “all men—even the man who insults and oppresses him—have a natural community.” Here we may note that the idea that there may indeed be an essential human nature is actually more than a “suspicion” as far as Camus himself was concerned. Indeed for him it was more like a fundamental article of equation, his humanist faith. In any case it represents one of the core principles of his ethics and Themes in a Sieve" is one of the tenets that sets his philosophy apart from existentialism. True revolt, then, is performed not just for the self but also in lane v holloway, solidarity with and out of compassion for others. In "Nectar In A Sieve" Essay! And for this reason, Camus is led to conclude that revolt too has its limits.
If it begins with and equation for thermal decomposition necessarily involves a recognition of Themes in "Nectar Essay, human community and on The Failure a common human dignity, it cannot, without betraying its own true character, treat others as if they were lacking in that dignity or not a part of that community. In the Themes, end it is remarkable, and of Abstinence-Only indeed surprising, how closely Camus’s philosophy of revolt, despite the Sieve" Essay, author’s fervent atheism and individualism, echoes Kantian ethics with its prohibition against treating human beings as means and if you dinner its ideal of the human community as a kingdom of ends. A recurrent theme in in "Nectar, Camus’s literary works, which also shows up in his moral and political writings, is the character or perspective of the “stranger” or outsider. Meursault, the laconic narrator of The Stranger , is the most obvious example. He seems to Common from observe everything, even his own behavior, from an outside perspective. Like an anthropologist, he records his observations with clinical detachment at the same time that he is warily observed by the community around him. Camus came by this perspective naturally. As a European in Africa, an African in Europe, an infidel among Muslims, a lapsed Catholic, a Communist Party drop-out, an underground resister (who at times had to use code names and in "Nectar Essay false identities), a “child of the state” raised by Thomas Paine's Common Sense America's from Britain, a widowed mother (who was illiterate and virtually deaf and dumb), Camus lived most of his life in Themes in "Nectar in a, various groups and word equation for thermal decomposition communities without really being integrated within them. This outside view, the perspective of the exile, became his characteristic stance as a writer. It explains both the cool, objective (“zero-degree”) precision of Themes in "Nectar Sieve", much of his work and also the high value he assigned to longed-for ideals of friendship, community, solidarity, and brotherhood.
Throughout his writing career, Camus showed a deep interest in questions of feminist, guilt and innocence. In A Sieve"! Once again Meursault in The Stranger provides a striking example. Is he legally innocent of the murder he is charged with? Or is he technically guilty? On the one hand, there seems to have been no conscious intention behind his action.
Indeed the killing takes place almost as if by accident, with Meursault in a kind of absent-minded daze, distracted by the sun. From this point of view, his crime seems surreal and his trial and subsequent conviction a travesty. On the other hand, it is Thomas Paine's Sense America's from Britain, hard for the reader not to share the view of other characters in the novel, especially Meursault’s accusers, witnesses, and jury, in whose eyes he seems to be a seriously defective human being—at best, a kind of hollow man and at worst, a monster of self-centeredness and insularity. That the character has evoked such a wide range of responses from critics and readers—from sympathy to horror—is a tribute to the psychological complexity and subtlety of Camus’s portrait. Camus’s brilliantly crafted final novel, The Fall , continues his keen interest in the theme of guilt, this time via a narrator who is virtually obsessed with it. The significantly named Jean-Baptiste Clamence (a voice in the wilderness calling for clemency and forgiveness) is tortured by guilt in the wake of a seemingly casual incident. While strolling home one drizzly November evening, he shows little concern and almost no emotional reaction at all to Sieve" Essay the suicidal plunge of a young woman into Essay Education the Seine. Themes! But afterwards the incident begins to gnaw at him, and eventually he comes to Paine's influenced view his inaction as typical of a long pattern of personal vanity and as a colossal failure of human sympathy on his part. Wracked by remorse and self-loathing, he gradually descends into a figurative hell.
Formerly an attorney, he is now a self-described “judge-penitent” (a combination sinner, tempter, prosecutor, and in a Essay father-confessor) who shows up each night at his local haunt, a sailor’s bar near Amsterdam’s red light district, where, somewhat in if you could, the manner of Coleridge’s Ancient Mariner, he recounts his story to whoever will hear it. In the final sections of the novel, amid distinctly Christian imagery and symbolism, he declares his crucial insight that, despite our pretensions to in "Nectar in a Sieve" righteousness, we are all guilty . Hence no human being has the right to pass final moral judgment on another. In a final twist, Clamence asserts that his acid self-portrait is feminist theorists sociology, also a mirror for his contemporaries. Hence his confession is also an accusation—not only of his nameless companion (who serves as the mute auditor for his monologue) but ultimately of the hypocrite lecteur as well. The theme of in a Sieve" Essay, guilt and innocence in Camus’s writings relates closely to another recurrent tension in his thought: the opposition of Christian and pagan ideas and influences.
At heart a nature-worshipper, and by instinct a skeptic and non-believer, Camus nevertheless retained a lifelong interest and respect for Christian philosophy and literature. In particular, he seems to have recognized St. Augustine and Kierkegaard as intellectual kinsmen and writers with whom he shared a common passion for controversy, literary flourish, self-scrutiny, and on The of Abstinence-Only self-dramatization. Christian images, symbols, and allusions abound in Themes in "Nectar in a Essay, all his work (probably more so than in the writing of any other avowed atheist in word equation for thermal decomposition, modern literature), and Sieve" Christian themes—judgment, forgiveness, despair, sacrifice, passion, and so forth—permeate the feminist sociology, novels. (Meursault and Clamence, it is worth noting, are presented not just as sinners, devils, and outcasts, but in several instances explicitly, and not entirely ironically, as Christ figures.) Meanwhile alongside and against this leitmotif of Christian images and themes, Camus sets the main components of in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay, his essentially pagan worldview. Like Nietzsche, he maintains a special admiration for Greek heroic values and pessimism and for anthropology, classical virtues like courage and honor. What might be termed Romantic values also merit particular esteem within his philosophy: passion, absorption in pure being, an appreciation for and indeed a willingness to revel in Themes in a Essay, raw sensory experience, the glory of the moment, the beauty of the world.
As a result of Paine's Common America's independence, this duality of in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay, influence, Camus’s basic philosophical problem becomes how to reconcile his Augustinian sense of original sin (universal guilt) and rampant moral evil with his personal ideal of pagan primitivism (universal innocence) and with his conviction that the natural world and our life in it have intrinsic beauty and value. Can an absurd world have intrinsic value? Is authentic pessimism compatible with the view that there is an essential dignity to human life? Such questions raise the possibility that there may be deep logical inconsistencies within Camus’s philosophy, and some critics (notably Sartre) have suggested that these inconsistencies cannot be surmounted except through some sort of Kierkegaardian leap of faith on Camus’s part—in this case a leap leading to a belief not in God but in man. Such a leap is certainly implied in an oft-quoted remark from word equation Camus’s “Letter to a German Friend,” where he wrote: “I continue to believe that this world has no supernatural meaning…But I know that something in the world has meaning—man.” One can find similar affirmations and protestations on behalf of humanity throughout Camus’s writings. They are almost a hallmark of his philosophical style. Oracular and in "Nectar high-flown, they clearly have more rhetorical force than logical potency. On the other hand, if we are trying to locate Camus’s place in European philosophical tradition, they provide a strong clue as to where he properly belongs. Surprisingly, the feminist, sentiment here, a commonplace of the Enlightenment and of traditional liberalism, is much closer in spirit to the exuberant secular humanism of the Italian Renaissance than to Themes in "Nectar in a the agnostic skepticism of feminist theorists sociology, contemporary post-modernism. vi. Individual vs.
History and Mass Culture. A primary theme of early twentieth-century European literature and critical thought is the rise of modern mass civilization and its suffocating effects of alienation and Themes in "Nectar Sieve" dehumanization. This became a pervasive theme by the time Camus was establishing his literary reputation. Anxiety over the fate of Western culture, already intense, escalated to apocalyptic levels with the equation decomposition, sudden emergence of fascism, totalitarianism, and new technologies of coercion and death. In A Sieve" Essay! Here then was a subject ready-made for a writer of Camus’s political and humanistic views. He responded to feminist theorists the occasion with typical force and eloquence. In one way or another, the themes of alienation and dehumanization as by-products of an increasingly technical and automated world enter into nearly all of Camus’s works.
Even his concept of the Absurd becomes multiplied by a social and economic world in which meaningless routines and mind-numbing repetitions predominate. The drudgery of Sisyphus is mirrored and amplified in the assembly line, the business office, the Essay, government bureau, and especially in Common Sense independence from Britain, the penal colony and concentration camp. In line with this theme, the ever-ambiguous Meursault in The Stranger can be understood as both a depressing manifestation of the newly emerging mass personality (that is, as a figure devoid of basic human feelings and passions) and, conversely, as a lone hold-out, a last remaining specimen of the old Romanticism—and hence a figure who is Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve", viewed as both dangerous and alien by the robotic majority. Similarly, The Plague can be interpreted, on at least one level, as an allegory in which humanity must be preserved from the Thomas Paine's Common influenced independence, fatal pestilence of mass culture, which converts formerly free, autonomous, independent-minded human beings into a soulless new species. At various times in the novel, Camus’s narrator describes the plague as if it were a dull but highly capable public official or bureaucrat: It was, above all, a shrewd, unflagging adversary; a skilled organizer, doing his work thoroughly and well. (180) “But it seemed the plague had settled in for good at its most virulent, and Themes in a Essay it took its daily toll of deaths with the punctual zeal of a good civil servant.” (235)
This identification of the plague with oppressive civil bureaucracy and anthropology the routinization of charisma looks forward to the author’s play The State of Siege , where plague is used once again as a symbol for totalitarianism—only this time it is personified in in a Essay, an almost cartoonish way as a kind of sociology, overbearing government functionary or office manager from Themes Essay hell. Clad in a gaudy military uniform bedecked with ribbons and decorations, the character Plague (a satirical portrait of Generalissimo Francisco Franco—or El Caudillo as he liked to symbols style himself) is closely attended by his personal Secretary and loyal assistant Death, depicted as a prim, officious female bureaucrat who also favors military garb and who carries an Themes in a ever-present clipboard and notebook. So Plague is on The of Abstinence-Only Education, a fascist dictator, and Death a solicitous commissar. Together these figures represent a system of pervasive control and micro-management that threatens the future of mass society. In his reflections on this theme of post-industrial dehumanization, Camus differs from most other European writers (and especially from those on the Left) in viewing mass reform and revolutionary movements, including Marxism, as representing at Themes in "Nectar in a least as great a threat to individual freedom as late-stage capitalism. Throughout his career he continued to cherish and defend old-fashioned virtues like personal courage and honor that other Left-wing intellectuals tended to view as reactionary or bourgeois.
Suicide is the central subject of The Myth of Sisyphus and serves as a background theme in Caligula and The Fall . In Caligula the mad title character, in a fit of horror and revulsion at the meaninglessness of life, would rather die—and bring the world down with him—than accept a cosmos that is indifferent to if you have dinner anyone human fate or that will not submit to his individual will. In The Fall , a stranger’s act of Themes in a, suicide serves as the starting point for a bitter ritual of self-scrutiny and remorse on the part of the narrator. Like Wittgenstein (who had a family history of lane v holloway, suicide and suffered from bouts of depression), Camus considered suicide the fundamental issue for moral philosophy. However, unlike other philosophers who have written on the subject (from Cicero and Seneca to Montaigne and Schopenhauer), Camus seems uninterested in assessing the traditional motives and justifications for suicide (for instance, to avoid a long, painful, and debilitating illness or as a response to personal tragedy or scandal). Indeed, he seems interested in in "Nectar Sieve", the problem only to if you could the extent that it represents one possible response to the Absurd. His verdict on the matter is unqualified and clear: The only courageous and morally valid response to the Absurd is to continue living—“Suicide is Themes in "Nectar Essay, not an option.” From the time he first heard the story of his father’s literal nausea and revulsion after witnessing a public execution, Camus began a vocal and lifelong opposition to the death penalty. Executions by guillotine were a common public spectacle in Algeria during his lifetime, but he refused to attend them and recoiled bitterly at anthropology their very mention. Condemnation of capital punishment is both explicit and Themes in a Essay implicit in his writings.
For example, in The Stranger Meursault’s long confinement during his trial and his eventual execution are presented as part of an elaborate, ceremonial ritual involving both public and religious authorities. The grim rationality of this process of legalized murder contrasts markedly with the sudden, irrational, almost accidental nature of his actual crime. Similarly, in The Myth of if you could have anyone, Sisyphus , the would-be suicide is contrasted with his fatal opposite, the Essay, man condemned to death, and we are continually reminded that a sentence of death is Essay of Abstinence-Only, our common fate in an absurd universe. Camus’s opposition to the death penalty is in "Nectar in a Sieve", not specifically philosophical. That is, it is not based on a particular moral theory or principle (such as Cesare Beccaria’s utilitarian objection that capital punishment is Sense from, wrong because it has not been proven to have a deterrent effect greater than life imprisonment). Camus’s opposition, in contrast, is humanitarian, conscientious, almost visceral. Like Victor Hugo, his great predecessor on this issue, he views the death penalty as an egregious barbarism—an act of blood riot and in "Nectar Essay vengeance covered over with a thin veneer of law and for thermal civility to make it acceptable to modern sensibilities. Themes In A Sieve"! That it is word, also an act of vengeance aimed primarily at the poor and oppressed, and that it is given religious sanction, makes it even more hideous and indefensible in his view.
Camus’s essay “Reflections on the Guillotine” supplies a detailed examination of the issue. Themes Sieve" Essay! An eloquent personal statement with compelling psychological and philosophical insights, it includes the author’s direct rebuttal to traditional retributionist arguments in favor of capital punishment (such as Kant’s claim that death is the legally appropriate, indeed morally required, penalty for have dinner with, murder). To all who argue that murder must be punished in kind, Camus replies: Capital punishment is the most premeditated of murders, to which no criminal’s deed, however calculated, can be compared. For there to be an equivalency, the death penalty would have to punish a criminal who had warned his victim of the date on which he would inflict a horrible death on him and who, from that moment onward, had confined him at his mercy for months. Such a monster is not to be encountered in private life. Camus concludes his essay by arguing that, at the very least, France should abolish the savage spectacle of the guillotine and replace it with a more humane procedure (such as lethal injection).
But he still retains a scant hope that capital punishment will be completely abolished at some point in the time to come: “In the unified Europe of the future the Themes Essay, solemn abolition of the death penalty ought to be the first article of the European Code we all hope for.” Camus himself did not live to have dinner with see the day, but he would no doubt be gratified to Themes in a Sieve" know that abolition of capital punishment is anthropology, now an essential prerequisite for membership in in "Nectar Essay, the European Union. Camus is often classified as an existentialist writer, and it is have with, easy to see why. Affinities with Kierkegaard and Sartre are patent. He shares with these philosophers (and with the other major writers in the existentialist tradition, from in a Sieve" Essay Augustine and word equation for thermal Pascal to in a Sieve" Essay Dostoyevsky and Nietzsche) an habitual and intense interest in the active human psyche, in the life of if you have dinner with, conscience or spirit as it is actually experienced and lived. Like these writers, he aims at nothing less than a thorough, candid exegesis of the human condition, and like them he exhibits not just a philosophical attraction but also a personal commitment to such values as individualism, free choice, inner strength, authenticity, personal responsibility, and self-determination.
However, one troublesome fact remains: throughout his career Camus repeatedly denied that he was an Essay existentialist. Was this an accurate and honest self-assessment? On the one hand, some critics have questioned this “denial” (using the term almost in its modern clinical sense), attributing it to the celebrated Sartre-Camus political “feud” or to Essay on The Education a certain stubbornness or even contrariness on Camus’s part. In their view, Camus qualifies as, at minimum, a closet existentialist, and in certain respects (e.g., in his unconditional and in a Essay passionate concern for the individual) as an even truer specimen of the type than Sartre. On the if you could have dinner with anyone, other hand, besides his personal rejection of the label, there appear to be solid reasons for in "Nectar in a Essay, challenging the claim that Camus is an existentialist. On The Failure Of Abstinence-Only! For one thing, it is noteworthy that he never showed much interest in (indeed he largely avoided) metaphysical and in a Sieve" Essay ontological questions (the philosophical raison d’etre of Heidegger and Sartre). Of course there is no rule that says an existentialist must be a metaphysician. However, Camus’s seeming aversion to technical philosophical discussion does suggest one way in anyone, which he distanced himself from contemporary existentialist thought.
Another point of divergence is that Camus seems to have regarded existentialism as a complete and in "Nectar in a systematic world-view, that is, a fully articulated doctrine. In his view, to be a true existentialist one had to commit to the entire doctrine (and not merely to bits and pieces of it), and this was apparently something he was unwilling to could dinner with do. A further point of separation, and possibly a decisive one, is Themes in "Nectar, that Camus actively challenged and set himself apart from the lane v holloway, existentialist motto that being precedes essence. Ultimately, against Sartre in particular and existentialists in Themes in "Nectar in a Essay, general, he clings to his instinctive belief in a common human nature. In his view human existence necessarily includes an essential core element of dignity and value, and in this respect he seems surprisingly closer to the humanist tradition from Aristotle to Kant than to the modern tradition of skepticism and relativism from Nietzsche to Derrida (the latter his fellow-countryman and, at if you could dinner with anyone least in his commitment to human rights and opposition to the death penalty, his spiritual successor and in "Nectar in a Sieve" descendant). Obviously, Camus’s writings remain the primary reason for his continuing importance and lane v holloway the chief source of his cultural legacy, but his fame is also due to his exemplary life. He truly lived his philosophy; thus it is in his personal political stands and public statements as well as in his books that his views are clearly articulated. In short, he bequeathed not just his words but also his actions.
Taken together, those words and actions embody a core set of liberal democratic values—including tolerance, justice, liberty, open-mindedness, respect for Essay, personhood, condemnation of violence, and resistance to tyranny—that can be fully approved and acted upon by the modern intellectual engage . On a purely literary level, one of Camus’s most original contributions to lane v holloway modern discourse is his distinctive prose style. In "Nectar Sieve" Essay! Terse and if you have dinner hard-boiled, yet at the same time lyrical, and indeed capable of great, soaring flights of emotion and feeling, Camus’s style represents a deliberate attempt on his part to Themes Essay wed the famous clarity, elegance, and Paine's Common Sense influenced America's from dry precision of the French philosophical tradition with the more sonorous and in "Nectar in a Sieve" opulent manner of decomposition, 19th century Romantic fiction. The result is something like a cross between Hemingway (a Camus favorite) and Melville (another favorite) or between Diderot and Themes in a Sieve" Hugo. For the most part when we read Camus we encounter the plain syntax, simple vocabulary, and biting aphorism typical of modern theatre or noir detective fiction. Failure Of Abstinence-Only! However, this base style frequently becomes a counterpoint or springboard for extended musings and lavish descriptions almost in the manner of Proust. Here we may note that this attempted reconciliation or union of opposing styles is not just an aesthetic gesture on the author’s part: It is also a moral and Themes in a Sieve" political statement. It says, in effect, that the life of reason and the life of sociology, feeling need not be opposed; that intellect and passion can, and should, operate together. Perhaps the greatest inspiration and example that Camus provides for contemporary readers is the lesson that it is still possible for a serious thinker to face the modern world (with a full understanding of in "Nectar Essay, its contradictions, injustices, brutal flaws, and anthropology symbols absurdities) with hardly a grain of hope, yet utterly without cynicism. To read Camus is to find words like justice, freedom, humanity, and dignity used plainly and openly, without apology or embarrassment, and without the pained or derisive facial expressions or invisible quotation marks that almost automatically accompany those terms in public discourse today.
At Stockholm Camus concluded his Nobel acceptance speech with a stirring reminder and in "Nectar Sieve" challenge to modern writers: “The nobility of our craft,” he declared, “will always be rooted in two commitments, both difficult to maintain: the refusal to lie about what one knows and the resistance to if you could dinner anyone oppression.” He left behind a body of work faithful to his own credo that the arts of in "Nectar in a Essay, language must always be used in the service of truth and the service of liberty.
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music essay ideas These subject guidelines should be read in conjunction with the Assessment Criteria. An extended essay in music provides students with an Themes in "Nectar Sieve" Essay, opportunity to undertake in-depth research into a topic of genuine interest to them. The student is encouraged to develop and explore, in a disciplined and imaginative way, a research question appropriate to the subject. The outcome of the research should be a coherent and structured piece of writing that effectively addresses a particular issue or research question and arrives at a particular, and preferably personal, conclusion. Real music should be at the heart of an extended essay in music. This means that particular pieces of music, experienced via recordings, live performances or concerts, should be chosen as the core focus of the extended essay. Students should strive for feminist theorists sociology, a coherent verbal analysis and interpretation of one ormore pieces of music in relation to the chosen research question. Absolute reliance on textbooks and the Internet is discouraged and no extended essay in music should be based exclusively on Themes in "Nectar in a such sources. Textbooks should be consulted only with, insofar as they may stimulate original ideas, provide models of disciplined, structured and informed approaches, and encourage direct and Themes in a Sieve" Essay personal involvement with the essay topic. the essay topic. Choice of topic.
The chosen topic may be inspired by one or several of the areas of interest listed here. (Please note, this is Common Sense America's independence, not an exhaustive list, but is intended for guidance only). Aspects of the Diploma Programme music course (for Diploma Programme music students) Local performances or concerts Musical cultures that students have encountered that are not their own Personal contact with composers and/or performers Direct involvement in actually making music Recordings Music on the Internet, or downloaded from it Other music that has a particular interest, emotional appeal or other importance for the student. It is strongly recommended that students are encouraged to be as much involved as possible in activities such as those listed previously during the writing process, if they are relevant to the chosen topic. Themes Sieve" Essay. However, it is recognized that students who choose an extended essay in music may not be studying the Essay Education Diploma Programme music course. It is essential that the topic chosen is distinctively musical. It is quite acceptable, for example, for Themes in "Nectar in a Essay, a student to explore a topical question relating to popular music, jazz or blues, but the primary focus of the essay must be more concerned with the music itself than with the lane v holloway lives of the performers, the nature of the instruments used or the lyrics. Supervisors should, therefore, strongly discourage students who are primarily interested in Essay, analysing text or lyrics, particularly of pop songs, from submitting extended essays in music. The topic chosen should provide opportunities for extensive critical analysis of musical source material. Lane V Holloway. Topics that are entirely dependent on summarizing general secondary sources (such as textbooks and encyclopedias), and topics likely to lead to Themes in a, an essay that is lane v holloway, essentially narrative or descriptive in nature, should be avoided. Restricting the Themes in "Nectar in a scope of the essay will help to ensure a clear focus, and if you could have with will also provide opportunities for in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay, demonstrating detailed musical understanding and critical analysis. To achieve this goal, it is essential that the research question chosen can be effectively answered.
Titles along the lines of Clara Schumann, for example, do not give much scope for theorists sociology, effective analysis or argumentthey are more likely to produce an account of in a Essay her life and with music. Topics such as Computers and music should be treated from both musical and Themes in "Nectar in a critical perspectives, and should concentrate on musical, rather than technological, aspects. Redundant research questions such as the comparison of feminist a play to an opera of the same title (which inevitably means that only Themes Sieve", half the symbols essay is focused on music itself) should be avoided. The following examples of topics for music extended essays are intended as guidance only. The pairings illustrate that focused topics (indicated by the first title) should be encouraged rather than broad topics (indicated by the second title). The use of contrapuntal techniques in Bach's Art of Themes in a Sieve" Essay Fugue is better than Bach's Fugues. Harmonic innovation in the bebop style of Dizzy Gillespie is better than The music of Dizzy Gillespie.
The role of minimalist techniques in Balinese gamelan is better than Balinese gamelan. 'The influence of on The Education jazz in Gershwin's Porgy and Bess is Themes in "Nectar Sieve", better than Gershwin's Porgy and Bess. Moreover, it may help if the student further defines the of Abstinence-Only Education topic chosen for study in the form of a research question, followed by a statement of Themes in a intent that indicates which broad process is going to be used in answering the question.ln this way, the approach to the topic chosen may be even further clarified. Some examples of this could be as follows. Title Edgard Varese and Frank Zappa. Research questions What is the influence of Edgard Varése on the musical output of Frank Zappa? Approach An investigation into the stylistic similarities between these two composers. Title Jesus Christ Superstar and opera.
Research question Is Jesus Christ Superstar a modern classical opera? Approach An investigation into Andrew Lloyd Webber's musical language and structures in this work, with reference to other relevant music from operas of the Western classical tradition. Title The naming of Mozart's music. Research question What evidence is there to support the title of word equation for thermal Mozart's divertimento Ein Musikalischer Spass (A Musical Joke) K. 522 (1787)? Approach An investigation into Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay Mozart's compositional techniques in this work. However, it is important to symbols, bear in mind that, in the subject of music, a research question is sometimes not an accurate description of the task. Themes In A Essay. Therefore, students should not force aesthetic or sociocultural issues into equation a question format when the articulation of a clear and Themes in a Sieve" probing inquiry into Paine's Common influenced America's independence from an idea is more appropriate. Examples of this could be as follows. Title Emotional tension in Themes in a, traditional music. Research question Emotional tension and its significance in Japanese music.
Approach An investigation into the mechanisms used in traditional Japanese music to create emotional tension, with reference to comparable examples in Western music. Note that this approach is looking for a commonality of expressive device between two cultures, allowing for a probing inquiry through comparison. A small number of real but well-chosen musical examples would be appropriate here. Title Musical continuity in Frederick Chopin's 24 piano Preludes Op. 28. Research question An investigation into the presence and anthropology symbols musical significance of in a Essay a recurrent motif found throughout Frederick Chopin's 24 piano Preludes. Op. 28. Approach A study of appropriate preludes that demonstrate this feature, through the use of formulaic notation and comparative analysis.
Note that this approach, while still using comparative analysis, is theorists, more focused on the musical mechanics of Themes in "Nectar Sieve" Essay a series of sociology works by in "Nectar, the same composer, allowing for an in-depth study within the word limit. In this case, the Essay on The Failure of Abstinence-Only Education student would only be able to Themes in a Sieve", study five or six preludes, given the if you could have dinner anyone parameters of an in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay, extended essay. Title The music of Hildegard of Bingenan explanation of its appeal and justification of its popularity. Research question An investigation into the reasons for the popularity of the music of Hildegard of Bingen today. Approach A study of Hildegard of Bingen's musical style in comparison with other sacred music from Common Sense influenced America's independence Britain, her time, through analysis and comparison of musical examples, with particular reference to the aesthetic theory of musical expectation and inhibition. This approach has its dangers, in the sense that it can be easy to make a supposition in Themes Sieve", a research question, without any evidence, and then try to prove the statement by subjective and superficial comment and analysis. However, at its best, this approach can allow investigation into other important areas of musical study and theory, while remaining focused on music itself. Treatment of the topic. It should be noted that the Diploma Programme music course includes components that require performance and/or composition as well as a musical investigation. An extended essay in music has a different purpose, in that the focus should be clearly on a verbal response to if you have, a research question.
In order to promote personal involvement in the extended essay, the use of primary sources that are locally available should be encouraged wherever possible. However, it is appreciated that, in certain situations, students may not necessarily have access to primary musical sources. In such situations, in order not to restrict the topics that can be investigated, recordings of a high quality are considered acceptable sources. It is important that the topic and in "Nectar in a research question reflect a firm emphasis on music, and could that they do not become directed towards another subject area. Appropriate resources for music include books, textbooks, the in a Sieve" Essay Internet, scores, interviews, recordings, and live performances or concerts of the music being studied. The inclusion of appropriate reference material, such as music notation, audio tapes or other musical examples, with music extended essays is encouraged as long as the material is sociology, directly supportive of, and Essay relevant to, the argument/evaluation.
Students are expected to evaluate critically the if you with resources consulted during the process of writing the essay by asking themselves the following questions. Which sources are vital to the support of my ideas, opinions and assertions? Which sources do not contribute to the analysis? Students must choose a research question that is suitable for effective treatment within the Themes in "Nectar Sieve" Essay word limit and is not of a trivial nature. Research questions that do not allow a systematic investigation that demonstrates critical musical analysis and word equation for thermal detailed understanding are unlikely to be suitable.
In some instances, it may become clear at Themes in "Nectar in a Essay an early stage in the research that too few sources are available topermit such an independence from Britain, investigation. In such cases, a change of focus should be made. Many different approaches to the research question can be appropriate, for instance: use of primary sources (music and musicians) and secondary sources (material about Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve" music) in if you could with anyone, order to establish and appraise varying interpretations analysing sources (primary and secondary) in order to Themes in a Sieve" Essay, explore and explain particular aspects of musical techniques using primary source material for an analysis, with emphasis on a particular aspect of the music collecting and analysing orally transmitted and/or written music from Thomas Sense independence, live musicians and/or composers through recordings, possibly leading to in "Nectar Sieve" Essay, a comparison of similar or different music. Students should also demonstrate awareness of other issues surrounding the music studied, such as the following. Do I show an awareness of the value and limitations of the music I am studying through analysing its origin and purpose? Do I show a consistently good musical understanding in setting the research question into lane v holloway context and addressing it fully and effectively? Relevant outcomes of this analysis should be integrated into the student's argument. The argument should also be well substantiated and students should consider the following questions. With what evidence do I support my comments and conclusions?
Is this evidence relevant and well founded, and not based simply on my preconceptions? Frequent reference to Themes in "Nectar in a, the assessment criteria by anthropology, both the supervisor and the student will help keep a sharper focus on the project. Interpreting the in "Nectar in a Essay assessment criteria. Please note: extended essays that do not focus on real music are likely to score 0 in criterion A, and are unlikely to score highly in criteria C, D, F and anthropology G. Criterion A: research question. The research question can often be best defined in the form of a question. It may, however also be presented as a statement or proposition for discussion. It must be: specific and sharply focused appropriate to the particular area of music being explored centred on music and not on Themes in a Sieve" peripheral issues such as biography or social discourses stated clearly early on in the essay.
Note that larger-scale musical works or groups of word equation for thermal decomposition pieces may limit the possibility of in a Sieve" Essay effective treatment n the word limit. Criterion B: introduction. The Introduction should relate the research question to existing subject knowledge the student's personal experience or particular opinion is rarely relevant here. The Introduction should not be seen as an opportunity for padding out an essay with a lengthy account the context of the of Abstinence-Only Education music. Criterion C: investigation. The range of resources available will be influenced by Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve", various factors, but above all by the topic. Students should use primary sources (scores, recordings, performances, interviews) in the first instance, with secondary sources (textbooks and the comments of other musicians) as evidential support. The proper planning of an essay should involve interrogating source material in light of the research question, so that the views of other musicians are used to support the student's own argument, and not as a substitute for that argument. Could Dinner. It may thus be helpful for a student to challenge a statement by a musician, in reference to the music being studied , instead of simply agreeing with it, where there is evidence to Sieve", support such a challenge. If students make use of Internet-based sources, they should do so critically and circumspectly in full awareness of their potential unreliability.
Criterion D: knowledge and understanding of the Thomas Common Sense from Britain topic studied. Students are expected to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the music chosen, together with its historical, social and in a Essay cultural, as well as academic, contexts. Wherever possible, this knowledge should be based at least partially on primary sources. Criterion E: reasoned argument. Students should be aware of the need to give their essays the backbone of a developing argument.
Personal views should not simply be stated but need to be supported by if you have with anyone, reasoned argument to persuade the reader of their v alidity. Straightforward descriptive or narrative accounts that lack analysis do not usually advance an argument and should be avoided. Criterion F: application of in a Essay analytical and evaluative skills appropriate to the subject. Students should accurately and consistently analyse technical aspects of the music (melody, harmony, rhythm , texture, tone colour, and lyrics or text), demonstrating an understanding and a persuasive personal interpretation of the music. Criterion G: use of word for thermal decomposition language appropriate to the subject. Students are expected to make effective use of Themes in a Sieve" Essay musical terminology and, where appropriate, notation. Notation may take a variety of forms, depending on the type of music studied. Criterion H: conclusion. Consistent is the feminist theorists sociology key word here: the conclusion should develop out of the Themes in "Nectar Sieve" argument and not introduce new or extraneous matter. Sociology. It should not repeat the material of the introduction; rather, it should present a new synthesis in light of the discussion. Criterion I: formal presentation.
This criterion relates to the extent to which the in "Nectar in a Essay essay conforms to academic standards about the way in which research papers should be presented. The presentation of essays that omit a bibliography or that do not give references for quotations is deemed unacceptable (level 0). Essays that omit one of the required elementstitle page, table of contents, page numbersare deemed no better than satisfactory (maximum level 2), while essays that omit two of them are deemed poor at lane v holloway best (maximum level 1). In music, discographies should be included where appropriate; musical examples, and tables and charts, if relevant, should appear in the body of the essay, as close as possible to their first reference. Criterion J: abstract. The abstract is judged on the clarity with which it presents an overview of the research and the essay, not on the quality of the research question itself, nor on the quality of the Themes Essay argument or the conclusions. Criterion K: holistic judgment. Qualities that are rewarded under this criterion include the following.
Intellectual initiative: Ways of demonstrating this in music essays include the choice of topic and research question, locating and using a wide range of sources, including some that may have been little used previously or generated for the study (for instance, transcripts of oral interviews). Insight and depth of understanding: These are most likely to be demonstrated as a consequence of detailed research, reflection that is Thomas America's independence from Britain, thorough and well informed, and Sieve" Essay reasoned argument that consistently and Essay Failure Education effectively addresses the research question. Themes In "Nectar Sieve". Creativity: In music essays, this includes qualities such as comparison of musical features, inventive approaches to musical analysis and new approaches to feminist theorists, popular topics.
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11 r©sum© mistakes that make hiring managers dismiss you immediately. Recruiters are just looking for an excuse to move on to the next candidate. John Moore/Getty Images. · Acing your r©sum© is the first step to moving forward in in a Sieve" the hiring process. · Many recruiters will spend mere seconds on your r©sum© to decide initial fit. · Easy mistakes like terrible formatting and incorrect grammar can instantly land you in for thermal decomposition the 'no' pile. Recruiters are judgmental sharp shooters who only need about 25 seconds to decide if they like a job candidate or not. At least that's how Ambra Benjamin, a recruiting manager at Facebook, describes the nature of her job in a LinkedIn post. She explains that, while she will give outstanding candidates a more thorough read later, candidates who don't pass her initial test won't get a second look. And Benjamin isn't alone in this tactic €” Recruiters move quickly, she writes. As Art Markman, a professor of psychology and marketing at the University of Texas at Austin, writes for Fast Company, psychological research has found that, when hiring managers first look over your r©sum©, they're often in rejection mode €” they're just looking for Themes, a reason to move on to the next candidate.
What they see on if you have dinner first glance could mean the difference between winding up in the 'maybe' or the 'no' pile. Apart from the overall lack of relevant job experience, here are some things on your r©sum© that could earn you an automatic rejection: While we're not suggesting you cram your r©sum© full of jargony buzzwords, not including keywords pertinent to the job and industry you're applying for is not just a missed opportunity €” it could indicate that you don't have the Themes in "Nectar Sieve", specific experience for the job your recruiter is looking for. There have been times when I command + F the feminist theorists sociology, crap out of r©sum©s , Benjamin writes. This isn't fool proof, but if I'm looking for an iOS Engineer, for in a Essay, example, and the words 'iOS' or 'Objective-C' don't even make a cameo appearance in anthropology someone's r©sum©, I have to furrow my brow, read a little deeper, and in a Essay figure out what the heck is anthropology, going on, she explains. When you use a 0.5-inch margin and eight-point font in an effort to Sieve", get everything to fit on one page, this is an epic fail, says J.T. O'Donnell, a career and workplace expert, founder of feminist theorists, career-advice site Careerealism.com, and author of Careerealism: The Smart Approach to a Satisfying Career. She recommends lots of white space and no more than a 0.8 margin. Amanda Augustine, a career-advice expert for TopResume , agrees, warning particularly against dense blocks of text. Let's be honest: You're looking this over quickly, you're glancing through it. Your eyes glaze over Themes in a Sieve" Essay when you get to a big, long paragraph, she says. Your r©sum© shouldn't include the with, words I, me, she, or my, says Tina Nicolai, executive career coach and founder of in a Essay, Resume Writers' Ink.
Don't write your r©sum© in the third or first person. It's understood that everything on anthropology symbols your r©sum© is in "Nectar in a Essay, about you and Thomas influenced America's from your experiences. In the same vein, you can also overload your r©sum© with too many bullet points, which Augustine calls death by Essay, bullets. If absolutely everything is bulleted, it has the same effect as big dense blocks of text €” your eyes just glaze over it, she says. Augustine explains that bullets are only to be used to theorists sociology, draw attention to the most important information. If you bullet everything, everything is important, which means really nothing stands out, she says. If you're in Themes marketing and you've lost me in the first three bullets, I have concerns, writes Benjamin. If you don't want to be discriminated against for lane v holloway, a position because of in a Sieve" Essay, your age, it's time to remove your graduation date, says Catherine Jewell, author of New R©sum©, New Career.
Another surprising way your r©sum© could give away your age: double spaces after a period. While many people were taught to type that way in theorists school, it's now an outdated practice. Don't use Times New Roman and serif fonts, as they're outdated and old-fashioned, Amy Hoover, president of Talent Zoo , says. Use a standard, sans-serif font like Arial. Also, be aware of the font size, she says. Your goal should be to make it look nice and sleek €” but also easy to in a Sieve" Essay, read.
Curly-tailed fonts are also a turn-off, according to for thermal decomposition, O'Donnell. People try to make their r©sum© look classier with a fancy font, but studies show they are harder to read and the recruiter absorbs less about you. Never describe past work experience using the present tense. Themes In "Nectar Sieve"! Only your current job should be written in the present tense, Alyssa Gelbard, career expert and on The Education founder of Themes in a Essay, career-consulting firm R©sum© Strategists, says. The format of your r©sum© is just as important as its content, Augustine says. She says the best format is the format that will make it easiest for the hiring manager to word equation, scan your r©sum© and still be able to pick out your key qualifications and career goals. In "Nectar Sieve" Essay! Once you pick a format, stick with it. If you write the day, month, and equation for thermal decomposition year for Themes Sieve" Essay, one date, then use that same format throughout the rest of the r©sum©. Social-media URLs that are not related to the targeted position. If you have an online footprint, and you've bothered to include it in Paine's Common Sense independence from your resume, I'm gonna click, Benjamin writes. In A Sieve"! You had better make sure all your links are on point.
Links to on The Failure of Abstinence-Only, your opinionated blogs, Pinterest page, or Instagram account have no business taking up prime r©sum© real estate. Candidates who tend to Themes in "Nectar Sieve", think their personal social media sites are valuable are putting themselves at risk of landing in the 'no' pile, Nicolai says. But you should list relevant URLs, such as your LinkedIn page or any others that are professional and lane v holloway directly related to the position you are trying to acquire, she says. This one may seem obvious, but it cannot be overstated €” spelling and grammar mistakes are a sure-fire way to get your r©sum© thrown into the junk pile, and they're so easy to fix. Themes In "Nectar In A! All it takes is a few extra minutes of perusing, and perhaps a second set of eyes, to fix this big r©sum© no-no. Writing whorehouse instead of warehouse can be a mortifying spelling mistake €” and, yes, it's happened. Feminist! A less-than-professional email address.
If you still use an old email address, like BeerLover123@ gmail.com or CuteChick4life@ yahoo.com , it's time to in "Nectar in a, pick a new one. Thomas Sense America's Independence! It only takes a minute or two, and Themes Essay it's free. SEE ALSO: 31 annoying words and phrases on your r©sum© that make hiring managers cringe. DON'T MISS: 13 hobbies that look great on Thomas Paine's Sense America's independence your r©sum© €” and one that doesn't. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. Themes Sieve" Essay! 11 r©sum© mistakes that make hiring managers dismiss you immediately.
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CVs, Dossiers, Application Letters, Writing Samples, and Portfolios. A career portfolio begins with the Themes in "Nectar in a Essay first year of graduate study and differs significantly from the small mound of paper produced hurriedly by job applicants each year between the on The of Abstinence-Only second week of Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay, October and the first week of November; the career portfolio goes well beyond the three standard parts of the job application (CV, transcript, and letters of equation for thermal decomposition, recommendation). Following many of Peter Seldin’s ideas ( The Teaching Portfolio , Anker, 1991), I suggest four main components for Themes in "Nectar Sieve" Essay the career portfolio. Component 1: Introduction. This portion includes reflective statements regarding teaching and research-why the word student has chosen to enter graduate school or the academy and what the goals are for that endeavor. This section of the Themes in a Sieve" Essay career portfolio would also be home to the standard personal facts, such as a curriculum vitae and a transcript. Component 2: Teaching. Feminist? Here, products of the in "Nectar Sieve" Essay student’s teaching should be summarized, highlighted, or represented: Course syllabi that the student has developed or taught through and that describe the target audience, the course goals, and the methodology.
Abstracts of relevant seminar papers, articles, or conference presentations. Descriptions, evaluations, letters, or certificate documenting relevant experience outside the standard TA context. Departmental teaching evaluations and anthropology symbols, perhaps official summaries of student evaluations. Sample of teaching materials developed. Component 3: Research. In "Nectar Sieve"? This portion of the career portfolio would represent the breadth and depth of research undertaken.
For our graduate students, it would involve summaries of master’s theses, of seminar papers, of conference presentations or articles, and, of Essay Failure Education, course, of the dissertation, along with outlines showing how this research could be developed into further research projects, a graduate course, an undergraduate course, or a colloquium lecture for the nonspecialist. Component 4: Service. This component would include letters recognizing service activities as well as summaries of committee work and of other service to Themes Sieve" Essay the department, university, and symbols, profession. Department of German Studies. In language teaching, be aware that many existing positions are for the teaching of culture and business-related courses. Themes In "Nectar? Include on your CV any job-related experience that would attest to your expertise in feminist theorists sociology business-related courses. Don’t be reluctant to include experience that is not specifically related to Themes in "Nectar in a Essay language or literature research and teaching. Perhaps you had an undergraduate major or minor in if you could anyone economics or business that should be mentioned in a cover letter or CV. In "Nectar Essay? Highlight any job experience in business that could transfer to the classroom. Department of Humanities.
University of Michigan, Dearborn. Information that is left out, such as gaps in dates, makes me immediately suspicious. It is better to admit to having worked for McDonald’s for a year than to put nothing for that year. Department of Germanic, Slavic, and East Asian Languages. University of South Carolina, Columbia. Annoying for feminist sociology an overworked search committee was the failure to provide useful references. Some applicants did not include phone numbers for references in either the letter or the resume.
Some reference lists consisted entirely of the dissertation committee and included no one with knowledge of the applicant’s teaching abilities. Worst of all were statements that the in "Nectar names of references would be furnished on feminist sociology, request. Eleanor H. Green. Department of English. Ohio Northern University. Do not go to a professional resume writer, somebody who advertises to Themes in "Nectar in a help with resumes and who knows all about corporate resumes but nothing about the kind that we need in academia. Business-style resumes, limited to one or two pages, are not long enough for an academic CV. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. University of Arizona. What should I consider in assembling letters of recommendation?
Most recommendation letters have a conventional beginning (introducing the candidate and the writer) and ending (an affirmation of the candidate’s credentials and a promise to Sense influenced from Britain offer yet more information about the candidate if its readers so desire). The middle of the letter offers more variation but must address the candidate’s teaching skills, research potential, and collegiality, since these are essential qualifications for the job. If it cannot discuss all of these, it acknowledges and explains the lapse of protocol. By adhering to these unwritten rules, the letter writer establishes his or her credentials as a person who understands the needs and expectations of the hiring department (and who can therefore be trusted to judge a candidate’s suitability). In "Nectar Sieve"? Yet some originality is necessary to convey what is distinctive about the candidate. A letter that sounds just like every letter in the pile is a certain failure. The letter writer should begin by requesting that candidates provide him or her with detailed information about their job search, including a draft cover letter, a vita, a teaching portfolio, and a writing sample; then the writer should schedule a time to talk about the jobs they are applying for. This enables the word for thermal writer to provide some extra feedback and often allows him or her to Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay discover new information that can be useful in the letter.
Although it is theorists common for faculty members to complain about inflated recommendations, packed full of empty superlatives and clever phrases, such letters are easy to in "Nectar Sieve" write, easy to spot, and just as easily discounted. But it is on The Failure Education hard to ignore truly good writing, in in "Nectar Sieve" Essay large part because it signals the writer’s sincere commitment to the candidate. Some circumstances may call for short (one- or two-paragraph) letters. Such letters are usually written by a well-known scholar, whose acquaintance with the candidate’s work is limited but significant (the letter writer heard a conference paper or read an article by the candidate, for example). Dinner With Anyone? The reason for the letter’s brevity should be made clear, so that the length is not taken as an Themes in "Nectar indication of weak support.
In most circumstances, a recommendation letter should be one and a half to lane v holloway two pages long: long enough to present the candidate’s qualifications in detail, but short enough for the committee to read fairly quickly. Department of English. Texas AM University, College Station. How do I write an effective application letter? Your application letter should make some attempt to show how you meet the particular qualifications of the job posting. Boilerplate letters that launch into a long description of the candidate’s dissertation followed by philosophy of teaching are a real turn-off unless the writing is crisp, witty, or shows a dazzling display of in "Nectar, authentic voice. My pet peeve is lane v holloway applicants who spell the search committee chair’s name incorrectly or don’t get the name of the institution right. CVs and generic letters of application with typos or grammatical miscues get thrown out by in a Sieve", search committees immediately.
Department of English, Foreign Languages, and Journalism. Missouri Western State College. Avoid “generic” letters. Word For Thermal? Tailor each letter to fit the Themes in a Sieve" job description and for thermal decomposition, the university and Themes in "Nectar Essay, department to which you are applying. Seek a balance between describing your strengths and responding to the minimum and desired qualifications listed in the job description.
Be judicious in how much you write about on The Failure of Abstinence-Only Education your dissertation, particularly if you are not applying to Themes an institution that places great importance upon research. Tone and form (spelling, punctuation, margins, etc.) are important. Symbols? Do not write a letter that is excessively short (1/2 page) or long (more than 2 pages). Ask a trusted friend, colleague, or professor to read and react to your letter. Department of Modern Languages and Literature. California State University, Los Angeles. One of the persistent problems I’ve dealt with in job counseling is the one-size-fits-all cover letter where only the name of the university and a few small details are altered for each application. These are often letters wherein the applicant comes across not as an individual with genuine interests and enthusiasms (whether in scholarship or teaching or in both) but rather as the product of an outstanding PhD program and Themes in "Nectar Sieve", the author of could have dinner, a dissertation. My advice in such cases has been to drastically reduce the attention given to the dissertation in the letter of application and concentrate instead on conveying the candidate’s vision of in "Nectar Essay, him- or herself as a future citizen of the lane v holloway profession given the intellectual, academic, and personal background he or she can bring to a department and an institution. In this statement of professional outlook and goals, keep in Essay mind the type of institution or department to which you are applying. Only characterize the dissertation and its importance in a succinct paragraph in anthropology the letter of application, leaving the highly detailed coverage of the dissertation to in "Nectar in a Essay an abstract that can be attached to the CV.
Department of Spanish and Portuguese. I’d rather get an unconventional letter that gives me an idea who the writer is than a Brooks-Brothers-suit-like letter that is all appearance and has no personality. Department of Germanic, Slavic, and East Asian Languages. University of South Carolina, Columbia. Try to sell yourself as an outstanding teacher. Consider that many colleges now value teaching more than they did in the past and feminist theorists sociology, would be interested in candidates who describe their commitment to teaching in letters of application. Don’t be reticent about your innovative and experimental pedagogies. And remember that small liberal arts colleges look favorably on candidates who are successful in teaching composition and regard it not as a chore but as an opportunity to teach students how to Themes Essay think. Department and college service is if you could dinner with anyone another area where people undersell themselves. In "Nectar? Campus citizenship is increasingly valued as downsizing and term appointments leave fewer faculty members willing or able to participate in college governance and committee work.
Department of English and Theater Arts. When I advise students laboring to connect their research interests, teaching experience, and service in letters of application, most initially produce tortuous, jargon-ridden, naively pretentious dissertation descriptions. Their prose leaps to life when they describe the classes they have taught or the innovative assignments they have created. Whatever our intentions, the lesson students often seem to absorb from graduate study is that what they perceive as scholarly (rather than pedagogical) activity is best communicated in prose likely to strike search committee members as elitist and overbearing. Department of English. University of Iowa. When they are ready to apply for sociology positions in in a Sieve" Essay small colleges, candidates should remember that the standard vita is feminist theorists sociology not as important as the cover letter.
By the end of in a, December every vita begins to if you have dinner look like the other fifty or one hundred vitae in the files; by that time every form letter of Themes in "Nectar Essay, application is also more than familiar to chairs. Obviously, if the Paine's Common America's independence vita is Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve" Essay detailed enough (and many aren’t), it can be a useful statistical profile of the candidate. However, I suspect the of Abstinence-Only Education cover letter can have greater impact. Consequently, before candidates apply at a given college, they probably should familiarize themselves with that college and Themes in "Nectar, its curriculum. The college’s catalogue would be the obvious place to begin. And then when they do sent a letter of application, it should reflect their familiarity with the college and perhaps include a brief statement as to why they want to teach there and word for thermal decomposition, what contribution they might make. In the light of the candidate’s familiarity with the college’s curriculum, the Sieve" Essay letter might emphasize his or her capacities as a generalist, as well as his or her competence as a specialist, with perhaps greater consideration given to the former. And rather than draw attention again to the title of the dissertation, which, nine times out of theorists sociology, ten, means nothing to chairs unless it happens to be in their own area of specialization, the letter might also include some statement as to what courses he or she would be interested (and again, not expected) to teach. Department of Humanities. Saint Francis College.
One doesn’t gain an interview—or often even a dossier request—without a good letter or resume. The application letter is, in a sense, the first in a series of interviews. So, as we all tell our students in freshman composition, candidates should write to the audience! While composing two or three dozen highly individual letters of application is probably unnecessary, the most successful applicants will be able to demonstrate that they best match a particular institution’s needs. Themes? Sometimes that simply means rearranging the balance of discussion about research and for thermal, teaching to fit various institutions’ priorities. Sometimes it involves a bit of research on the institution to which the application letter is addressed. The rewards will be worth the effort. Tailoring letters in in a Sieve" this way needn’t be—shouldn’t be—a coldly cynical act. Although the Thomas Paine's Common America's independence Britain job market is in "Nectar Essay undeniably difficult and the prospect of unemployment is terrifying, a far worse fate in the long run, for both institution and employee, is an untenable match.
It’s far better not to apply if either the position or the institution clearly isn’t appropriate to Essay Education one’s needs and qualifications. Department of in "Nectar Essay, English. Eastern Michigan University. Before sending out any materials, the candidate should research each position on the target list as fully as possible, focusing on the programs and equation for thermal, courses the Themes in "Nectar Essay relevant department offers and on theorists, the faculty in Essay that department. Matching the job description and the catalogue may provide information on who’s being replaced and on which courses are likely to be the word equation responsibility of the position. The candidate should ask each of Themes Sieve" Essay, his or her professors for additional information about the institution and its personnel. It can be very helpful, for example, if an applicant’s letter includes phrases like “I have taught a course very similar to your Spanish 3 for the past two years.” The point is to make sure that those doing the hiring at the target institution realize that this is not merely one of dozens of letters sent out equation for thermal decomposition willy-nilly, but comes from a candidate who is particularly knowledgeable about and Sieve" Essay, interested in this institution.
David T. Haberly. Department of Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese. University of Virginia. The vast majority of the application letters we received were obviously not written to us as members of an English department search committee at Ohio Northern. They were in fact generic form letters written with the apparent aim of securing a position at an institution far different from anything Ohio Northern is or ever will become. Most did not do justice at all to Paine's Common influenced America's independence from the talents, training, or experiences of the applicants. Themes Essay? Most letters emphasized research far more than any other subject.
A few candidates even stated their eagerness to teach graduate courses, although a quick look at any college guide would show that Ohio Northern, like most small universities, has no graduate students in English. Many applicants listed all the courses they had ever taught but made no mention of their teaching philosophy or pedagogical techniques. Of the word for thermal decomposition 58 candidates (approximately one-third of the total) who did have small-school background, few pointed out that they were familiar with an environment like Ohio Northern’s, and even fewer expressed a desire to teach in such a setting. Only 34 letters even mentioned the name of our institution. In "Nectar In A Sieve" Essay? And although 13 candidates did refer to the phrase “student-centered” from our announcement, it was clear that almost none of the candidates had bothered to look up Ohio Northern in a college guide, much less to read our catalog, and those who had taken the trouble to do so were not able to use the Thomas Common influenced America's independence Britain information effectively. Many candidates did not mention in their letters experiences that would have appealed to our search committee. Only 46 pointed out Themes in a Sieve" any professional or service work that would have indicated involvement in activities valuable to students or to Thomas Paine's Common influenced from Britain the institution. At least 58 more of the candidates clearly had this type of experience but tucked it away in their resumes while including paragraph after paragraph in their letters about different sections of their dissertations. Indeed, applicants whose resumes suggested diverse interests and backgrounds came across as narrow and dull in their letters. A somewhat common error was the extreme brevity of many of the Themes in "Nectar letters, apparently the result of a mistaken belief that the letter should be only one page long. While three or four pages is anthropology certainly excessive, very few letters of less than one and a half to two pages gave the Themes in a committee an anthropology accurate sense of the applicant.
And a small minority of the Themes Essay letters were inadequate even in format and appearance. Writing with faulty mechanics is a poor introduction to a person who is asking to teach composition. However, we received 13 letters with errors such as lack of an inside address, incorrect punctuation of the salutation, double-spaced typing, and equation decomposition, omission of the date. Eleanor H. Green. Department of English. Ohio Northern University. Letters and CVs that candidates forward to departments too often lack a discernible foreground and in "Nectar in a, background. They provide, that is, a list, not a story. Imagine a very busy person receiving your letter, scanning it for key facts (PhD done? area of specialty? employment history? publications? recommenders?) and sociology, routing it to a committee or putting it to one side. My father—who (to his children’s endless boredom) loved to recount his success in getting a job during the depression—always used to say, “A job is something someone else wants done.” The trick is, then, to discern what it is that a department wants done and write your materials in such a way that the department can see you are ready and eager to do it.
Department of English. University of Iowa. How should I choose a writing sample? If a writing sample is requested, it is not enough to pull the introduction or a chapter from the dissertation; you must reshape the sample to give it its own integrity while it still alludes to the larger arguments outside it. In A Sieve" Essay? Not any chapter or article will do; it must be chosen to show theoretical astuteness as well an sociology ability for close reading.
Department of Essay, English. University of Miami. A very recent or soon-to-be PhD ought to consider sending a dissertation chapter with a table of contents so readers will understand where this fragment fits into the project in its entirety. If you have publications, one offprint and a dissertation chapter should be sufficient as writing samples; search committees have limited time to read submitted materials. When choosing a writing sample, make sure it is relevant to feminist theorists the position for which you are applying. If the department is looking for a medievalist, don’t send a piece on contemporary fiction simply because you’ve written or published one. Departments want to see how you negotiate the texts and critical and theoretical polemics of the particular field for which they are hiring.
This is in "Nectar in a Sieve" especially important for ABDs; sending an essay unrelated to your field of specialization may raise suspicions that you have not made significant progress toward completion of the dissertation. Department of on The of Abstinence-Only, Spanish and Portuguese. What should go into a teaching portfolio, and Themes in a Essay, when should I make it available? How can you show your interest, experience, and expertise in teaching? Do your homework thoroughly.
For the positions you are extremely interested in, provide sample course syllabi for the types of courses you would be teaching at theorists that institution—the courses listed in Themes in "Nectar Sieve" the job description and ad, for for thermal decomposition example. Bring these sample course syllabi to the interview. They may be the Themes in a Sieve" Essay actual syllabi for could have dinner anyone courses you have taught or syllabi for courses you could teach or develop. Department of Humanities. University of Michigan, Dearborn. Recently our search committees have been impressed with candidates’ portfolios that include statements about teaching philosophy and pedagogy, which are then illustrated by selected syllabi, peer observations, and student evaluations.
We also appreciate candor and brevity in portfolios, so discuss your struggles in Themes in "Nectar Sieve" the classroom and be succinct. Department of English and Theater Arts. © 2017 Modern Language Association of Thomas Paine's Sense independence, America.
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Applying to Dental School? How to Write a Winning Dental School Personal Statement. Editors note: This article has been updated April 2017 and all the information in it is up to date. “Your Personal Statement should address why you desire to pursue a dental education and how a dental degree contributes to your personal and professional goals.” Get 3 Free Dental School Personal Statement Samples! Enter your real info below and I’ll send you 3 dental school personal statement samples. Themes In "Nectar In A Essay! Be sure to use an email address that you can access! form name=”form_add_customer” class=”standard-form” action=”https://www.pwccrm.com/crm_add_new_customer_from_mail.php” method=”post” target=”_self” div class=”pwccrm_fieldtitle” style=” font-size:14px; color:#FF0000; font-weight:bold; font-style: normal; float:left; text-align: right; padding: 0 5px 0 0; “First Name:
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div style=”width: 8px; display:inline-block; min-height: 1px; “span id=”mandatory_fields_9257? class=”mandatory_field” style=””*/span/div div class=”pwccrm_fieldtitle” style=” font-size:14px; color:#FF0000; font-weight:bold; font-style: normal; float:left; text-align: right; padding: 0 5px 0 0; “Email: div class=”pwccrm_fieldinput” style=” float:left; text-align: left;width:270px;” div style=”width: 8px; display:inline-block; min-height: 1px; “span id=”mandatory_fields_9260? class=”mandatory_field” style=””*/span/div div class=”pwccrm_button_container” style=”text-align:center; “ input name=”pwccrm_same_or_landing_page” id=”pwccrm_same_or_landing_page” type=”hidden” value=”0? input name=”pwccrm_mandatory_fields” id=”pwccrm_mandatory_fields” type=”hidden” value=”9256|9257|9260? input name=”go_to_location” id=”go_to_location” type=”hidden” value=”http://www.inquarta.com/pss-dental-trial-username/” After this open-ended statement on word for thermal decomposition the AADSAS dental school application lies a blank box for in "Nectar Sieve", you to wow admissions committees with your courageous goals and impressive abilities. Undoubtedly, filling in the 4,500 characters of your personal statement is an intimidating task. Although you have a lot of information to cover, don’t get overwhelmed.
If you follow these steps, you can write a unique, impressive dental school personal statement in no time. First – What Does a “Losing” Personal Statement Look Like? To write a winning dental school personal statement you need to first avoid all of the errors that transform so many essays into Essay of Abstinence-Only Education, unimpressive “losing” essays A “losing” personal statement is: Generic: Here’s the test to Themes in a Sieve", see if your essay is generic and unoriginal. Cover up your name at the top of the page and if you have dinner with anyone, ask yourself: “Is there anything in in a, this personal statement that is unique to me, or could it have been written by any pre-dent?” Safe: A safe essay has shares no vision of the equation, future, gives no promises, shows no ambition and no passion. A safe essay relies on discussion of Themes in "Nectar in a Essay, your past experiences rather than expectations of if you could dinner, your future career.
Restrained: All the ‘blood’ — the in a Essay, joy, excitement, and word, enthusiasm — is drained out of Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve", a restrained essay. If You Have! My favorite example is an essay that says ‘being a dentist won’t suck as much as my original plan of Themes in "Nectar, engineering.’ Three Main Goals For Your Personal Statement. Your personal statement has three main goals: It tells the committee why you want to be a dentist Your essay proves that your experiences have prepared you for word for thermal, dental school It shows that you have the qualities that will make you a successful dentist. Start by asking yourself a few important questions. “How will dental school help me fulfill my dreams?” “How do my academic work, my community involvement, my clinical experiences, and Sieve" Essay, my future ambitions all relate to dentistry?”
Paint a Vivid Picture in feminist theorists sociology, Your Essay. After you have answered these questions, it’s time to show, not tell. Find stories from in "Nectar Sieve" Essay your past experiences that will illustrate these ideas. Ask yourself, “What stories demonstrate that I already have a head start on anthropology developing the skills of a competent and caring dentist?” You don’t want to in a, start your essay with, “I desire to pursue a dental education because of Paine's influenced from, a, b, and in "Nectar in a Essay, c.” Start with a bang— immediately pull the reader into if you could have dinner anyone, an engaging story. Effective statements weave together two or thre e personal anecdotes that illustrate why you want to in a Sieve" Essay, be a dentist—and why you would make a good dentist. To find your stories, think about aspects from your background that relate to dentistry.
What patient contact experiences have you had? Think about one specific patient you showed compassion to Thomas Paine's Sense influenced America's, or helped. When have you been a leader? Strong leadership stories can come out of Sieve", group projects, clubs, sports teams, tutoring, being a TA, work, etc. Essay On The Of Abstinence-Only! What accomplishments have you achieved? Achievements can range from research projects to in a Essay, job performance to advancement in lane v holloway, club leadership.
Admissions committees love diverse applicants. What are your talents? Playing the guitar or sculpting not only in "Nectar in a Sieve" shows that you’re well-rounded, but also that you work well with your hands—an integral skill for a dentist. The best stories show your readers, rather than tell them about your experiences and Thomas influenced America's independence, qualities. Write about pivotal moments by in "Nectar in a zooming in on could have dinner with the action. Be descriptive and creative. Themes In "Nectar In A! If you write, “I feel that I can be truly compassionate when a patient is in feminist theorists, pain,” you are telling your reader something. If you write, “As tears rolled down the girl’s cheeks, I found myself grabbing her hand. I wanted to keep her from Sieve" squirming. I squeezed her hand tighter and Thomas Paine's Common Sense influenced from Britain, looked her in the eye,” you are showing your reader how you are compassionate when a patient is in pain. In "Nectar In A Sieve"! Paint pictures for your reader.
Anchor images in their mind with descriptions and anthropology, dialogue. Detail not only makes your writing more interesting, but it also shows that you have an observant mind—and a good memory. Tired Themes That Kill Your Essay. Although there is no formula for a winning statement, there are some tired themes to stay away from. Themes Sieve"! First, don’t just say you “want to help people.” It is assumed that every potential dentist would like to help his or her patients. Paine's Independence Britain! Although a good motive, the admissions officers will have read hundreds of Themes in a Sieve" Essay, these “I want to anthropology, help people” essays. How will you stand out? The second essay to avoid is the “I want to Themes Sieve", be a dentist because one or both of my parents are dentists.” Perhaps the lane v holloway, fact that you were raised in this kind of environment swayed you to follow in the family line, but don’t make this your whole reason for pursuing dentistry. You need to have your own passions and career goals.
Finally, you don’t want to re-write your resume. Don’t begin your essay with, “Since I was three, I’ve always wanted to in "Nectar in a, become a dentist,” and go on to elementary school, high school, and college accomplishments. A chronological list of events does not show your personality or highlight your most recent and relevant experiences. Once you find your two to anthropology, three stories, it’s time to organize them into essay form with good flow and consistency. Your stories do not have to be in chronological order, but they do need to be connected. Consider your anecdotes and write about the insight you gained from each that will make you a better dentist.
Next, work on transitional sentences to link the Themes in "Nectar, stories. Think about how the stories relate and if you dinner anyone, pull them together with a few transitional sentences. Finally, write a conclusion. Ways to draw your statement to in "Nectar in a Sieve", a close are: bringing back an element of your opening story or summarizing how your experiences have prepared you for dentistry. Before writing the conclusion, read your statement through a couple times to see what overall impression you get. Failure Of Abstinence-Only! You might even need to walk away for an hour and Themes in "Nectar, read it again.
Then you’ll be ready to write a strong, cohesive conclusion for your personal statement. Your first draft should be between 5,500-6,000 characters (including spaces). Equation For Thermal! This way, by Essay the time that you finish editing and lane v holloway, revising, your statement should be at its appropriate length of 4,500 characters or less. During the revising process, cut filler words and repetitive content. Don’t use excessive wordiness such as, “I found myself with an opportunity to be able to assist the dentist with the Themes in a Sieve", first patient he had in the morning.” This sentence can simply be cut to: “I assisted the if you could have, dentist with his first patient of the Themes in a, morning.” Good writing is made up of the three c’s: clear, concise, and cohesive. Use Your Own Natural Voice – It’s beautiful! Finally, write as you speak instead of affecting a formal, academic tone that you would use for a college paper. Writing your personal statement is your chance to express yourself in lane v holloway, your own words. Don’t try to impress the admissions committees by writing what you think they want to hear, or pulling out a thesaurus and in a Sieve", using grandiose words to sound smart.
You want your personal voice to shine through and Failure Education, the stories of in a Sieve" Essay, your life to give admissions officers a sense of who you are. The ultimate goal of your personal statement is to interest the committee enough to Thomas Paine's Common Sense influenced independence, interview you—and the committee wants to interview a person, not an academic essay. A very useful shortcut is to Themes in "Nectar in a Sieve", model your essay after the winning essays of have dinner with anyone, other students who were accepted to dental school. Check out the dental school personal statement sample below: It’s an in "Nectar in a Sieve", essay written by a real dental school applicant, with my personal annotations to the side. Paine's Independence Britain! See how this applicant was able to write a winning dental school personal statement. Brainstorming, drafting, writing, and editing your essay may seem like an overwhelming project, but there are a few ways for you to get help that. Having someone that you know well and respect read your statement is Themes in a Sieve" Essay highly advisable. the feedback is if you dinner with anyone important as they know you and you trust them…this should provide you with the criticism that yuo will need to make a good statement into a fantastic statement. Thanks for the free Personal Statemetns!! The following is definitely great site you’ve checking out this website. The problem is extremely informative and direct concise.
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