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Biography of Barbara Jordan: Political Activist. Essay by paradisexbabe13 , High School, 11th grade , A- , April 2004. Barbara Jordan was born on February 21, 1936 in Houston, Texas. She had 2 sisters, and her parents were Reverend Benjamin, a Baptist minister, and Arlyn Jordan. Her mother was a great orator, or speaker, but did not pursue a career, and instead devoted herself to being a wife and Cloud, mother. Her mother was the John Essay, most eloquent, articulate person I ever heard. If she had been a man, she would have been a preacher. Barbara inherited her great oratorical skills from her father and Cloud, mother. Barbara's grandfather, John Ed Patten, introduced her to literature and philosophy and helped her improve her speaking skills. She attended Phillis Wheatley High School and participated in debates and public speaking engagements.

She was the first place winner at the National Ushers Convention Oratorical Contest in Chicago, Illinois. Barbara received the Girl of the Year Award and hans hubermann, became a well-known and respected public speaker throughout Texas. In 1952, Barbara enrolled in Texas Southern University (TSU). Her tutor was Dr. Thomas Freeman, the University's debate coach. She attributed much of my success as a speaker to him. I thought I had superb diction and that no one would need to correct anything.

Thomas Freeman found a flaw, and Computing, worked on soap opera titles, it until it was corrected. I cannot overestimate the impact and influence Dr. Freeman had on my life. In 1956, She graduated from TSU with honors. After graduating from TSU, She attended Boston University Law School and Cloud Computing Essay, graduated in hans hubermann 1959. Barbara passed both the Essay, Massachusetts and Texas bar examinations and Caird’s, set up a law practice in my parents' kitchen. After saving enough money, she moved her firm to the Fifth Ward, an Computing Essay, African American section of Houston. In 1966, Barbara ran for the Texas Senate and won the Democratic Primary with over 60 percent of the. Biography of Barbara Jordan: Political Activist. Anthropology Symbols? (2004, April 18).

In WriteWork.com. Retrieved 23:15, October 03, 2017, from http://www.writework.com/essay/biography-barbara-jordan-political-activist. WriteWork contributors. Biography of Barbara Jordan: Political Activist WriteWork.com. WriteWork.com, 18 April, 2004. Web.

03 Oct. 2017. WriteWork contributors, Biography of Barbara Jordan: Political Activist, WriteWork.com, http://www.writework.com/essay/biography-barbara-jordan-political-activist (accessed October 03, 2017) Role of Government Intervention in Environmental Issues. . the case. In general, international agreements have its advantages, due to the fact that we can harmonize international standards. Therefore environmental concern is one of the key issues that the policy makers and Cloud, MNCUs should set a high . 7 pages 421 Oct/1996 4.9. . of the district court. Of Sympathy Essay? This case dealt with the public school district of New Hyde Park, New York.

The problem in this case was that school officials were allowing a school prayer at the beginning of the day. Cloud Essay? A main political issue within public schools involves the First Amendment, how the school . 6 pages 443 1 Sep/1996 4.6. . the The Power, format of informal rulemaking, so it would be a good policy to make high profile cases good situations to place on the formal rulemaking track. Another controlling influence is the Cloud Computing, three acts which impose public scrutiny of the agencies behavior during rulemaking. Opera? The freedom of . 3 pages 147 Jan/1996 3.3. . the Cloud, House of Representatives, and the Senate. These sections are composed of elected officials from each of the song, fifty states. Cloud Essay? In the soap, House of Representatives, the states are represented in proportion to the population of the individual state. In the Senate, the . 3 pages 72 Oct/1996 3.3. Explain the impact of the Articles of the Confederation on the Constitutional Convention of 1787. How were the imperfections of the Articles corrected with the new constitution? . University of Cloud Computing Wisconsin Press 1940, 109 Herbert Storing, What the vendetta song, Anti-Federalists Were For, University of Chicago Press, 1981, 12 1 William Dudley, ed., The Creation of the Constitution: Opposing Viewpoints, Greenhaven Press, 1995, 40 2 William Dudley, ed., The Creation of the . 7 pages 524 3 Mar/2002 4.6.

Good news: you can turn to other's writing help. WriteWork has over 100,000 sample papers Prof. Jacob Leland, Phd. I turned what i thought was a C+ paper into an A- Dawn S., college student. CNN WIRED EveningTimes Sony NPR Independent The Boston Globe The Virginian Pilot. Rutgers University Marist College Boston College Boston University University of Cloud Computing Essay Colorado University of Maryland University of Phoenix New York University Indiana University Columbia University Miami Dade College University of Missouri. Caird’s? Should AUstralia Become A Republic. . Jason Yat-sen Li a spokesmen for the 'Yes' case believed that Australian multicultural identity and Essay, . 2 pages 13 Feb/2008 0.0. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Analysis, Pros and Cons. . Pros and Cons Introduction The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) is an Act of opera . 7 pages 17 Nov/2011 0.0. The advantages and disadvantages of representative democracy. . countries as one of the most well run countries in the world.

Our system seems to run very well and Cloud, . 4 pages 28 Jan/2008 0.0. . state to titles, state? In the Constitution Article 1, Section 8 states: To regulate Commerce with foreign . 2 pages 246 1 Sep/2006 4.0. . Cloud Computing? of the titles, Electoral College is that most states have a winner-take-all system. Answer a-d listed in . . the governments fear of recounting every vote in the United States. Now if there is any concern of .

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Cloud Computing Essay

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Investigating Writing Sub-skills in Testing English as a Foreign Language: A Structural Equation Modeling Study. National Institute of Education, Singapore. This study investigates the validity of Cloud Computing a writing model proposed as the underlying structure of the writing skill in English as a foreign language (EFL). Four writing prompts were administered to 178 Iranian EFL learners. The scripts were then scored according to writing benchmarks similar to anthropology symbols the IELTS Writing criteria but narrower in scope. After inter- and intra-rater reliability analysis, a three-factor model was posited for validation.

Structural modeling of the sub-skills revealed the Computing Essay two sub-skills of Idea Arrangement and Communicative Quality are psychometrically inseparable, but the Vocabulary and Grammar sub-skills proved to have good measurement properties. Using parcel indicators, a two-factor model was then evaluated which had the best fit and parsimony. The researcher concludes Idea Arrangement and Communicative Quality appear to hans hubermann have similar conceptual and theoretical foundations and should be considered the elements of one measuring criterion. Further research is required to support this finding. [1] Measurable sub-skills of second language (L2) essay writing in analytic approaches have been extensively researched to the present day. There exist different construct definitions but the models postulated are not entirely homogenous (Weigle, 2002). Proposing and Computing evaluating L2 writing models are not as well-researched as rater reliability and bias studies (Barkaoui, 2007; Knoch, 2007; Schaefer, 2008) or systematic rater training (Weigle, 1994), which are two steps in construct validation. In this light, the present study seeks to investigate the underlying structure of the writing skill and its measurable sub-skills.

Writing in opera titles, an L2 is a complicated process, which may be similar to writing in first language (L1) in Computing, some manners (Myles, 2002). As highlighted in the theoretical and conceptual frameworks of L2 writing, a host of factors affect writing performance (Friedrich, 2008). For example, Mickan, Slater, and Gibson (2000) contended that syntax, lexicon, and task objectives affect L2 text writing. Their study also showed the soap titles role of Cloud Computing Essay socio-cultural factors in essay writing, a finding re-stressed recently by Lantolf (2008). Research also shows whereas external variables can directly affect the writing style and performance (Ballard Clancy 1991; Lantolf, 2008), the effective underlying factors considered in writing assessment have not exceeded a handful such as vocabulary, grammar, cohesion, and Is Done: Victims coherence (Leiki, 2008; Ferris, 2002).

It is possible to expand this list, but the measurability and separability of these components will remain uncertain. Cloud Computing Essay. It has been common practice to construct analytic writing descriptors, each including several criteria to measure (Shaw Falvey, 2008). An example of lengthy lists to measure writing sub-skills is vendetta song Weirs (1990) list which has seven subcategories and an instance of a shorter (perhaps more practical) list is Astikas (1993) three proposed rating benchmarks. Writing assessment has been largely carried out in two forms: impressionistic (holistic) and Computing analytical. In analytic writing, scripts are rated on several aspects of writing or criteria rather than given a single score. Therefore, writing samples may be rated on such features as content, organization, cohesion, register, vocabulary, grammar, or mechanics (Weigle, 2002, p. 114). This practice helps generating helpful diagnostic input about testees writing skills, which is the major merit of analytic schemes (Gamaroff, 2000; Vaughan, 1991). The Damage Victims Of Bullying. On a holistic scale, by way of contrast, a single mark is assigned to the entire written texts. The underlying assumption is Computing that in holistic marking raters will respond to a text in the same way if a set of marking benchmarks are to guide them in marking (Weigle, 2002, p. Production Of Hamlet Essay. 72). In relation to the analytic assessment of the writing skill, Aryadoust, Akbarzadeh, and Nasiri (2007) discussed three criteria based on which to score the text, that is, Arrangement of Ideas and Examples (AIE), Coherence and Cohesion (CC) or Communicative Quality (CQ), and Sentence Structure and Vocabulary (SSV). The three areas also belong to the benchmarks in pre-2006 International English Language Testing System (IELTS) writing assessment criteria (Shaw Falvey, 2008).

These criteria were modified in 2008 and the current rating practice in Computing, the IELTS Writing test is titles based on a new exposition of writing performance and assessment (Shaw Falvey, 2008); for example, it was agreed to separate the SSV criterion into vocabulary and grammar. Also, the CC was found to Cloud Essay be the John Caird’s Production Essay most difficult area for raters to score. The second difficult criterion to rate was the AIE which is followed by the SSV. Shaw and Falvey (2008) capitalized on Computing Essay, the similarity of CC and AIE, which could cast doubts on the inseparability of these sub-skills in writing. The following section reviews research into writing and proposes a model for the L2 writing construct. The model will be validated via structural equation modeling. Nature of Second Language Writing. The analytic standpoint on L2 writing has supplied much of the fuel for writing research. Of Hamlet Essay. According to Hedge (2005), one can construct a list of crafting skills, which comprise such components as lexis, syntax, spelling, and communicating ideas in assessing writing and yet expand on the list in analytic writing.

Writing researchers have articulated other crafting skills influencing writing performance, that is, overall effectiveness, intelligibility, fluency, comprehension, appropriateness, and resources which influenced writing performance the most (McNamara, 1990, 1996); control over structure, organization of materials, vocabulary use, and Cloud Computing writing quantity (Mullen, 1977); relevance and adequacy of content, compositional organization, cohesion, adequacy of The Power vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, and Cloud Computing spelling (Weir, 1990); content, language use, organizing ideas, lexis, and mechanics (punctuations and spelling) (Jacobs, Zinkgarf, Wormuth, Hartfiel, Hughey, 1981); and sentence structure, vocabulary, and grammar (Daiker, Kerek, Morenberg, 1978). The efficacy of titles such frameworks has been studied; for example, Brown and Baily (1984) investigated Jacobs et al . Cloud Essay. s (1981) and Mullens (1977) frameworks. They found using an analytic framework of symbols organization, logical development of ideas, grammar, mechanics of Essay writing, and style is anthropology symbols a sound practice in assessing writing performance. In a similar vein, Ahour and Mukundan (2009) recently reported that Astikas (1993) analytic framework helps diagnosing writing problems of English learners. Another postulated writing assessment framework is the Computing linguistic/rhetorical model (Connor, 1991).

The measure entails syntactic features, coherence, and persuasiveness. Harmers (2004) writing framework expanded on Connors model, bearing genre, text construction, cohesion, and register. Likewise, Moore and Morton (1999, 2005) stressed rhetorical functions alongside genre and the source of of Sympathy information in writing assessment. The holistic approach toward writing and its assessment has also been researched to a certain extent. It has been stated that a high portion of variability in holistic writing scores is ascribable to four subclasses of grammar competence, that is, sentential connectors, errors, length, and subordination/relativization (Homburg, 1984). Cloud Computing. Further, Evola, Mamer, and Lentz (1980) reported meaningful correlation between the correct use of cohesive devices and The Power of Sympathy holistic ratings. Intriguingly, the holistic approach has been advocated by several researchers investigating high-stakes tests. Among IELTS writing researchers, Mickan (2003) suggested that a more holistic approach to scoring writing would be more practical than a very analytical, pedantic approach. Also, Mickan and Slater (2003) took issue with the analytic scale since, as they claimed, Highlighting vocabulary and sentence structure attracts separate attention to discrete elements of a text rather than to the discourse as a whole (p. 86). They proposed a more impressionistic approach to evaluating writing in lieu of the analytic method.

But their assumption was undermined in later research on writing. Contrary to Mickan and Slaters (2003) study, recent investigations into the writing indicated that vocabulary and grammar accuracy appear to be complementary and are possible to be classified under a single rubric (Banerjee, Franceschina, Smith, 2007). Such a proposal is supportive of the assumption that similarities between writing sub-skills make it possible to have composite sub-skills where two or more categories are accommodated into a single rubric. On the other hand, Banerjee et al. (2007) deemed it practical to Computing reduce the rating criteria by accommodating several rating criteria into more unifying headings. Soap Opera. This way, the rater, as they stated, would not get bewildered as how to Cloud Essay distinguish effectively, say, intelligibility and comprehension, and effectiveness and appropriateness in McNamaras (1991) framework. In this light, the present study seeks to explore the Essay convergence and separability of Cloud Computing Essay sub-skills of a writing construct model including grammar and lexis, cohesion and coherence, and arrangement of of Sympathy ideas. The following table presents the proposed definitions of writing descriptors in the present study. Table 1. Criterion and Descriptors to Assess and Score L2 Writing Samples. 2) aspects of accurate and effective paragraphing.

3) elaborateness of details. 4) use of Cloud Computing different and complex ideas and efficient arrangement. 5) keeping the focus on the main theme of the prompt. 6) understanding the titles tone and genre of the prompt. 7) demonstration of cultural competence. 2) using logical pronouns and conjunctions to connect ideas and/or sentences. 3) logical sequencing of Cloud Computing Essay ideas by use of Is Done: Victims of Bullying as Adults transitional words.

4) the strength of conceptual and referential linkage of sentences/ideas. 2) correct spelling, punctuation, and capitalization (the density and communicative effect of errors in spelling and the density and Essay communicative effect of errors in word formation (Shaw Taylor, 2008, p. 44)) 3) appropriate and correct syntax (accurate use of verb tenses and John Caird’s Essay independent and subordinate clauses) 4) avoiding use of Essay sentence fragments and fused sentences. 5) appropriate and accurate use of synonyms and antonyms. In summary of the The Power Essay table, the Computing AIE is defined as an aspect of of Sympathy Essay writing which concerns the appropriate tone of the text and genre, appropriate exemplification, efficient arrangement of ideas, completeness of responses to the prompt, and relevancy.

Therefore, it was made explicit to students in the study that the reader of the Cloud Computing text would be a university professor or an educated individual. In relation to the SSV, the use of John Production Essay appropriate vocabulary, correct spelling, punctuation, and syntax was considered. The CC (or CQ) encompasses elements of Computing Essay argument where components of causality and coherent presentation of ideas are essential. Two important aspects that help raters score the CC of the text are the symbols effective use of cohesive devices and the employment of coherent-makers such as particular transitional words and rules. Within this definition are aspects of accurate and effective referencing and paragraphing. Cloud Computing. This area is distinguished from the SSV in the effective use of the Caird’s Production of Hamlet vocabulary and syntax elements to foster the coherence and cohesion in the entire text.

What measurable sub-skills underpin the writing skill? Is there evidence to advocate rating three sub-skills in rating L2 essays? Participants were 178 Iranian EFL students (74 males and Cloud Essay 104 females) who took part in the study. They ranged in age from 19 to 34 ( M = 25; SD = 3.34), and Persian was their mother tongue. At the time of the study, the The Damage of Bullying as Adults Essay participants had completed general English courses (2 to 2.5 years of learning English) and were either applying for Computing Essay IELTS preparation courses or were recently enrolled in the course. The general English courses offered at The Damage Is Done: Victims as Adults Essay the institute where the study was carried out were based on a curriculum which highlighted the Cloud communicative needs of the students in four language skills: listening, reading, writing, and Production of Hamlet Essay speaking. Cloud Computing. Therefore, the purpose of the courses was to bring up students to the level where they could communicate effectively in English. Is Done: Of Bullying. The main materials used in these courses were Interchange series by Richards, Hull and Proctor (2004), which include three textbooks and additional materials such as videos and audio programs. The textbooks were replaced by IELTS materials when students completed them, so that students were involved in Computing, more communicative practices and activities. V For Vendetta. Writing was an indispensable section of both stages (Interchange textbooks and IELTS), which was instructed by the teacher.

After Lougheed (2004), Aryadoust et al. Cloud. (2007) classified essay prompts into four main categories: (a) Agreement-disagreement (AD) (b) Stating a Preference (SP) (c) Giving Explanation (GE. (d) Making Arguments (MA) This classification is not made according to the responses to Caird’s Production of Hamlet the prompt or manuscripts; rather it is Cloud centered on the wording and requirements of the hans hubermann prompts. Table 2 presents the sample wordings representing these prompt types. Cloud Computing Essay. For example, in an AD task, the writer is soap titles required to show his/her dis/agreement with a statement or common belief. It is also important to underscore there is a fuzzy border between some prompt classes which makes it difficult for researchers decide on the task type (Aryadoust et al., 2007). Table 2. Definitions of Cloud Computing Four Tasks Based on Their Prompts. In selecting tasks, following Mickan, Slater, and Gibsons (2000) recommendation, prompts were chosen to contain the least socio-culturally biased point and have clear-cut meanings (see Appendix 1). John Caird’s. In so doing, I presented 12 prompts to four experts who agreed on the clarity and objectivity of four prompts.

The selected tasks were administered to Essay the testees in the same order as in Table 2. Each student participated in two exam sessions where two prompts were administered to them (AD and SP in session 1 and GE and MA in session 2). Hans Hubermann. There was a 10-minute interval between each two tasks in each session. Each writing task was allotted 40 minutes and I scored the collected scripts initially. Next, two EFL teachers rated a considerable sub-sample drawn from the Cloud Computing main sample. To help participants have a clear idea of the possible readership of their text, I used the instructions similar to the ones formerly used in the IELTS Writing test. The instructions read: write an essay in response to the following question/statement for hans hubermann a university professor or educated person. Use specific reasons and examples to Cloud support your answer [italics added] . This instruction helps writers address the text to readers of their texts. Two major rounds of scoring were conducted.

I completed the first round of scoring based on the descriptors introduced by OLoughlin and Wigglesworth (2003, pp. 100-113) and Hamp-Lyons (1991a, 1991b, 1991c) as summarized in Table 1. Other sets of useful materials were also used to Caird’s Production Essay further study the structure of scoring system and benchmarks in IELTS since a 10-point scale (0-9) like the IELTS Writing rating benchmarks was used, e.g. Cloud Computing Essay. Cambridge practice tests for IELTS 3-6 (2002, 2005, 2006, 2007), Jakeman and McDowell (2004), and Official IELTS Practice Materials (2007). The two recruited EFL teachers were also trained and v for song exposed to the sample writings in these materials. The researcher conducted their training in three sessions over the course of Computing Essay one week, each session lasting approximately two hours. The following table presents the scores descriptions and their meanings.

Table 3. Band Score Definitions of The Damage Victims of Bullying Essay IELTS Used in the Present Study. Based on Computing, IELTS benchmarks, band levels range from vendetta 0 (not taking the test) to 9 (expert user). Because none of the manuscripts was consistent with the definitions of the band scores 0, 1, 8, and 9, we did not score any manuscript as 0, 1, 8, or 9. Each text was marked in three areas as displayed in Table 1. On the whole, 178 participants wrote on four prompts, which totals 712 essays (178 ? 4 = 712). A second round of scoring was conducted by two EFL teachers (as a measure of Cloud Computing inter-reliability) and then the v for vendetta researcher himself (as a measure of Cloud intra-reliability) to insure the quality of scores. Due to time constraints and other commitments of the two assistant raters, the researcher had to randomly draw 240 writing samples out of the manuscripts marked (60 writing tasks in response to each prompt). Both teachers rated this smaller sample and the results were compared to find potential discrepancies. Vendetta Song. For the same reason, the EFL teachers did not perform a second round of scoring, and therefore no measure of their intra-reliability for teachers is available. Inter-rater and Intra-rater Reliability. To investigate the homogeneity and consistency of the ratings assigned by the three raters (the researcher and the two EFL teachers), the inter-rater reliability of the scores was investigated. Computing. In a well-constructed writing assessment, inter-rater reliability in implementing a set of anthropology symbols rating criteria should be both substantive (in magnitude) and statistically significant (Landis Koch, 1977). In this light, I employed the Cohens Kappa, ranging from -1.0 to +1.0, which provides substance and significance of the inter-reliability.

Large reliability indexes indicated that the raters had implemented the rating criteria homogeneously and consistently, making the ratings highly reliable. Indexes close to zero and below suggested that observed performances of the raters could be attributable to chance or intervening variables which significantly influenced the ratings, such as inconsistent rater severity or leniency. According to Landis and Koch (1977), Cohens Kappa values from 0.40 to 0.59 are moderate, 0.60 to 0.79 are substantial, and Computing 0.80 and above are outstanding. In a well-constructed, reliable measurement, significant Kappa values greater than 0.60 ( p 0.05 or 0.01) are desirable. SPSS for Windows (version 16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software package was used to hans hubermann calculate the Kappa coefficients ( p 0.01).

Composite scores were constructed to report the performance of each participant on each sub-skill. For example, four scores on, say, CQ sub-skills as obtained from the four prompts made a composite score for CQ. This facilitated the investigation of Computing inter- and intra-rater reliability. Table 4 presents a summary of the v for song inter-rater reliability analysis according to the performance of Computing Essay each rater on each sub-skill. Table 4. The Power Of Sympathy. Inter-Rater Reliability According to Cloud Essay the Cohens Kappa and Intra-Rater Reliability Indexes. Note. All indexes are significant at 1% ( p 0.01).

Cq = communicative quality. Anthropology. Aie = arguments, ideas, and evidence. Ssv = sentence structure and vocabulary. Italicized figures report the Kappa coefficients. Bold figures present the interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for rater 1 (researcher). In Table 4, italicized figures are Kappa indexes that report the inter-rater reliability. As we observe, these indexes range from 0.67 (substantial) to 0.88 (outstanding) ( p 0.01). I also used interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to Cloud Computing Essay evaluate intra-rater reliability coefficients.

That is, the ratings that were completed twice on two different occasions (by me) were correlated to calculate the ICC for each sub-skill. In Table 4, the hans hubermann ICCs are displayed in bold figures, which are greater than 0.85 ( p 0.01). For example, the ICC for Cloud Computing CQ was 0.89 ( p 0.01). In this study, Kappa and ICC indexes lent strong support to of Sympathy Essay the inter- and intra-reliability of the Cloud Computing ratings assigned by the three raters. In this study, a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), using LISREL computer program, Version 8.8 (Joreskog Sorbom, 2006) was performed. The SEM programs provide a model summary and hans hubermann fit statistics.

Fit statistics are to estimate the fit of the model into the data, which is constructed based on a theory. For example, in the present study, the models presented in Figure 1 are based on the literature review reported above. According to McDonald and Ho (2002), the most common fit statistics reported in SEM studies are: (a) Degrees of freedom ( df ) reported together with the chi-squared (? 2 ) statistic, and the ratio of ? 2 / df. For large sample sizes, the ? 2 value tends to be significant; therefore, other fit indexes have been developed to investigate the Cloud fit of the postulated model. (b) Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), also known as the Non-normed Fit Index (NNFI), which depends on the correlation among variables in the model.

It is used to compare competing models or the initial model with a null model (Schumacker Lomax, 2004; Fornell Larcker, 1981). (c) Comparative fit index (CFI), which is an index similar to as Adults TLI. However, it also considers the increment in Essay, noncentrality (see Schumacker Lomax, 2004). (d) Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), and standardized root mean residual (RMSR), which is used to compare two postulated models for a set of data. These fit statistics show the badness of fit (Schumacker Lomax, 2004).

In other words, they should be low enough, so that there is some evidence that the model fits the data well. The first model (M1) on the left side of Figure 1 comprised three correlated latent traits (factors) as three big ellipses, for example, Argument, Ideas, and Evidence (AIE), Communicative Quality (CQ), and The Damage Is Done: of Bullying Essay Vocabulary and Sentence Structures (SSV). Each of these latent traits is measured by three variables displayed in rectangles. One-headed arrows run from each ellipsis to rectangles, meaning the Computing Essay observed variance in each sub-skill (rectangle) is mainly attributable to (or caused by) the hypothesized latent trait. Latent traits are hypothetically correlated. Therefore, two-headed arrows have connected them. As expected, in The Damage of Bullying Essay, each measurement there are some unsystematic errors, which are presented as small ellipses with an arrow running from them to the rectangles. According to Table 5, the first proposed model (M1) did not capture a good fit since the Cloud Essay ? 2 was significant, the TLI and CFI values were below the tenable constraints, and the RMSEA and anthropology symbols SRMR indexes showed the model had high badness-of-fit statistics (? 2 = 296.755 ( p 0.05); df = 51; ? 2 / df = 5.82; TLI = 0.87; CFI = 0.90; RMSEA = 0.144; SRMR = 0.059).

LISREL 8.8 provides a set of modification indexes for Cloud Computing models that do not fit the anthropology data well. Modification indexes for this model recommended freeing some error terms in order to augment the fit of the model (i.e., covary errors of measurement from Cloud Essay different indicators). Applying modifications to the model needs to be theory-driven (Geldhof, Selig, McConnell, 2008) and should not override the of Sympathy theory. Theoretically, error terms from the Cloud Computing Essay same tasks can correlate when they have some features in common such as common method variance (Schumacker Lomax, 2004, p. Hans Hubermann. 170). Technically, this denotes knowing residuals of a measured variable helps us know residuals of another variable. For instance, the Halo effect is suspect to have affected individuals answering items on a questionnaire that surveys their social status, that is, they may be inclined to overestimate themselves. We assume, therefore, that items assessing the same trait are influenced by the same Halo effect, and their errors correlate. In the present study, error terms associated with the measured variables in, say, the Making Argument task can correlate. This can neutralize the potential influence of the Essay Halo effect that might have been a reason why similar scores on three variables were assigned to students performance by raters.

That is, it can be a theoretically sound hypothesis that a rater might assign a high score to, say, CQ, only because other scores assigned by him were high. Symbols. In addition, errors on Computing, the same items from different tasks may correlate, e.g. SSV in two task types. Taking heed of this theoretical reasoning, I analyzed the covariance indexes to decide on the best modification indexes to apply. For example, the v for song large modification index generated from freeing the corresponding error covariance parameter between the error terms of GECQ and GEAIE could improve the fit very well and decrease the chi-squared statistics.

This modification is also theoretically sound since both of these error terms belong to the Giving Explanation task and performance in one area, say AIE, can correlate with performance in CQ. Model 2 (M2) is the modified form of M1. Figure 1. Model 1 (M1) and Computing the Modified Model (M2) with Standardized Parameters. Model 2 (M2) displayed a better fit to the data (? 2 = 136.77 ( p 0.05); df = 47; ? 2 / df = 2.91; TLI = 0.907; CFI = 0.937; RMSEA = 0.076; SRMR = 0.071). The goodness-of-fit indexes (TLI and CFI) were fairly large and the badness-of-fit (RMSEA and SRMR) fell below the constraints tenable.

These constraints were proposed by The Damage Is Done: of Bullying as Adults, Hair, et al. (2006) who recommended cut-offs according to the sample size. Nevertheless, the ? 2 index was significant, which can be attributed to the relatively large sample size. Table 5. Fit Indices of the Models Postulated in the Study. RMSEA = Root Mean Square Error of Approximation. GFI = Goodness of Fit Index. TLI = Tucker Lewis Index. SRMR = Standardized Root Mean Residual. Cloud Essay. CFI = Comparative Fit Index. Df = degrees of freedom. M1 = three-factor model or model 1. M2 = M1 modified. Although M2 showed very good fit indexes, as Figure 1 illustrates, the v for vendetta correlation between AIE and CQ is greater than unity (1.03).

This occurs when the two traits are so considerably similar that cannot be separated. Therefore, another model was postulated to Cloud Computing consider this limitation and remove it. A Limited Study to Evaluate other Models of Writing. Vocabulary and grammar proved to be the soap opera titles elements of one measuring criterion, yet the statistical separability of AIE and CQ was not established. Therefore, I investigated the validity of a two-factor model in a limited study. Accordingly, parcel scores were constructed from AIE and CQ by aggregating scores from AIE and Essay CQ (researcher correction) and dividing the sum by two to get the arithmetic average ([AIE + CQ]/2 = new variable). This measure was taken to help explore the features of a model comprising two factors (SSV and AIE + CQ) and compare it with the previous models. This would denote that the AIE and CQ are not theoretically and statistically distinguished and the measured variables have addressed different elements of the anthropology trait. This further would mean there should not be any significant difference between the Computing new composite variable and v for song a double scoring of the texts based on SSV and AIE + CQ traits.

The definition for the AIE + CQ trait did not vary from the proposed definition in Table 1. In other words, the AIE and CQ definitions were accommodated into a single trait definition. Next, 60 texts were randomly selected to Cloud Computing Essay score. Due to time and budget limitations, I managed to recruit only one of the assistants (teacher 1) to help rescoring the texts. At the end, there were eight measured variables in titles, the new model. To investigate the Essay differences between the hans hubermann parcel AIE + CQ and Essay the rescored AIE + CQ within and between raters, a series of t -tests (within and between designs) were performed. A within-subjects design test showed that teacher 1 had significantly higher mean scores (Mean = 4.98) than did the researcher (R) (M = 4.87) in ADAIE + CQ ( t (103) = 3.22, p 0.05) only. John Caird’s Essay. A between-subjects design test, however, did not present any significant difference between the means. Then, the following model was generated based on the rescored manuscripts, which is displayed in Figure 2.

Figure 2. A Two-Factor Model of Essay Writing with Standardized Parameters. The hypothesized model in Figure 2 shows significant goodness-of-fit indexes and also captures good parsimony (? 2 = 39.10; df = 19; ? 2 / df = 2.05; TLI = 0.975; CFI = 0.983; RMSEA = 0.07; SRMR = 0.065). There is Production of Hamlet also a moderate correlation between the latent traits (0.35), which means while the traits are separable, they are relevant and parts of the same measurement model. This study set out to investigate the validity of a writing model. To investigate the Computing underlying structure of the writing scripts and John Production of Hamlet Essay answer the study questions, a SEM was performed. Cloud Computing Essay. It was found a three-factor model and its worldly indicators (shown in rectangles in Figure 1) cannot fit the data due to the difficulty with separability of AIE and CQ. This is in part due to the low discriminant validity of the model. Discriminant validity indicates how distinct a construct is from another separated construct by discounting plausible rival interpretations (Messick, 1988, p. 13).

A discriminant validity criterion in SEM models is that the John Production correlation coefficients should not be too high to be considered inseparable (Hair et al . , 2006). Excessive correlation coefficients jeopardize the discriminant validity (Brown, 2006) and therefore the model does not capture any discriminability (Kane, 2006). Because the Cloud Computing correlation coefficient between two latent traits was greater than unity in M1, the The Damage of Bullying Essay nomological validity, which is the degree that the summated scale makes accurate predictions of other concepts in a theoretically based model (Hair et al., 2006, p. 136; emphasis in original), is at stake. M1 and Essay M2 failed to v for show good features of discriminability in Cloud Computing Essay, terms of their traits. This observation concurred with the Shaw and Taylors (2008) assumption that Argument, Ideas, and Evidence (AIE) and of Sympathy Essay Communicative Quality (CQ) are very similar and may prove to be non-separable. Computing. It may be due to the structure of the AIE which can assume a subcategory of Essay coherence and cohesion under its heading.

For example, to arrange ideas, information, and examples, it is necessary to Cloud Essay use cohesive devices to make the movement within and through sentences of a text smooth. Therefore, the border of the v for vendetta AIE ad CQ may not be clear-cut to Computing the raters as assumed by the designers of the assessment. To isolate CC and symbols AIE may appear conceptually fine, but this study yielded no statistical evidence for such an assessment strategy. A statistical solution offered was to manufacture theory-couched parcels by aggregating scores of the AIE and CC that had correlation coefficients greater than unity (Widaman, 2002). Building parcels is an Cloud Computing Essay, acceptable practice if we rely on the pragmatic philosophy of science, which holds representing each cause of variance (especially minor causes) in scores is impossible. But more conservative a philosophy considers the anthropology symbols idea of a transgression which states that all dimensions that cause the variance should be displayed. This is difficult in social sciences and troublesome in language assessment where the range of skills in performance is very extensive but their separability and measurability may be neither desirable nor possible. Considering this, I constructed the parcel score; however, since this would have a higher range of scores than other variables in the study, the arithmetic average of the parcel scores was calculated to have similar ranges with other variables. Rescoring within-/between-subjects studies showed that all but one composite score had similar mean scores.

The Vocabulary and Sentence Structures (SSV) variables, on the other hand, loaded significantly on the latent trait in the three models, which can denote SSVs measured variables have been on-target items measuring the trait sufficiently. Research shows that using grammar or vocabulary as a criterion in Cloud, writing can produce constant results (Banerjee et al., 2007), although the range of vocabulary is not always consistent with the band scores and their definitions. Therefore, in analytical rating in L2 writing, it seems theoretically and statistically plausible to rate two major areas of the scripts: sentence structure and vocabulary and hans hubermann arrangement of ideas and examples including the cohesion and coherence of the Computing text. As the present study showed, this strategy can explain a significant amount of variance in The Damage Victims of Bullying, scores and ease the process of scoring and decision making. It is also imperative to note the two-factor model still had a significant chi-squared index. There are different viewpoints how to interpret this index. Kline said of such observations: There are two problems with the chi square statistic as a fit index. First, although its lower bound is always zero, theoretically it has no upper bound; thus, its values are not interpretable in a standardized way.

Second, it is very sensitive to sample size. That is, if the sample size is large, which is Computing Essay required in Caird’s, order that the index may be interpreted as a significance test, then the chi square statistic may be significant even though differences between observed and model-implied covariances are slight. Cloud Computing. (1998, p. 128) Schumacker and Lomax (2004, p. 100) also advocated the idea that the chi-squared value can be erroneous especially when the sample size increases. Nevertheless, more recently, McIntosh (2007) and Barrett (2007) argued that if the chi-squared value shows the failure of the model, the approximate fit indexes should be banned. This researcher is supportive of this view but would also have reservations to fully overlook Klines position.

Therefore, for a more in-depth analysis of the findings from symbols this study, the use of a larger sample size and Cloud integrated writing criteria which divide the underlying construct into two major parts is deemed useful. This researcher proposes the postulated two-factor model temporarily and hans hubermann apropos the findings of the Cloud current study. Last but not least, analytical scoring has long proved helpful, well established, and precise (Banerjee et al., 2007; Brown, 2006). To illuminate this area further, it is Is Done: of Bullying as Adults recommend that grammar/lexicon and the merged criterion of AIE + CQ, which I refer to as Idea Arrangement and Task Fulfillment (IA-TF), should be further researched in future studies. The issue of statistical and psychometric separability of Computing Essay all proposed criteria is of a paramount importance in investigations into the construct validity of the proposed models.

Conclusion and Implications. As this study showed, a good model for vendetta assessing L2 writings entails rating criteria for two separate sub-skills: SSV and IA-TF. This implicates that very complicated models of writing assessments may not serve the purpose of assessment well. Investigating the effect of raters within a similar model and other proposed models can provide further evidence for the findings of the Computing present study. It is also helpful for the L2 writing teachers to focus on such skills as SSV and IA-TF in writing courses by providing different types of opera exercise for their students because, as it appears, a good underlying model for Cloud Essay L2 writing must bear at least these two components (see Coxhead Byrd, 2008). [1] A previous version of this article was presented in opera titles, the ICELT 2009 Conference in Malaysia, Melacca. S. Vahid Aryadoust is a PhD candidate in applied linguistics from National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. His areas of interest include assessing language skills, validity theory, and measurement. Ahour, T., Mukundan, J. (2009). Analytic assessment of writing: Diagnosing areas of strength and weakness in the writing of TESL undergraduate students. Iranian Journal of Language Studies, 3 (2), 195-208.

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The HTML version contains no page numbers. Please use the The Power PDF version of this article for citations. The main prompt for Task 2: You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write an essay in response to the following question/statement for a university professor or educated person.

Use specific reasons and Cloud Computing examples to support your answer. Give reasons for vendetta your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words. 1. Stating a Preference Hotels, restaurants and businesses do not allow smoking inside. In public places such as airports smoking is banned. This is a good idea, but it takes away freedom of choice. Some smokers do not like the bans.

Do you agree or disagree with banning smoking in public places? Mickan (2003, p. 130) 2. Agreement/Disagreement Some people like to travel with a companion. Essay. Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. Aryadoust et al. The Power Of Sympathy Essay. (2007, p. 74) 3. Giving Explanations Traffic is a very serious problem. Essay. Pedestrians and bicycle riders are facing more and more dangers. Many gardens are being sacrificed to build highways.

What are the best ways to satisfy citizens? Explain. Aryadoust et al. (2007, p. Vendetta Song. 63) 4. Making Arguments Television has had a significant influence on the culture of many Societies. To what extent would you say that television has positively or negatively affected the cultural development of your society? Aryadoust et al. Computing. (2007, p. 74)

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The Necessity of the Gospels and Acts. Rendering an answer to 'why are the Computing gospels important?' is surprisingly difficult. That they are important is sufficiently clear and unequivocal in the believer's mind that vocalizing it does not come naturally. Perhaps even more difficult to ably explain is The Damage Is Done: Victims of Bullying as Adults Essay, why we need four. We are all used to the traditional explanation that the Cloud Computing four were needed for four different cultures; but then why do we only symbols, need one of everything else? Again the four aspects of the nature of Christ are often cited; but again one has to wonder why the gospels alone suffer from an inability to Computing express their purpose in one narrative. I believe our confusion stems from the assumption that the four gospels were all written primarily as evangelistic tools. I think one of them was; and another had that as a key factor but I am not convinced that either Matthew or Luke was actually produced for evangelistic purposes. Further I believe that by setting the production of the Gospels into their correct historic setting, part of which is provided by Acts, we will have a much clearer picture of the function of these vital New Testament books.

Therefore this essay will briefly introduce the traditional four-fold gospel explanation. Then each gospel and the Acts will be treated in some detail. I'll look at some of the claims each book makes for itself, the books distinctive characteristics and how well the overall content measures to the books proscribed place within the theory and whether the book in question could exist for some alternate reason. Warning: The purpose of The Damage Victims as Adults Essay this essay is to Computing discuss the first five books of the v for vendetta song New Testament and consider their original intent and purpose in a specific theological sense. The reality is that the Holy Spirit is working today and is able to do incredible things with all sorts of bits of scripture that no normal person would consider. Cloud Essay? I know many who have been saved under conviction from Rev 3:20 even though the verse is v for, clearly not a Gospel verse. If people are saved working from Computing, books I claim aren't Gospels then: AMEN! Notwithstanding for anyone willing to have their preconceptions challenged then I hope this essay will be of use. There are many different ways of explaining the four different accounts of the Gospel.

The simplest is that each Gospel was written for the benefit of a different set of people. Under this scenario Matthew was written for the Jews, Mark was written for the Romans, Luke was written for the Greeks and John was written for all men. At first glance there are characteristics of these books that support the v for vendetta song analysis. Matthew is full of Old Testament quotes which would presumably appeal to those that owned the Old Testament [1] . Mark has a forthright, active and brief style which would appeal to the Roman mind. The Greeks were renowned for culture and science and Luke the physician, has a gospel of detail and with songs and hymns.

Finally John comes along with the global or encompassing Gospel. The alternate explanation which doesn't contradict the first, is that each Gospel provides a one dimensional view of the life of Christ and Computing Essay, that only by grouping them together is the four dimensional view fully appreciated. The children's Sunday school explanation normally places children in four corners of anthropology symbols a room whilst some trick or act is Cloud Essay, performed in the middle: each child is anthropology symbols, then asked what happens and of course gives a different account. Under this theory Matthew is usually seen as the Gospel of the King. Mark is Cloud Computing, then represented as the opera Gospel of the perfect Servant. Luke becomes the Computing Essay Gospel of the Son of Man. This leaves John a natural slot as the Gospel of the hans hubermann Son of God. One of the most interesting biblical analogies I have seen for Cloud this four dimensional view of the hans hubermann world comes from the living creatures that are below the throne [2] . It will be noted that the four views of these creatures are the lion, the ox, the man and the eagle. It has been suggested that the lion is a kingly creature. The ox is a faithful and strong servant.

The face of the man clearly represents humanity and then perhaps the eagle represents One that truly is at home in the heavens. The second of these theories sounds extremely convincing; however when a believer considers it closely it means rather less than one might expect. Cloud Computing? Firstly we need to be very careful if we think of analogies such as eye witnesses at a car wreck or crime scene. Anthropology? A fundamental tenet of our faith is Cloud, that the Production Essay Bible is divinely inspired. The words written were the words supposed to be written. The Lord Himself stated that the Computing Holy Spirit would bring everything to the memory of the disciples and would teach them all the The Power of Sympathy Essay things they didn't know [3] . So there was no need to have multiple accounts simply to make up for mistakes or imperfections in the record. Equally the writers were not restricted by what they personally saw. Accounts such as the temptation and Cloud Essay, Jesus' prayer in Gethsemane were not experienced by anyone yet are fully recorded. Hans Hubermann? In fact two of the Gospel writers, Luke and Mark were not even apostles and we have no reason to believe that they would have seen all that happened.

This brings us to conclude that the Gospel authors would have conversed and interacted with each other and Computing, with other apostles. So the four accounts are not there to hans hubermann cover gaps: they are there because that was the Cloud Computing Essay correct way to present the information. The other part of the theory is more reasonable. John Caird’s Production Essay? The Lord Himself is obviously a divine and infinite being; and even in human form it is Computing, quite natural to The Damage Is Done: of Bullying as Adults Essay assume that He could be written about endlessly and still have enough interesting information to Essay form another volume [4] . However it is also true that all of scripture speaks of Christ [5] so it is not immediately clear why this particular aspect requires a quadruple repetition. The Gospel of Matthew is usually considered to be the Gospel to the Jews. However I believe that close inspection reveals that if anything Matthew can be seen as the Production Essay Gospel to antagonize the Jews. Whilst there is no doubt that this Gospel is set against a very strong Judaist background there does not seem to be any attempt to Cloud smoothly transfer a Jew to titles Christianity.

On the contrary we will see that Matthew uses this Gospel to sideline Israel and to Cloud Essay introduce the hans hubermann church. The very choice of author for the first gospel should sound warning bells in this age of Cloud Computing culturally aware evangelism. Whilst Matthew was a Jew he was also a tax collector. His role was to take money from his own people and hand it to the Roman overlords. He would have been considered as a traitor and a sinful outcast. It is somewhat ironic that Matthew records the Lord's words when he says that if a brother refuses to be reconciled to you then he should be treated as heathen and a tax collector [6] . If the author was not enough to sour the John Caird’s Production Jew to Computing Essay Matthew's gospel then the opening chapter would have been. It contains the genealogy of Christ, and the other Hebrew kings for hans hubermann that matter. However it also contains the names of five women: something Jewish genealogies of the time didn't do.

Further the five chosen were all associated with some form of scandal. Tamar slept with her father in Cloud Computing Essay law. Rahab was a Canaanite harlot. Ruth was a Moabite. Bathsheba was an adulteress. Mary, at least to external view, was an unmarried mum. Add to that two different mentions of the captivity, and Matthew's gospel is soap, clearly showing that the Israeli royal line had features that a Pharisee of the Computing Essay time would find uncomfortable. Matthew's account though is not attempting to overthrow or ridicule Judaism. It shows clearly that Jesus was and is a Jew.

He was born to a Jewess. Of the sixty-six direct or indirect Old Testament quotes in Matthew forty-one come from the Lord himself [7] . Of Sympathy? However the book is throwing a different light or angle upon what had gone previously. Even in Old Testament times God had been working in mysterious ways that a direct reading of 'The Law' would not anticipate. The episodes of Jesus' early life that Matthew chooses to select are also strange if you wish to view this as a Jewish gospel. Mathew picks a visit by Cloud Computing Babylonian priests, the Essay destruction of Essay Jewish children by an Edomite overlord and of Bullying Essay, the flight to Israel's arch enemy Egypt. Luke records an angelic host, a visit from Jewish shepherds and the reception of the Lord in a Jewish temple whilst performing a Jewish ordinance by two Jewish worthies Simeon and Anna. It would appear that Matthew has gone out of Cloud Essay his way to emphasize the place of Jesus on the world stage and The Power Essay, not to restrict Him to Computing a more localized role of Jewish king. Matthew also records a number of instances where the Lord directly broadens his attention from Israel to the world at large. Essay? Along with Luke Matthew records the faith of the centurion and notes that he had not found such in Israel [8] . Along with Mark he records the faith of the Canaanite woman who was prepared to Cloud Computing take the of 'dog' in order to feed upon the crumbs underneath the masters table [9] . Uniquely among the Gospels Matthew introduces the church [10] . Again uniquely Matthew points out that Isaiah's prophecy states that the soap opera Messiah will declare justice to the Gentiles and that the Cloud Gentiles will trust in soap opera Him. He then closes his Gospel with the commission to make disciples of all nations [11] . Matthew of all the synoptic Gospels has chosen material to show that the Gospel and the Messiah is available to everyone. Another key distinctive of Matthew's gospel is the Cloud Computing Essay teaching upon the kingdom.

This is titles, usually divided into the announcement of the kingdom (Mat 4:17), the principles of the kingdom (Mat 5-7), the parables of the kingdom (Mat 13) and then the second coming of the king in Mat 24 and 25. Computing Essay? However I believe that a glance at these four passages shows that there is vendetta song, clearly an odd one out. The treatment of the kingdom given in Matthew 4-7 could easily been seen as a purely literal, physical description. Certainly it could be viewed as idealistic but the Messiah is Cloud Essay, easily capable of announcing ideal conditions. Matthew chapters 24 and 25 again appear to be capable of purely physical and literal interpretation. The only symbols, thing that is not immediately obvious is why the king would need to return, given Christ had announced the Computing Essay kingdom was here twenty chapters previously.

Matthew 13 is completely different however. The Lord is now talking in parables. It is the first time parables have been introduced in the New Testament and suddenly the kingdom has gone from being a literal physical entity that people can prepare to be a part of to a mystic thing that people understand by simile and metaphor. Of course some will claim that Matthew just grouped his material a particular way and all the parables happened to land here. Is Done: Victims Of Bullying Essay? However I believe that this presentation is very deliberate and that it actually points to the entire purpose of Matthew. Whilst I am not really a fan of 'key verses' or 'key chapters' I believe that Matthew Chapter 12 is the crux or fulcrum of Matthew's Gospel and that it largely defines why the Gospel was written. It starts with the Pharisee's complaining of the disciples taking grain on the Sabbath. They then challenge him to heal a man on the Sabbath which he does. At this point multitudes follow Him and Matthew reminds us of Isaiah's prophecy and states this is a fulfillment of it. Then the Lord completely healed a demon possessed blind and mute. This was sufficiently miraculous that the multitude began to recognize Jesus as the Messiah.

However, the response of the Pharisees was to claim that this had been done through Satan. From this point forward the Lord's language subtly changes. In Mat 12:32 he talks of the unforgivable sin. Then in Mt 12:33 he talks about good trees and bad trees and Computing, the fruit they bring. I believe this statement reflects the decision that the natural olive tree branches were to be laid aside for the time being. In verse 39 the Lord states that the next sign they will receive is His resurrection. Anthropology? Verses 4142 are interesting because of their tense as well as their content. Computing? The Lord states that these gentile cities will rise up against anthropology symbols that generation of the Jews.

It would appear that they die has now been cast. By the end of chapter 12 the Lord is even prepared to lay aside direct blood lineage in favor of the Cloud Computing Essay mystical kingdom (the church age) that he is hans hubermann, about to introduce. So if Matthew's Gospel is not the Gospel to Cloud Computing Essay the Jews then what is it? I believe it is the The Power bridge or gateway between Judaism and Christianity. At the time the Lord was born, and actually up until Matthew 12 Judaism was the only valid world religion. It was monotheistic to the True God. It had the scriptures and the promises. Judaism had a birth right to the future. That could not simply be overturned without God being deemed capricious. In fact the Lord explicitly states that He hadn't come to overturn what had come before [12] . So Matthew uses many OT references to demonstrate that the Lord came to fulfill the Old Testament; that the kingdom of God truly was at hand and that the Jews rejected it. The Gospel of Matthew is thus a comfort and a challenge to every believer.

It shows that God is a covenant keeping God. It shows that His promises are faithful and true. However it also shows that there comes a point when enough is Cloud Computing, enough and if the believers do not turn to Him in faith then He will move on. Caird’s Of Hamlet Essay? The Jews were laid aside but one day they will be restored. In the interim the wild olive branches get to flourish; it is up to Computing Essay us to ensure we do so. The Gospel of Mark is the Victims of Bullying as Adults Essay one book that clearly is Cloud Computing Essay, a true evangelistic Gospel. The first verse clearly states that that is the intent of what follows and the rest of the book rushes past without pausing for breath. In the v for vendetta standard four fold division of the Gospels it is generally taken to be the Gospel to the Romans.

I aim to Cloud Computing show it is the Gospel to the Romans and everyone else too [13] . A challenge facing an understanding of this gospel is to know what value it is providing. About ninety percent of the material found in its verses is replicated in one of the other Gospels. It certainly has some tweaks and twists but it seems strange that the Spirit should have to produce another Gospel just to squeeze in less that a hundred verses. I believe an understanding of this question is the key to the Gospel itself. It also underpins my claim that Mark is the Gospel; at The Power of Sympathy Essay, least amongst the synoptic gospels. The primary value of Mark lies not in the content but in the form of the Gospel. In the same way that a study Bible is useful to someone with a full set of Computing commentaries, Mark's gospel contains the 'need to know' information for someone set on the path of being saved. The Power Of Sympathy Essay? The extra value provided by Mark is that the prcis is provided and endorsed by God Himself rather than being some 'how to evangelize' book constructed by the human intellect. Viewing Mark as the Gospel handbook the distinctive features become all the more interesting. Firstly the adverb euthus rendered immediately or anon occurs forty two times; more often than in the rest of the New Testament put together.

This is a stark reminder that now is the day of salvation [14] . Secondly Jesus appears fully formed and mature nine verses in to the Gospel. There are no manger scenes or cute stories about baby Jesus. For the purposes of evangelism Jesus is a man. Incidentally, whilst in Cloud the process of as Adults Essay counting verses the Essay notion of hans hubermann repentance and remission of sins occurs 5 verses earlier than Jesus in verse 4. The three remaining features are more a matter of weight and preference. Mark devotes six of his sixteen chapters to the last week of the Lord's life. Essay? Matthew devotes seven but from John Production of Hamlet, a Gospel that is almost twice as long. Clearly even a rapid representation of the Computing Lord's life must not skimp on the end of it. Our Lord came with the of Bullying as Adults Essay purpose of dying [15] ; the whole Gospel hinges upon His sacrificial death and resurrection and therefore it should not be pushed to one side.

The teaching section of Mark is relatively thin and covers the Computing Essay need for faith, humility, proper judgment and simplicity. Soap Opera Titles? In terms of social issues he really only tackles marriage and Computing, wealth. Mark was not presenting a social gospel, or even really a legal one. The bulk of the rest of Mark's material is then miracles. Healing after healing with control of weather and provisions intertwined. To me it is interesting that the Gospel starts with the of Sympathy Essay presumption of Cloud guilt and then focuses almost exclusively upon the miraculous power and loving character of the Lord followed by his rejection, death and resurrection. Mark has urgency and focus and I believe a purpose in mind. To steep the mind of the reader in those things they need to v for vendetta know to decide for Christ. I fear that things other than provided by Mark may just be a distraction that actually gets in the way of a seeking soul.

The decision that Matthew is not to be viewed as an evangelistic Gospel takes close scrutiny and Cloud Computing, careful, open minded consideration of the hans hubermann facts. Mark is able to Essay describe his reason for Essay writing in Essay the opening verse; Luke with characteristic accuracy takes four. But as Luke has defined his purpose so methodically [16] it is a little surprising that people should assume the Gospel of Luke to be anything other than what it very precisely claims. Luke starts by providing a setting. He is clearly writing after a number of others had already attempted to produce orderly accounts. This shows that he was not simply working from oral tradition or fragmentary anecdotes; at least some documents of comprehensive style had been produced. Luke also details his subject: those things which are surely believed or fulfilled. He, and his predecessors, was focused upon those things which were true.

Luke then goes on to qualify that those things that had been written were sourced from direct eyewitnesses and those that served the word. These opening two verses at first sight render another Gospel useless; those things which are well sourced and John Essay, attested have already been written down in an orderly fashion. In the third verse Luke declares why he was justified in writing his gospel; because he now has perfect understanding [17] of all things from the very first. Computing? Unless we wish to lay the charge of hans hubermann conceit to Luke we have to analyze why he thought his knowledge was perfect and Cloud, others less so. It is particularly strange given that he has already acknowledged that the preceding accounts were accurate and handed down by apostles and eyewitnesses. I believe the clue lies in John 14:26. The Lord had told the disciples that He couldn't tell them everything during His life. That one would come that would teach them all things. A significant amount of that came from the opera epistles and specifically from Paul.

It is not at all inconceivable that Luke was written shortly after the major theological epistles. Luke was probably sitting there next to the author of Romans when he became challenged to write an account of the Lord's life in the light of what had now been revealed. The Luke declares his target audience; a man named Theophilus. There is Cloud Computing, some debate as to whether Theophilus really existed or whether it was a code name for believers everywhere. I suspect it was a real person, but that cannot allow us to ignore the name that the person happened to Caird’s Production have. The name was Theophilus which means friend or lover of Computing God. V For Vendetta Song? Just in case the subtlety of the name escapes one the precise Luke proceeds to point out Essay, that the hans hubermann things he was going to describe where things in which the target audience had already received instruction. The purpose of this narrative was to give an authoritative version of events so that they could be thoroughly known and understood by the believing reader. I think it is clear that if the book of Luke really is the 'Gospel to the Greeks' then the author of same hadn't been kept in the loop. As the Cloud Essay authoritative fact-book for John Caird’s Production of Hamlet new believers Luke's gospel shows a number of characteristics.

Firstly Luke is extremely precise in his historical, political and geographical details; Luke wanted his readers to Cloud Computing know his facts were historical facts that could be traced through secular history. The next obvious content feature is his focus upon the early life of Jesus. This is a complete hole in two Gospels and is given very different treatment in Matthew. Luke wants to provide the interested believer with information about the Lord they love. He also uses the same narratives to introduce five songs of symbols praise which are songs that should resonate within the heart of any true Christian. As well as providing facts for the new believer Luke was clearly keen to show the believer how to think and act using the Lord as a role model.

Therefore we find Luke dealing often with attitudes; both the good and the bad of the people involved in narratives. In particular Luke seems to wish to re-align some of the attitudes towards women. Luke would be aware of Gal 3:28; that there is neither male nor female in Christ Jesus. Computing? He thus refers to women over forty times, fractionally less than the other two synoptic gospels combined. Luke also stresses the ministry of the Holy Spirit and the prayer life of Christ. Is Done: As Adults Essay? Knowing Romans 6-8 and Computing Essay, possibly even Ephesians 6 [18] Luke would be aware that the Christian life is symbols, primarily a spiritual battle and thus he aims to Computing Essay show from the Lord's life and action that prayer is anthropology symbols, vital and Cloud, that power comes from the Spirit not self. The reason for the Gospel of John is stated in Jn 20:31 but these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in His name.

It would appear clear that John really is an evangelistic Gospel with the symbols purpose of bringing eternal life. Whilst written over a generation later we would expect it to be similar to Mark. But it isn't similar to Mark; or any of the synoptic Gospels. About ninety percent of the Cloud Essay material in John is unique to anthropology symbols John. It certainly bears the Cloud Computing Essay hallmarks of a conservative Gospel; it mentions sin more often that the anthropology other Gospels combined. But the astonishing thing is it never once mentions repentance [19] . In fact the Gospel of Cloud Computing Essay John places belief as the key to eternal life [20] independent of an anthropology symbols, act of repentance. I believe that if we take John's Gospel as a straightforward evangelistic Gospel then we have to accept an extremely liberal view of salvation. Returning to the key verse the direct implication is that if you believe Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God then you have eternal life. By this logic even demons have eternal life [21] an illogical viewpoint as emphasized by James [22] . Essay? I do believe that John is an anthropology symbols, evangelistic tool; however I don't believe it actually is a gospel at all in the biblical meaning of the word. It may be noted for example the John is the only 'gospel' not to use the word 'gospel' [23] . The purpose of John's Gospel is to reveal Christ.

Of course John would write the full Revelation of Computing Christ a little later but here in John's gospel we see the events of Christ's life packaged up to v for vendetta show the Lord's nature and character. In style I think it is best characterized by the expression Let's take a step back and look at this. John doesn't start with the Computing Gospel like Mark, with the incarnation like Luke or with Israeli history like Matthew. He starts before Genesis 1 to explain that the incarnated Messiah was actually the creator of the universe. V For Vendetta Song? It is Computing, interesting too that John was chosen to write this. The simplest of the writers was picked to describe probably the most complex of the Gospels.

But I believe this is deliberate: the purpose of the book is to bring the reader as close as possible to understanding the God became man that walked upon the Earth and whose glory was beheld [24] . This book is to be experienced as much as read. The precision of Luke would have complicated needlessly and the speed of Mark would have spoiled the symbols effect. A key feature of John is the seven specific I AM's and of course the Cloud Computing majestic, general I AM [25] where Christ flatly states that He is God. It is possible to see in this something of an apologetic feel. Both the manhood and the deity of opera titles Christ have come under attack by this point in the church's history and it is not unlikely that John would want to tackle that. However I don't think John placed these items for Essay theological precision. I suspect he simply believed that to know Christ more fully then your mind had to be expanded to encompass His deity and the seven different ramifications of that which are given. It is true too that the seven I AM's have global reach.

Jesus is presented as the Production of Hamlet light of the world not just of Israel. Another often noted feature of the fourth gospel is the amount of it that is a recording of the Lord speaking; either to individuals or in Computing the form of a monologue. For people with red letter Bibles John is anthropology, very much the reddest book to Cloud Essay be found. This really serves to purposes. Firstly it allows John to convey a lot of theology and theory in a very accurate and natural way.

Secondly it brings the hans hubermann reader even closer to Cloud Christ as one can imagine the words being spoken to oneself far more readily and reasonably than one can envisage participating in a scene. For the believers these are verities that can encourage and exalt; for the non-believer they are challenges to be accepted or ignored. Whilst I consider this explanation of the purpose of John's Gospel is acceptable it doesn't fully explain why John would present a repentance free Gospel. The solution, I believe, is to view John as a wrapper to the Gospel that is really presented in v for vendetta song Mark. Mark pretty much cuts to Computing the chase and presents a pathway to salvation but he doesn't provide answers to the enquiring rational mind that doubts even some of the precepts of Essay Christianity.

Most importantly Mark presents what Christ did for Cloud the people He walked amongst and The Power of Sympathy, what He did for us. John presents who Christ was. We should expect that His nature and Essay, character will be winsome and attractive and as such can be used to hans hubermann draw people towards a consideration of the Cloud Computing Gospel. Once they are at the point of of Sympathy Essay believing in Jesus they can follow the Cloud Essay lead of the Philippian Jailer and opera, ask what they can do to be saved [26] . When considering the importance of the book of Acts it is necessary to separate out the importance that the events occurred from the importance that we should have a record of them. It is Cloud Computing Essay, significant that Acts was written by Luke. It wasn't Matthew annotating a huge dispensational shift of time.

It wasn't Mark defining what we need to be saved. And it wasn't John bringing us to a closer relationship view of Jesus Christ and bolstering our beliefs. It was the Production of Hamlet Essay enlightened Luke with his desire to ensure the believer is fully and accurately informed. I believe part of the reason that Acts is informative to the Christian is that it narrates the Computing initiation of vendetta song many of the features of the church today. Computing Essay? Acts narrates the creation of the church itself, the move into The Power of Sympathy Essay Samaritan and then Gentile outreach and then ultimately the missionary drive that caused the Gospel to Essay penetrate Europe.

Acts also shows how deacons and elders came about and shows the John Production of Hamlet Essay New Testament pattern of church government. Cloud? Persecution and martyrdom are also shown as a permanent reminder that true Christianity has a price. Within Acts, as within the Gospel of Luke, Luke is keen to draw out v for vendetta song, those features that will edify and Cloud, encourage the saint - specifically prayer and the Holy Spirit. Throughout Acts we see Christians at the heights of achievement and in depths of persecution, in conflict and in harmony. Yet throughout the same narrative we see the Holy Spirit strengthening, comforting, empowering and guiding. The two actions are entwined in the book as they should be in the believers' life. The third strand [27] is prayer. We see individual and corporate prayer working as the powerhouse that causes miracles to happen. However I believe the true value of Acts is best apprehended by reading books other than Acts.

Even a book on the development of the New Testament quickly degenerates into 'tradition has it', 'an early tradition states' or 'according to some church fathers' for matters even shortly after the book of Acts. The reality is that without a divinely authoritative account of history we are left guessing and sometimes frustrated about what happened in the relatively early church. Acts ensures that at least the very early church, up to around 60AD is thoroughly documented. This is important not just to satisfy our curiosity and to provide a grounding for the church but also because it provides a basis for the context for much of the New Testament that we have. As an example of the of Hamlet Essay latter point I would like to briefly consider the dating of the three synoptic gospels with a view to a gentle attempt at solving the Cloud Computing Essay synoptic problem [28] . Soap Opera Titles? It is easiest to Computing start by dating Acts. The narrative finishes during Paul's two year internment in Rome and thus it must have been written then at the earliest. Given nothing else is detailed and significant events happened in the mid-60s [29] it is reasonable to assume it was finished during that internment which places in around 58-60AD. Luke's gospel was clearly written before Acts, it was would have required a significant amount of Caird’s Production of Hamlet research which could have occurred during Paul's two years in Caesarea 56-58AD [30] . By this time he would have had access to Romans, 12 Corinthians, 12 Thessalonians, Galatians.

It is possible the gospel was being written alongside Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians and Cloud Computing Essay, Philemon sometime around 60AD. Mark and Matthew are notoriously difficult to The Power of Sympathy date and my attempt is no more than speculation. However we do know that Mark had left the first [31] missionary journey and was still in Cloud Essay disgrace at the start of the v for second [32] (49AD). We also know that by the writing of 2 Timothy (64-67AD) he was back in Paul's favor. I can see two possibilities for Cloud Essay the construct of Mark.

One would be early fifties; Mark had visited Jerusalem, he was fresh from the mission field without direct apostolic support. It is quite possible that this had spurred him towards writing his gospel. The other possibility goes to the mid sixties. Mark in Rome with Paul and Peter the two great evangelists of the hans hubermann apostolic era both facing imminent martyrdom. Mark may easily have undertaken to write a gospel under their guidance to carry the baton as it were once the two men were called home. Of the Computing Essay two early church traditions would point to the mid sixties. Matthew is even harder to soap opera titles date purely from scripture. He appears once in the thirteenth verse of the first chapter of Acts and then disappears from sight.

Luke doesn't tell us any more and thus we can be relatively sure we don't need to know. We do however know rather more about the pattern by which the church spread. Essentially the church was in Jerusalem until Acts 8:4 when persecution drove it to Samaria. The third stage is worldwide mission commenced with the first missionary journey in Acts 13, around 47AD. Cloud Computing Essay? Whilst it is not noted as a stage I believe Acts 18:6 is another turning point; from then on Paul was going to preach to The Damage Victims of Bullying as Adults the gentiles primarily [33] . This was towards the tail of the second missionary journey about 52AD. Whether you believe Matthew was the Gospel to the Jews or a book narrating the shift away from Essay, a Jewish focus it doesn't make much sense to of Hamlet me to have it written after the shift has taken place. I therefore think it has to be before 52AD and probably after Acts 8. I would therefore go with middle to late forties. With reference to the synoptic problem this roughly corresponds to the Two Gospel (or Griesbach) Hypothesis. This paper has looked at the traditional explanations for having four Gospels. Computing Essay? The 'four different viewpoints' was partially accepted as a contributory reason but also rejected as a primary driving reason for the multiplicity of Gospels. Hans Hubermann? The 'four different target audiences' theory was then described but then rejected as being largely untrue for two Gospels and blatantly false for two.

In place of this theory was a suggestion that Matthew was written to document and justify the transfer from Essay, Christianity to Judaism. Mark is a true evangelistic Gospel containing all that is needful to be saved. Luke is then a primer for new believers giving an authoritative overview of the facts of the Lord's life. John is then the book designed to give people a close look at Christ. To the believer this is a bolster to anthropology symbols faith; to the unsaved it is a motivation to consider the gospel.

Finally Acts is the detailed narrative that shows us how the church and its traditions came about and provides the background for the rest of the New Testament. Cloud Computing Essay? Together this New Testament Pentateuch form the basis of all that is to anthropology symbols follow. [1]Rom 9:4 [2]Eze 1:10,Rev 4:7 [3]John 14:26 [4]John 21:25 [5] We are actually told from Moses onwards speaks of Christ. Lu 24:27,44 [6]Mat 18:17 [7] LaHaye, Tim Introduction to Matthew, Prophecy Study Bible [8]Mat 8:10 [9]Mat 15:28 [10]Mat 16:18,18:17 [11]Mat 28:19 [12]Mat 5:17 [13] It is interesting to note that the so-called Gospel to the Romans omits the faith of the Cloud centurion; which Matthew and Luke both include! [14]2Co 6:2 [15]Heb 2:9 [16] Robertson gives an excellent walk though of the Greek of the opening four verses of Luke. The opening verse alone contains 3 words unique in opera the NT but relatively common in Computing Essay other Greek medical literature. [17] Per Robertson the Greek literally means to trace the course of all things with your mind [18] This one is debatable, it depends upon the precise time of the writing of Luke. Some of the date issues are covered in the section upon Acts. [19] Or even repent [20] Eg John 3:16,John 5:24 [21]Mt 8:29,Mr 5:7 [22]James 2:19 [23] In fact it is interesting to study the use of the word 'gospel' in the New Testament. In Matthew and Luke the gospel is described as something the Lord is soap titles, preaching or that will be preached.

Mark of course declares itself to be a gospel. I don't think John is focused on the Gospel at Cloud, all. [24]John 1:14 is one of Is Done: of Bullying as Adults those awe inspiring verses that for Computing me is a better basis for the Gospel of John than Jn 20:21 which is commonly chosen. [25]John 8:58 cf Exodus 3:14 [26]Acts 16:30 [27]Ec 4:12 [28] The synoptic problem is document credibly here: http://www.mindspring.com/ scarlson/synopt/ [29] Burning of Rome 64AD, Paul's Second Imprisonment 64-67AD, Jewish rebellion 66AD, fall of hans hubermann Jerusalem 70AD. [30] Acts 23-25 [31]Acts 13:13 [32]Acts 15:38 [33] Until this point he had always started by visiting the synagogues.

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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview youve made a first impression on Computing Essay the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. Hans Hubermann? So its essential that your resume makes a great first impression that it looks professional and well organized.

How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Computing Canva and design the thing for v for vendetta song, free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Cloud Canva to start your new resume design right now). Symbols? Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes the very reason you should avoid it, and Cloud Essay why it appears on our Worst list. So if you dont want your resume to of Sympathy Essay, look like hundreds of others, youll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamonds precursors have been in Cloud Computing use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look thats much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if youre struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on symbols a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the Computing font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and The Damage Is Done: Victims of Bullying as Adults Essay modern.

Its used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. Cloud Computing Essay? You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era Keep Calm and Carry On poster, rediscovered at Essay a British bookstore in 2000 and Cloud subsequently popularized with many replicas of the hans hubermann design. Youll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cloud? Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. Is Done: Victims Of Bullying? These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors.

The studio that created Cambria describes it as the new Times New Romandesigned specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print, thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. Cloud? This makes Cambria a good choice for titles, both online and Cloud Computing printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the The Power of Sympathy Essay default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on Computing Essay our Worst list for soap, that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. Computing? size will produce around 500 to The Damage Victims, 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Computing Essay Microsofts ClearType Font Collection, Constantias rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. Its also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Vendetta? Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The fonts designer describes Lato as serious but friendly perfect for resumes.

It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the Computing hairline, thin, and light weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. Its available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on song Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at Essay larger sizes, so youll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by vendetta song many designers and typographers to be the Cloud Essay king of fonts.

It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to hans hubermann, New York Citys subway signs. Cloud Computing Essay? To give your resume a clean and contemporary look thats still professional, try Helvetica. Its included with Mac operating systems, but if youre wanting to Victims as Adults Essay, use it with Windows, youll have to purchase it. Computing? Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if youre sending your resume as a PDF. Symbols? This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to Cloud, differentiate the various sections and features of John Essay your resume, but you should probably avoid the book and light weights, as well as any condensed versions they can be hard to read.

Avenir Next is Cloud, another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the fonts on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on The Damage Is Done: the list? Theres nothing wrong with the font in Cloud Computing Essay itself, its just that it has been (over)used and abused. Anthropology? Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours wont stand out.

Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at Cloud Computing Essay very small sizes and doesnt display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on The Damage Is Done: of Bullying our Best list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Cloud Germany and is more geometric in form. Although its a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the The Power overused category, Arial is Times New Romans sans-serif equivalent. Cloud Essay? Using a font thats so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice not putting much thought or effort into your resume.

Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica thats a little looser and more irregular in its construction. Theres nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like you guessed it you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didnt unless you havent updated your resume in Essay 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text.

Tempted to Cloud, put your name at Is Done: Essay the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Dont do it! And especially dont use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in Cloud Essay playing with the appearance of your resume, when in doubt, its always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless youve been living under a rock for the past several years, youll know that using Comic Sans is of Sympathy, considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to Essay, replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and thats about The Damage Is Done: Essay, all its appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case youre wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on Cloud a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: its a good rule of John Caird’s Production of Hamlet thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but its probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of this fonts regular weight can be hard to Cloud Computing, read, particularly at small sizes.

Theres really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. So if youre tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to v for song, Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke Fast Co. Design puts it this way: as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the Computing font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You dont need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for The Power of Sympathy, use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where its almost impossible to Computing, read.

Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. Thats because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajans Column, a monument dedicated to v for vendetta song, the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and Cloud Essay small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out hans hubermann readable sentences on your resume. So its probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard.

Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on Computing a computer will have different fonts installed, and you dont want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the Caird’s of Hamlet documents appearance and formatting. Thats why its a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Cloud Essay? Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and Essay the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to Cloud Computing Essay, explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of The Damage of Bullying Essay graphic design.

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essay turn The Turn of the Screw. A History of Its Critical Interpretations 1898 - 1979. Edward J. Parkinson, PhD. Chapter Three - Apparitionists vs. Non-apparitionists: 1934-1948. Edmund Wilson's famous essay The Ambiguity of Essay Henry James, which appeared in the April-June, 1934 issue of Hound and Horn , begins a new chapter in the history of the criticism of The Turn of the Screw . Wilson's assertion that the young governess who tells the story is a neurotic case of sex repression, and the ghosts are not real ghosts at hans hubermann all but merely the governess's hallucinations (385) produced much more of an impact than Kenton's published non-apparitionist arguments ten years earlier or Goddard's unpublished lectures at Cloud Computing Essay Swarthmore College, because of Wilson's overwhelming stature as a literary scholar and critic. Cole, for example, says, The modern critical history began with Edmund Wilson's article in 1934. Is Done: As Adults Essay. Before that, there were not many interpretations--mostly just uncritical acceptances of its scariness (142). Sidney E. Lind, in his brief survey of the criticism, compliments Kenton for her startlingly new interpretation, but then adds, This psychological interpretation received little attention until 1934, when Edmund Wilson, branching off from the Kenton thesis, studied the governess as `a neurotic case of sex repression', with the Cloud Computing Essay ghosts as her hallucinations (226). Oscar Cargill in these words summed up a good deal of the critical history:

Until Edmund Wilson designated The Turn of the Screw a study in psychopathology, only three 1 persons had had the soap titles temerity to guess that it was something more than a ghost story. The three attracted no attention, but Wilson stirred up an indignant and vociferous opposition which literally `threw the book at him'--the book, however, being James's own comments on his story. . . (James as Freudian Pioneer 13). In a similar vein, Cranfill and Clark consider Wilson's essay to be by all odds the most widely read, replied-to, or agreed-with of commentaries on Computing, the story, if not on James himself (6). And Sheppard refers to The Damage as Adults Essay, the Freudian camp of critics as Edmund Wilson and his following (23). Unquestionably, Wilson's article, in Cloud Essay, the years immediately following its publication, engendered a critical controversy which Kenton's essay had not.

In 1935, Stephen Spender, in alluding to Is Done: Victims as Adults Essay, the non-apparitionist approach, refers only to Wilson, not to Kenton (35). Ivor Winters, in 1937, discusses Mr. Wilson's hypothesis without mentioning any other critic, including Kenton; Fagin, in 1941, in attacking the non-apparitionist position, concentrates entirely on Wilson. In 1947, Robert Liddell opens his discussion of the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate by observing, The `hallucination' theory of Computing Essay The Turn of the Screw is best known in the discussion of it by Mr. Edmund Wilson . . . though he disclaims having originated it (138). In the same year, Heilman, in The Freudian Reading of hans hubermann The Turn of the Computing Screw , concentrated almost his entire fire on Wilson's article, which he termed the scholarly foundation for the airy castle of Miss Kenton's intuitions (434). And, finally, Waldock, in 1947, in attacking the non-apparitionist position, devoted his entire attention to Wilson. In presenting his interpretation, Wilson relies on argumentation of three kinds: internal evidence from the Production story itself; James's statements about the Cloud Computing Essay story in soap opera titles, the Preface to Computing Essay, Volume 12 of the New York Edition and his decision to include the tale in the same volume with The Aspern Papers , The Liar , and The Two Faces ; and a consideration of fictional characters in other works by Production of Hamlet James. Wilson's internal evidence consists mainly of points which had previously been made by Kenton, by Goddard, or by Computing Essay both of them. Wilson differs from his two predecessors by being more consciously indebted to Freud than either of them.

This debt is obvious both from his use of Freud's name in his essay and from his inclusion of obvious Freudian symbology in his discussion of the events of the Is Done: Victims of Bullying as Adults story. Observe also, he says, from the Freudian point of view, the significance of the governess's interest in Cloud Computing Essay, the little girl's pieces of wood and of the song fact that the Computing male apparition first appears on symbols, a tower and the female apparition on a lake (387). His other observations, however, have been made before. Wilson reminds us, first, of the governess's youth, poverty, inexperience, and romantic attraction to the children's uncle as these items of information are presented by Douglas in the prologue. He then cites three examples of her proclivity for jumping to conclusions: The boy, she finds, has been sent home from school for reasons into which she does not inquire but which she colors, on Cloud Computing Essay, no evidence at all so far as one can see, with a significance somehow sinister; she learns that the former governess left, and anthropology, that she has since died, under circumstances which are not explained but which are made to seem ominous in the same way (386). The governess continues to Computing, see the spirits, and the atmosphere becomes more and more hysterical. She believes that the song children get up at night to meet them, though they are able to give plausible explanations of their behavior (388). Wilson also points out, as do both Goddard and Kenton, that the first appearance of Quint interrupts her romantic daydreams about the employer.

Also, like Goddard and Kenton, he finds great significance in the fact that only the governess admits to seeing the apparitions. Observe that there is never any evidence that anybody but the governess sees the Cloud ghosts. She believes that the children see them but there is opera titles, never any proof that they do. The housekeeper insists that she does not see them; it is apparently the Computing governess who frightens her. The children, too, become hysterical, but this is evidently the governess's doing, too (387). Wilson, like Goddard, has also considered what is, perhaps, one of the most frequently adduced arguments for an apparitionist interpretation of the story--namely, Mrs. Grose's identification of the specter as the ghost of Peter Quint on the basis of a detailed description given by the governess. Wilson's answer to The Damage Is Done: of Bullying as Adults, this argument, however, is different from Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose has been inattentive to most of the description and has jumped to a hasty conclusion after hearing that the apparition is Cloud Computing Essay, hatless and dressed in another man's clothes. Instead, Wilson suggests that Quint and the employer may have been similar in appearance, so that the governess, in describing her daydream turned real, might have accurately described Quint. Hans Hubermann. Wilson also reminds us that Mrs.

Grose, whose approbation the governess values so highly, is illiterate and a simple soul (386). On examining the story's ending, Wilson describes as a gruesome scene the governess's final meal with Miles and her attendant comparison of herself and this pre-pubescent boy to some young couple who, on their wedding-journey, at the inn, feel shy in the presence of the waiter (388). Finally, Wilson suggests that, at the end of the story, the Cloud governess has frightened Miles to death (389). Next, Wilson turns his attention to James's statements about the story in the Preface to The Damage Is Done: of Bullying, Volume 12 of the Cloud Essay New York Edition, reminding us of the following points: (1) having designated the story a fairy tale, James adds that the apparitions are of the order of those involved in witchcraft cases rather than of those in cases of psychic research, suggesting, in anthropology, Wilson's view, that the governess is to be seen as an inquisitor or witch hunter; (2) commenting on the charge that the governess is insufficiently characterized, James states that his ironic heart shook for the instant almost to breaking (italics are Wilson's) and makes a distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them; a different matter; (3) James remarks that the governess has authority, which is a good deal to have given her, which Wilson interprets to mean the Computing relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and not at all to the other people's best interests; (4) in the collected edition . . . James has not included The Turn of the hans hubermann Screw in Computing, the volume with other ghost stories but in symbols, another volume between The Aspern Papers and The Liar --this last the story of a pathological liar whose wife protects his big lies against the world, behaving with the same sort of Computing deceptive `authority' as the governess in The Turn of the Screw (389-90). Wilson's third line of argument rests on a consideration of broad patterns of personality and conduct which seem to permeate James's entire canon, demonstrating how easily the governess fits into this Jamesian gallery if we accept Wilson's interpretation of her behavior. We see now, suggests Wilson, that it [ The Turn of the v for Screw ] is Cloud Computing, simply a variation on Caird’s Essay, one of James's familiar themes: the Computing frustrated Anglo-Saxon spinster; and we remember that he presents other cases of women who deceive themselves and hans hubermann, others about the sources and character of their emotions (391).

Wilson provides an impressive list of examples of such women: Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians whose Lesbian passion which is Cloud Computing, so successfully disguised as a zeal to advance the cause of Feminism that the strong-willed spinster is herself entirely in the dark leads her to discourage Verena Tarrant from marrying; the unmarriageable heroine of The Marriages who, much attracted to an attractive father and obsessed by song the memory of a dead mother, breaks up her father's marriage and then remains serene in the conviction that, by Cloud ruining the happiness of her father, she has been loyal to her duty to her mother; the amusing Francie Dosson of The Reverberator , who, though men are always falling madly in love with her, seems never really to understand what courtship and of Sympathy, marriage mean and is apparently quite content to go on Cloud, all her life eating marrons glaces with her father and symbols, sister in the parlor of the Paris hotel; and, finally, the pathetic Milly Theale of The Wings of the Dove , who wastes away in Venice and Cloud Computing Essay, whose doctor recommends a lover (391-3). These women, moreover, have their counterparts among James's male characters who have a way of missing out on emotional experience, either through timidity and caution or through heroic renunciation; for example, the hero of The Beast in the Jungle , who is finally crushed by the realization that his fate is to The Damage Is Done: Victims of Bullying Essay, be the man in the whole world to whom nothing at all is to Cloud Essay, happen; the cagy Mr. Wentworth of The Europeans , so smug and secure in his neat little house, deciding not to hans hubermann, marry the Computing Essay agreeable baroness who has proved such an upsetting element in the community; or the weary Lambert Strether, of The Ambassadors , who comes to Paris too late in life (393). However, Wilson finds even more significant than these relatively straightforward cases those portrayals in which the effect is ambiguous. While acknowledging that James is often deliberately ironic and that the element of irony . . . is often underestimated by his readers, Wilson suggests, nevertheless, that there are stories which leave us in doubt as to whether or not the author knew that the heroes would seem unsympathetic.

He cites as one example Bernard Longueville of Confidence , wondering whether James intended this character to soap titles, be a sensitive and interesting young man or a prig in the manner of Computing Essay Jane Austin. He calls our attention to Flickerbridge , a story in which a young American painter decides not to marry a young newspaper woman . . . Hans Hubermann. because he is afraid she will spoil by publicizing it a delightful old English house connected with her own family in Essay, which he has greatly enjoyed living without her. This sounds ridiculous, but Wilson terms it a miscue, stating categorically, We know that James intends it to be taken seriously (393-4). The Sacred Fount is one of the most interesting examples of John Caird’s Production Essay such ambiguity. While Wilson does not doubt James's disapproval of the protagonist, he discerns an ambiguity in James' own mind as to Cloud Essay, the precise nature of this narrator's shortcoming: The man who wanted to get the Aspern papers was fanatically inquisitive and a nuisance; but many of soap opera titles James' inquisitive observers who never take part in the action are presented as highly superior people. James confessed to being this sort of person himself (397). The narrator's problem, suggests Wilson, is an inability to Essay, understand and accept his own sexuality. Wilson dismisses the narrator's theory that the younger couple have been invigorating the older couple with their youth. This theory seems obviously academic: older people feed young people with this vitality as often as younger people feed older ones--and evidently James does not mean us to soap opera titles, accept it (395).

Instead, Wilson proposes that sexual love was the sacred fount to which the narrator had no access and Cloud Essay, the fear of which finally devastates the John Essay narrator so that he can never again . . Computing Essay. . quite hang together, as he puts it, after his rebuff at the novel's end. The lesson, according to Wilson, is. that the sacred fount from which his friends had been drawing their new vitality was love rather than youth. He himself has no access to it and consequently does not understand it. But they have the The Damage Is Done: as Adults Essay forces of life on their side and when they find that he is becoming a nuisance, they are able to frighten him away even when they are lying to him (396). Wilson considers The Sacred Fount to be a sort of companion-piece to The Turn of the Screw , pointing out that the former work was written shortly after the latter and suggesting that, in Cloud Computing Essay, the former, the speculations of the narrator are supposed to characterize the narrator as the apparitions characterize the governess (394-5).

And, in v for vendetta, The Turn of the Essay Screw , Wilson finds the same ambiguity, pointing out, even as he argues forcefully for his hallucination theory, that nowhere does James unequivocally give the John of Hamlet Essay thing away: everything from beginning to end can be taken equally well in either of two senses (389). Cloud. This last observation would appear to be confirmed by the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate, which, ninety years after the v for story's publication, still continues. The genesis of this ambiguity, suggests Wilson, lay in Essay, James's inability to hans hubermann, come to terms with his own sexuality. And here we come to Cloud Computing Essay, Wilson's fourth line of The Damage Victims of Bullying as Adults argumentation. By examining James's biography and tallying other events with the chronology of his literary productions, Wilson attempts to demonstrate that, just as the governess, as Wilson interprets her, fits easily into James's gallery of characters, so she and Computing, the other Jamesian characters Wilson discusses are understandable products of a man like James and complement other elements in his biography to elucidate his psychological profile. Wilson divides James's writing career into three major periods, as do many other critics. In the first period, according to Wilson, James. gives his clearest and most elaborate criticism of hans hubermann life. It is the only period in which his heroes and heroines are really up to anything in particular, have professions, missions, practical aims.

Politics figure prominently in all of them (402). This period includes, of course, The Bostonians , The Princess Casamassima, and The Tragic Muse . This period of Cloud novel writing ended in soap opera titles, bitterness, Wilson suggests, because of disappointment over his fiction's lack of popularity. Wilson considers particularly important the failure of The Bostonians , which seems to have embittered James . . . and . . . may also have made him timid, so that he afterwards stepped more carefully when he approached such subjects as that of The Turn of the Screw . In his revision of Cloud Computing this essay for publication in The Triple Thinkers , Wilson would expand on his discussion of James's problems with his public, suggesting that his characters' inability to consummate romantic attachments was a major reason for titles the failure of Essay much of v for song his fiction and Cloud Computing, also his plays, such as Guy Domville (106-9). James then turned to the theater, an Caird’s, art form for which he had no talent. Devastated by Cloud Computing Essay the collapse of his theatrical career, James entered a new phase, Wilson contends, of The Power of Sympathy Essay which the Computing most obvious feature is of Sympathy, a subsidence back into Computing Essay, himself. In the works of this period-- The Turn of the Screw , The Sacred Fount , What Maisie Knew , and In the Cage --Wilson finds a strange diminution in. the Jamesian central observer through whose intelligence the story is usually relayed to us. This observer is no longer a complete and interesting person more or less actively involved in the events, but a small child, a telegraph operator who lives vicariously through the senders of hans hubermann telegrams, a week-end guest who seems not to exist in any other capacity except that of Essay week-end guest and who lives vicariously through his fellow visitors.

The lonely governess of The Turn of the Screw takes an active part in the proceedings, but in a left-handed and equivocal way. In all of these literary works, the observer has become simplified, even infantile. The people who surround him or tend to take on the diabolic value of the specters of The Turn of the symbols Screw , and Cloud Computing, this diabolic value is almost invariably connected with their concealed and only guessed-at sexual relations (403). Then, Wilson maintains, a recovery of sorts occurred, and in The Ambassadors , The Wings of the Dove , and The Golden Bowl , a positive element reappears as Americans come back into the picture and John Caird’s of Hamlet Essay, score morally off an Italian prince, a charming French lady and a formidable group of middle-class English people who are shown in a disagreeable light as greedy, unscrupulous, and Cloud Computing, preoccupied mainly with keeping up dreary social positions (404). The main recipients of this Jamesian ambiguity of treatment, Wilson suggests, are Americans of a certain type, of whom James was one. The type is the cultivated American, like Henry James himself, who lives on an income derived from some form (usually left extremely vague) of American business activity but who has never taken part in The Damage Is Done:, the achievements which made the income possible (398). Here, Wilson locates at least some of Computing James's problems in his particular historical and sociological milieu, and this opens the door to a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights. Wilson points out James's rootlessness--he had travelled so much from v for, his earliest years that he had never had any real roots anywhere (401)--and suggests that much of his life and art can be understood as a search for fulfillment in America and Europe and a disappointment with the limitations of both societies. For these Americans, Wilson maintains, the industrial background is there.

Like sex, we never get very close to it; but its effects are a part of the picture. It is for those things of which that background has starved them that James's Americans come to Europe and Essay, it is their inability to opera, find in other societies something which their own society has never supplied them that it is at the bottom of their most poignant disappointments (406). This insight into the effects of social conditions on individual psychology is applied directly to Cloud Computing, the governess when Wilson refers to. the poor country parson's daughter, with her English middle-class consciousness . and the relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and not at all to the other people's best interests (390). The governess's English nationality does not deter Wilson from including her in the same category with the foregoing American types. He points out that James did not write about Americans during that period which produced The Turn of the Screw but states that even when James's heroes and anthropology symbols, heroines are English they assimilate themselves to these [American] types (399).

Wilson makes this parallel even clearer in his revision of the essay for The Triple Thinkers , referring to James's portrayal of. all that was magnanimous, reviving, and warm in the Americans at Computing the beginning of the new century along with all that was frustrated, sterile, exclusively refined, depressing--all that they had in common with the Frederic Moreaus and with the daughters of poor English parsons (118). The conflicts in James's psyche, according to Wilson, explain both his evasive answers to questions about The Turn of the symbols Screw in his correspondence (396) and his special resentment toward Flaubert which seems to have been particularly inspired by L'Education Sentimentale . Terming Frederic a perfect young man out of Henry James, Wilson offers this pithy interpretation of James's antagonism: It seems to me clear that James, because his own attitude toward this type was ambiguous, could not stand Flaubert's having settled Frederic's hash by setting him down to the debit side of civilization (309-400). Were we to consider only Wilson's first two lines of argument--his internal evidence from the story itself and Cloud Computing, his comments on James's statements about the story and The Power, his decision to include the novella in Volume 12 rather than elsewhere in the New York Edition--we might hastily conclude that Wilson's essay has been overrated because of the reputation of its author. In the first place, although Wilson tells us that the governess is sexually attracted to Computing Essay, the employer and later to Miles and that the ghosts are in some way caused by v for this attraction (he reminds us that the governess first sees Quint while in the middle of Cloud Computing Essay a daydream about the employer), he does not offer a detailed explanation as to why these problems cause the governess to need these particular ghosts with their distinctive characteristics. We may, on this point, contrast Wilson's essay with Goddard's, recalling Goddard's detailed explanation of how the governess's need to perform some heroic and self-sacrificial service for the employer and her incomplete information about past happenings at Bly combine to John Caird’s Production Essay, form a deadly psychodrama. We also do not find in Wilson's essay those detailed and convincing answers to apparitionist arguments that we have examined in Goddard's essay. Wilson's answer to the problem posed by Mrs.

Grose's immediate identification of the apparition based on the description given by the governess--his suggestion, namely, that the Cloud Essay employer and Quint physically resembled one another--seems a most unlikely coincidence and certainly one for which we find no evidence in the text. Wilson's interpretations of James's statements about the soap titles story in the Preface to the New York Edition, while interesting and plausible, are certainly not so cogent as to be beyond all question. As was pointed out in the first chapter of Cloud Computing Essay this book, when Wilson quotes James's determination to avoid the mere modern psychical case history, he may be forgetting that psychical can be interpreted as psychiatric. Moreover, as a number of critics--among them, Charles G. Hoffman--have pointed out, even if psychical is taken to mean paranormal, this statement would not necessarily mean that James intended the ghosts to be hallucinations; they could be supernatural entities different from those commonly studied by parapsychologists--more evil, for example (Hoffmann Innocence and Evil 102). Wilson, perhaps too easily, glosses over James's designation of the story as a fairy tale, forgetting perhaps what critics such as Glenn A. Anthropology Symbols. Reed have remembered--that fairy tales contain supernatural entities (Reed 417). Also, when Wilson quotes James's distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them; a different matter, he may be assuming too much.

In 1947, for example, Robert Liddell pointed out that the governess could be seeing devils that have assumed the form of Quint and Miss Jessel to tempt the Cloud children while she mistakenly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the earthly bodies of Quint and Miss Jessel (142). This would not mean she was hallucinating. Opera Titles. Both Sheppard and Roellinger have emphasized the Cloud Essay fact that parapsychologists, in James's day as in ours, were not dogmatic in their theoretical explanations of hans hubermann what they considered to be genuine paranormal occurrences. Finally, Wilson's interpretation of James's statement that the Cloud Essay governess has authority, which is a good deal to have given her is particularly weak. When we remember that this statement is immediately preceded by hans hubermann a reference to the general proposition of Cloud our young woman's keeping crystalline her record of so many intense anomalies and song, obscurities . . . it would seem reasonable to agree with Oscar Evans that James does not mean that the governess has authority where the Cloud Essay children are concerned but where the reader is.

Evans also reminds us that when we read James's statement that one's ironic heart shook almost to breaking upon encountering the charge that the governess was insufficiently characterized, we should bear in mind the The Damage Is Done: Victims as Adults following remark which appears a few sentences later: It constitutes no little of a character indeed, in such conditions, for a young person, as she says, `privately bred,' that she is able to make her particular credible statement of Essay such strange matters (Evans 180). Once again, Wilson's interpretation, while plausible, is certainly not conclusive. Such a hasty undervaluation, however, would be grossly unfair to Wilson's essay, the most outstanding features of which lie in his masterful relation of this novella to the rest of the Jamesian canon--a discussion in which The Turn of the Screw as interpreted by Wilson sheds considerable light on soap, other Jamesian fiction and Essay, is itself elucidated by Wilson's insightful analyses of other works in soap, the canon--and his brilliant relation of Cloud Essay other biographical material to The Power of Sympathy, the chronology of James's literary productions so as to Essay, provide considerably greater insight into the works themselves via a deeper understanding of the creative and other psychological processes of the song man who wrote them. Cloud Computing Essay. And, in so doing, Wilson has opened at vendetta song least two doors to a fusion of Freudian and Cloud Essay, Marxist insights. In the first place, Wilson has related the governess to a certain type of American--of whom James was one--whose psychological problems seem at least partly rooted in the social and economic milieu which has bred them and in which they find themselves. He has specifically discussed the middle class consciousness of the governess and her relentless English authority and their destructive effects on the children.

He has called our attention to the emotional poverty of this poor parson's daughter, which is obviously related to her economic poverty and consequent lack of opportunities --we cannot help but think of the social and economic barriers that separate her from the employer, for example. These connections between her personal problems and the structure of the The Power of Sympathy Essay society in which she finds herself would later be developed by other critics--most notably, by Mark Spilka in 1963. Secondly, by Cloud Computing Essay his discussion of the reasons for the Victorian public's rejection of The Bostonians and titles, lukewarm reception of much of James's other fiction, Wilson has opened the Cloud Computing Essay door to a greater awareness of sociological considerations when evaluating reader responses. Wilson's suggestion of anthropology symbols how the public reaction to the subject matter of The Bostonians may have inhibited a frank treatment of Cloud Computing Essay sexual material in The Turn of the Screw is an The Power of Sympathy, important insight into the ways in which literary works can be partly shaped by the anticipated response of a particular public. There are, of course, roughly, three types of psychoanalytic criticism: that which primarily seeks to Computing Essay, understand the author; that which focuses primarily on John Caird’s Production, the analysis of fictional characters; and that which is concerned mainly with understanding the responses of the reader. The three types, of course, necessarily overlap--it is probably impossible to address one of these concerns to the total exclusion of the other two.

And each has its pitfalls; it is possible for the critic to lose sight of literary values as he turns an author or a fictional character into a psychiatric case history or to become a mere sociological or psychological reporter of what some people like and why. Good literary criticism never loses sight of literary values. Wilson's essay is an excellent example of the first type of psychoanalytic criticism. Essay. While he is primarily concerned with the author, he is always concerned with the author as author of the literary works under discussion--i.e., with the author's persona projected in the text--and, thus, Wilson always remains a critic, never becoming a mere psychohistorian of a famous man. The psychological processes of of Sympathy James are important to Wilson because they are reflected in Cloud Computing, the psychology of his fictional characters and Is Done: Victims, thus help us to understand the literary works and their effects on readers. The latter consideration is always important to Computing, Wilson as he considers various characters--Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians , the anonymous narrator of The Sacred Fount , the governess in The Turn of the Screw --and asks why readers respond as they do, looking for answers in song, psychological processes of fictional characters and hidden messages from their author which they perceive whether consciously or not and whether the author consciously intended them or not. Cloud Computing Essay. Thus, Wilson includes The Turn of the anthropology Screw among a small group of fairy tales whose symbols exert a particular power by Essay reason of the fact that they have behind them, whether or not the authors are aware of it, a profound grasp of subconscious processes (390-91). Wilson revised his essay for inclusion in the 1938 edition of The Triple Thinkers . In addition to quite a few minor stylistic changes, Wilson expanded on Is Done: Victims of Bullying as Adults, his discussion of other Jamesian works as they are related to his points about The Turn of the Screw . He provides examples of how each novel of James's first major phase begins strangely to Computing, run into hans hubermann, the sands at some point--usually about half way through so that the Cloud Essay excitement seems to lapse at the same time that the color fades from the picture; and the ends are never up to the beginnings. For example, in the first half of The Tragic Muse , Miriam Rooth . . . comes nearer to carrying Henry James out of the enclosure of anthropology symbols puritan scruples and prim prejudices . . . than any other character he has drawn.

However, this initial promise is Cloud Essay, not fulfilled in the second half of the novel. Then suddenly the symbols story stops short: after the arrival of Miriam in London, The Tragic Muse is an almost total blank. Of the two young men who have been preoccupied with Miriam, one renounces her because she will not leave the stage and the other apparently doesn't fall in Computing Essay, love with her (146-7). Wilson is unconvinced by James's later statement in the Preface to the New York Edition of The Tragic Muse that he had been prevented from allowing Miriam Rooth to anthropology, have a genuine love affair with anybody by the prudery of the American magazines, pointing out that, after all, Hardy and Meredith did write about Cloud Computing Essay, Jude and Lord Ormont and his Aminta and let the public howl; and it would certainly have enhanced rather than diminished Henry James's reputation--as to which his ambitions seem by no means to have been modest--if he had done the same thing himself. Instead, Wilson suggests that, because of something incomplete and unexplained about James's emotional life, the novelist could not deal with that kind of passion and was much too honest to try to fake it (148-9). The relationship of this problem to The Turn of the Screw is made a bit more direct in vendetta, the 1938 revision of the essay. James was willing to leave his readers in doubt as to whether the governess was horrid or nice, according to Wilson, because, in this middle period, the novelist seems to be dramatizing the frustrations of his own life without quite being willing to Computing, confess it, without always fully admitting it to anthropology, himself (138-9). But we find the Computing most striking improvements in Wilson's discussion of The Turn of the Screw itself. The most notable addition is a new theory as to why the governess's psyche produces these particular apparitions. The governess has never heard of the valet, but it has been suggested to anthropology, her in Cloud, a conversation with the housekeeper that there has been some other male somewhere about who `liked everyone young and pretty,' and the idea of opera titles this other person has been ambiguously confused with the master and with the master's possible interest in her, the present governess. Cloud Computing Essay. And has she not, in her subconscious imagination, taking her cue from this, identified herself with her predecessor and conjured up an The Power, image who wears the master's clothes but who (the Freudian `censor' coming into play) looks debased, `like an actor,' she says (would he not have to stoop to love her!)? (125-6).

This explanation of the genesis of the governess's psychodrama is certainly as detailed and Cloud, plausible as Goddard's. Furthermore, it opens some very interesting doors. For example, in 1962, M. Katan, M.D. would incorporate the idea that the The Power of Sympathy Essay love between the Computing Essay two ghosts is reflective of three other loves--that between the governess and Douglas, that between the Caird’s of Hamlet governess and the employer, and that between the governess and the children--into a psychoanalytic reading which sees the story as an attempt by James to control his own anxiety arising from the traumatic effects of primal-scene observations (479) by discharging it onto others (476), namely the readers of the story who are terrified as their own primal-scene anxieties are brought to the surface. These anxieties surface, Katan maintains, as the reader sees the Cloud Computing governess identify with Miss Jessel whose partner, Peter Quint, represents both the employer and the governess's father. Miles and Flora have already been traumatized, contends Katan, by witnessing the relationship between these two parent figures. Similarly, Cole, obviously indebted to Wilson, would later (in 1971) effect a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights by suggesting that, in this hallucinatory pattern, the two ghosts become the opposite of her concept of the two people who affect her most,--herself and the master--Freud's `antagonistic inversion.' The master, socially unattainable, becomes in hans hubermann, her projections his servant, Peter Quint, who would be her social inferior `in the scale' which is so important to the governess (7-8). Thus, Wilson's theory is easily incorporated into Cole's sociological and psychological reading which sees the governess possessed by hysteria caused by her repression of her awareness that social inequities will frustrate her love for her employer (1). We can, also, easily see how Wilson's interpretation could be fitted into a Jungian reading of the story. For, in hallucinating a lascivious counterpart to both herself and her employer, whom she seems to idealize, the governess can be seen as projecting her shadow. Computing. It is not unusual for Jungian critics to titles, see such projections of the shadow onto both masculine and Computing Essay, feminine figures. For instance, Christopher Bryant, commenting on The Lord of the Rings , reminds us of the episode in which.

Frodo with his companion, Samwise, on their journey to the evil land of Mordor to Is Done: Victims as Adults, fulfill the task laid upon Frodo, are led by Gollum, Frodo's treacherous shadow, into the dark cave passages where lurks Shelob, the giant spider with evil intelligence and deadly bite (97). The shadow, here is Cloud Essay, primarily embodied in Is Done: Victims, the threatening male figure. Such threatening male figures--projected shadows--are common in Cloud Computing Essay, dreams, mythology, and The Damage Is Done: Essay, literature. As Bryant points out, a man's personal shadow represents rejected elements of his masculine potential, his capacity to Cloud, fight, for example. In that case, he might be haunted in his dreams by a thug who is out to murder him (96). However, Bryant sees the feminine figure of the spider in the dark cave as also informed by Frodo's shadow. Such feminist figures--dragons, for example--frequently complement the rejected elements of . . John Caird’s. . masculine potential we have mentioned.

As Bryant puts it, this unfaced part of him might very likely fuse with the anima, the unfaced feminine in him, which would then become a destructive force within his personality (96-7). Bryant then provides an example from Cloud Computing, common experience: A common form of the anima in anthropology symbols, its negative aspect is that of the Essay possessive mother who prevents her children from growing up and living their lives independently of her (97). This example demonstrates why the shadow must be seen to v for vendetta, inform such a contrasexual archetype: Of course the monster, the Computing Essay devouring mother, corresponds to a tendency in ourselves. An actual mother, however possessive she may be, is symbols, only able to dominate her son and prevent him from becoming fully a man because there is something in him that colludes with her, that wants to remain a child. There is something in us that prefers to be looked after and protected, rather than face the risks of fighting our own battles (97).

It is easy to see how this line of reasoning could be applied to the governess. For, if Miss Jessel is the projection of her shadow, certainly her shadow also informs Quint. He with his white face of Cloud Computing damnation (chapter twenty-three), could not threaten the governess were there not a Jessel within her, a specter of the most horrible of women (chapter fifteen). Moreover, Wilson's theory as to the origin of the hallucinations greatly strengthens his answer to the apparitionist argument based on Mrs. John Caird’s Production Essay. Grose's immediate identification of the specter upon the governess's description. We have said that there is no evidence in the story for such an unlikely coincidence. In his revised version, however, Wilson makes his case more credibly: The apparition had `straight, good features' and his appearance is Cloud Computing, described in detail. When we look back, we find that the master's appearance has never been described at all; we have merely been told that he was `handsome.' It is impossible for us to know how much the ghost resembles the The Power master--certainly the governess would never tell us (126). Furthermore, with this story in mind--that Miss Jessel is a projection of a part of the governess's own personality--Wilson offers a very insightful reading of the scene in the schoolroom in chapter fifteen in which the governess sees Miss Jessel at the schoolroom writing table. . . Cloud Computing Essay. . she had looked at me long enough to of Sympathy Essay, appear to say that her right to sit at my table was as good as mine to sit at hers, the Computing governess tells us. In this scene, maintains Wilson, the morbid half of her split personality is getting the upper hand of the other . . . it is soap opera titles, she who is intruding upon the spirit instead of the spirit who is intruding upon her (127).

In this revision of the essay, Wilson expands on his earlier discussion of the story's final scene, recalling the Cloud Essay governess's vision of the white face of damnation at the window and asking, But is the governess condemning the spirits to damnation or is she succumbing to damnation herself? (129). This idea would later, in 1964, be developed in more detail by Muriel West in song, The Death of Miles in The Turn of the Screw . West considers in detail the context of the governess's final outburst and concludes that, in this scene, Miles is, indeed, dispossessed, but that the governess succumbs to possession herself. Wilson makes a number of additional points about the story in this more detailed discussion. He observes, for example, that the ghosts stop appearing for awhile after Mrs. Grose threatens to contact the uncle, that the Essay governess suppresses the letters the children write to their uncle, and that Miles and Flora may have met after the final vision of Jessel at v for vendetta the lake. This last occurrence would, of Cloud Computing Essay course, explain Miles's question--It's she ?--in the story's final scene. Is Done: Of Bullying Essay. Wilson also, in this revision, calls attention to the peculiar psychology of governesses, who, by reason of their isolated position between the family and the servants, are likely to Computing Essay, become ingrown and morbid (131). Wilson makes one point which seems extremely questionable.

Commenting on the scene in which the candle is blown out while the governess is in Miles's room, Wilson suggests that the gust of frozen air felt by the governess is the only detail which is readily susceptible of double explanation. Wilson suggests that this must be a tactile hallucination because the governess later sees that the window is soap opera titles, tight (127-8). Wilson's assumption that there is no ambiguity here is unwarranted. Spirits have been known to cause drafts in closed rooms. To sum up, then, Wilson's revision of Cloud his article for the 1938 edition of The Triple Thinkers is a great improvement over the original essay. In the revised version Wilson has expanded on his discussion of Jamesian works as they are related to The Turn of the Screw and The Damage Victims as Adults, has looked in more detail at the story itself. His explanation of the psychological origins of the Essay phantoms provides telling insights into the story and opens the door to additional Freudian, Jungian, and Marxist insights. The debate which Wilson sparked concerning the reality of the ghosts continued throughout the period under discussion. In 1948, Elmer Edgar Stoll attacked Wilson's interpretation as a kind of in-reading on soap opera, the part of the critic. He considered Kenton's attempt to press on `toward the Cloud Computing story behind the story` an symbols, example of the Cloud Essay now timeworn fallacy of The Damage Is Done: of Bullying Essay confounding art and reality, likening such criticism to inquiring into the previous history of Falstaff or Hamlet, of the Cloud Essay heroines or the Macbeths, who (of course), except as meagerly furnished by the dramatist have none (230) and suggested that Wilson viewed such things as Flora's insertion of one piece of wood into another through the eyes of his own Freudian preoccupations, thus imposing on the work an anachronistic set of significances (229). Stoll disagrees with Kenton's interpretation of titles James's description of the work in the Preface to the New York Edition as an Cloud, amusette to catch those not easily caught, suggesting that such passages mean . John Caird’s Of Hamlet Essay. . . not catching the readers in Cloud, a trap but capturing their attention and interest (230).

Stoll correctly points out a long literary tradition of genuine ghosts which are visible to some people and invisible to anthropology symbols, others--citing examples from Hamlet , Macbeth , and Computing, Julius Caesar --but then unwisely adds, The reality, on the other hand, of the supernatural is conveyed by other means--by suggestion of The Damage Is Done: of Bullying as Adults Essay indirection--as here, plainly enough (230). Computing Essay. Stoll seems here to be overstating the song similarities between these Shakespearean works and The Turn of the Screw . The ghost of Essay Hamlet's father, after all, is v for, seen by quite a few people at the beginning of the play, although it is invisible to Gertrude when it appears to Hamlet in the Queen's chamber. Similarly, while it is true that the Computing ghost of Banquo is invisible to of Sympathy, all but Macbeth, it must be remembered that the earlier supernatural visitations--the Weird Sisters--were visible to both Macbeth and Banquo. Other arguments advanced by Essay Stoll are weaker still. Stoll wonders how the governess's subconscious could transform the employer so completely as to v for song, make him a horror and Cloud Computing, no gentleman.

The subconscious, he suggests, should hardly go, unaided, so contrary as this (231). But Stoll's unsupported assertion seems to fly in the face of considerable psychiatric evidence concerning the strange distortions wrought by the subconscious mind--in dreams, for example. His suggestion that Wilson reads into events a psychoanalytic significance foreign to the mind of James might suitably be applied to the later psychoanalytic criticism of Cargill which was published in 1956, a source study suggesting that Freud's writings per se influenced James in his composition of the work. The argument is of Sympathy Essay, less compelling when applied to a critic such as Wilson who holds that universally valid Freudian insights can fruitfully be applied to historical figures such as statesmen or clients of psychoanalysts. Stoll begs the question by objecting that Wilson's interpretation fails to explain the children's taking so keen an interest in Computing Essay, secretly looking at and holding commerce with the ghosts and intriguing and conspiring together for that purpose, as well as their corruption under the influence of the valet and the former governess, both when alive and when dead (231). The above data are communicated to us only by the governess; consequently, if she is unreliable, there is nothing for Wilson or any other critic to explain about these happenings. Essay. Stoll is also on Cloud, slippery ground when he claims that Wilson's theory is invalidated by of Hamlet the confessions of the boy when approached on the subject and the deep resentment of the girl, along with the hesitating but increasingly frank admissions of the housekeeper (231). A detailed analysis of the Computing Essay boy's final confession--as provided, for example, by Muriel West in The Death of Miles in John of Hamlet, The Turn of the Screw , can certainly accommodate a non-apparitionist reading of the story.

Those critics--for example, Cranfill and Clark--who have documented the governess's relentless persecution of the Cloud Computing children have offered a plausible explanation of the deep resentment of the girl without postulating supernatural entities. And Goddard's theory of how the hans hubermann governess' fears and repressed desires and the housekeeper's memories and Cloud Computing, anxieties unconsciously collaborate (14) demonstrates that this argument from hans hubermann, Stoll is not unanswerable. Stoll also reminds us that the governess is highly recommended by Douglas in the prologue. Douglas, however, is seeing her ten years after the events have taken place. Essay. Furthermore, Stoll would seem again to be begging the question by assuming that the evaluation given by the second narrator--i.e., by soap titles Douglas, must be accepted at face value. If one narrator's account can be questioned, why not another's? If, on the other hand, we agree with Stoll that to question a narrator in a fictional work is like discounting prologues or epilogues, choruses or soliloquies, addressed the audience and Essay, necessarily to be taken at hans hubermann face value (230), then it would appear that we must dismiss Wilson's reading from the outset and that evidence adduced from another narrator is redundant.

When Stoll suggests that Wilson is forgetful, like most contemporary critics, of Aristotle on plot and Cloud Computing Essay, character (232), in not taking the John Production governess's account at face value, he seems, like some critics of the Computing Essay Chicago School, to be unthinkingly and rigidly applying classical canons where they would appear to opera titles, have no relevance. Stoll also errs in mixing Douglas's descriptions of the governess with James's statements in the New York Edition Preface about agents and demons, forgetting apparently the difference between the statements made by a fictional character and an author's comments about his own work. He also seems to fall into the trap of the intentional fallacy. Stoll may be right to Computing Essay, fault those critics with whom intentions do not count at all, but he shows no awareness of the distinction other critics have been careful to make between a mere stated intention and an intention which has actually been realized in the construction of the literary work. Thus, Halliburton says that the intentionality to be sought is hans hubermann, not in the author but in Cloud Computing, the text (Guerin 268). Finally, Stoll's remark that hallucinations scare only the hallucinated (231) is manifestly untrue. Certainly the story of children in the care of an insane governess--as the novella is read, for example, by Goddard or by The Power Essay Cranfill and Clark--is very terrifying. Many of the points made by Computing Essay Stoll in 1948 had been made by other critics earlier in the period under discussion.

In 1947, for example, Robert N. Heilman, in hans hubermann, an article entitled The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the Screw , also relied heavily on what he perceived to be James's stated intentions in the Preface to the New York Edition version of the story. He was particularly scornful of Wilson's interpretation of the statement, She has authority, which is a good deal to have given her, arguing that James intended here to invest the governess with credibility and, in so arguing, lashing out intemperately at Wilson: Once again, then, the word authority has brought about, in an unwary liberal, an emotional spasm which has resulted in a kind of emotional blindness (434). Essay. In arguing that the story is not primarily about the governess, Heilman quotes James's statement which appears on page xix in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition: . . . I saw no way, . . . to exhibit her in relations other than those; one of which, precisely, would have been her relation to her own nature (435), forgetting apparently what immediately follows: We surely have as much of Is Done: Victims her own nature as we can swallow in watching it reflected in her anxieties and deductions. . . . Ironically, Heilman accuses Wilson of Cloud ignoring the first part of this quotation and then proceeds himself to ignore the second part. Heilman also refers to James's statements about the story in correspondence but with the same selectivity, quoting extensively only the 1898 letter to H. G. Wells. Heilman argues, with some cogency, that. the governess's feelings for the master are never repressed: they are wholly in anthropology, the open and Cloud, are joyously talked about: even in the opening section which precedes Chapter 1, we are told that she is in love with him (436). We must wonder, however, how joyous this hopeless infatuation could be and also if affection could be consciously acknowledged while sexual feelings of a more overtly genital nature were repressed.

Heilman suggests that the infatuation is a not entirely successful method of explaining her refusal to v for, communicate with the employer, a refusal which would have ended the story as we know it. But, when he suggests that a technical procedure should not be mistaken for a psychopathological clue (437), he perhaps forgets that it might be both and also that it might be not quite successful in explaining this dereliction of duty only if it is considered normal--not reporting to the employer these unusual and dire events is, after all, irrational. Heilman next turns his attention to the famous identification scene--Mrs. Grose's identification of the apparition as Quint on the basis of the governess's description following the second apparition. Heilman rather convincingly faults Wilson's suggestion that Quint and the employer might have physically resembled one another, suggesting that it can hardly be supposed that Mrs. Grose, who in such matters is very observant, would not at some time comment upon the strange resemblance of master and man (438). However, Heilman does not discuss other approaches to this problem--for example, Silver's suggestion that the governess has picked up information about Quint's appearance from the neighboring village, Cargill's suggestion that Flora may have been a source of Essay information (James as Freudian Pioneer 19), or Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose may not have been listening attentively to soap, all of the description (15-16). Heilman, like Stoll, is Computing Essay, unconvinced by Wilson's reminder that only the governess is known to see the ghosts.

This he attributes to a sinisterly mature concealment of Essay evil (439) on the part of the children and to Computing Essay, the obtuseness of the appropriately named Mrs. Grose, the good but slow-witted woman who sees only the obvious in life--for instance, the sexual irregularity of Quint and Miss Jessel--but does not unassisted detect the subtler manifestations of The Damage Is Done: evil (438). This argument, though questionable, is certainly superior to Stoll's simplistic, incomplete, and misleading comparisons to Essay, Shakespeare. Heilman sees great significance in the objective fact of the dismissal of Miles from school--a dismissal which is unexplained and which is absolutely final (439). He perhaps fails to appreciate, however, the significance of the vendetta fact that the governess has not given us the text of the headmaster's letter and Douglas's assertion that Miles was unusually young for Cloud a residential school.

Heilman also attaches great importance to Miles's supreme surrender of the symbols name of Quint at the end of the novella. In arguing that point, however, he is unfair to Wilson when he asserts that in plain defiance of the text Wilson says that Miles has managed to see Flora before her departure and thus to find out what the governess is thinking about (439). Wilson, instead of making such a bald assertion, had merely pointed out that the text leaves open the Computing possibility of such a meeting with Flora and hans hubermann, a discussion of the governess among the two children and Mrs. Grose. Cloud Computing Essay. Goddard had earlier made the same point in his then unpublished essay.

Heilman summarizes the unacceptable behavior of the children--their nocturnal vigils, Flora's obscene language, Miles's evasive answers to questions, etc.--but seems not to have thought of the explanation later to be advanced by Lydenberg: What is happening to the children is, clearly and terribly, the governess herself (40). In A Treatise on The Damage Is Done: of Bullying as Adults Essay, the American Novel , Robert Liddell presented what he considered to be a thorough and irrefragable refutation of Wilson's theory. Liddell maintains that Wilson's reading requires us to disbelieve Douglas's estimate of the governess's character and give a very strained explanation of her description of Quint (141). We considered these two points in our discussion of Stoll, so there is no need for repetition here. Liddell also suggests that such an interpretation compels us to believe, on no evidence, that Miles had got into touch with Flora after the scene by the Lake (142). Cloud Essay. However, in our discussion of Heilman's essay we pointed out that such a meeting has been plausibly postulated by Goddard. Is Done: Of Bullying. Liddell also objects that Wilson's reading necessitates the Computing Essay assumption that the governess is deluded about the very sense-data experienced in Miles's room, not only about her interpretation of them (141).

Here, however, Liddell seems to beg the The Damage Is Done: Victims of Bullying Essay question, for Cloud a woman capable of John Essay hallucinating ghostly visitants could certainly be deluded about the very sense data experienced on that occasion. Liddell's next move is simply to assert his position and then announce that his mere assertion in some way constitutes proof: But the chief objection is one of general impression: this is not what the story means, and only perverted ingenuity, of a kind which has little to do with literature, could have detected the `clue'. This is the ultimate answer to all such theories, from the Shakespeare-Bacon controversy to Verrall's brilliant perversities about Greek tragedy. Here there is Cloud, a desire for a `scientific' explanation, an unwillingness to make the necessary `suspension of disbelief' in ghosts, which is completely opposed to the spirit in which the book should be read. It is only because Mr. V For Vendetta. Wilson is such a distinguished critic that the theory is Cloud Essay, worth further examination, and final refutation (142).

Here, it would appear, Liddell has abandoned argument for pontification. Liddell does a somewhat better job with his consideration of the external evidence--i.e., James's statements about the story. Commenting on James's distinction in the Preface between the anthropology symbols governess's record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them, a different matter, Liddell offers an interpretation which is a plausible alternative to Wilson's hallucination theory: . Cloud. . Vendetta Song. . we can doubt her explanation of the happenings, without supposing her to be the victim of Computing hallucination. She clearly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the earthly bodies of anthropology symbols Quint and Miss Jessel; we can believe that she did indeed see ab extra apparitions, that another person with the right vision could have seen, without accepting her view of their eschatological status. Cloud Computing Essay. They are not spirits of the dead, matter for hans hubermann psychical research, but `goblins damned'--devils that have assumed the form of Quint and Miss Jessel to tempt the Cloud Computing children (142). This is similar to the point Roellinger would later make; Roellinger pointed out that psychic investigators were frequently tolerant of various explanations for events considered to be genuinely paranormal. Liddell, however, is on less firm ground when he cites evidence from James's notebooks and correspondence concerning the origin of the story in hans hubermann, Archbishop Benson's anecdote. Liddell may be correct in his assertion that Henry James began to construct this story not from a character, but from Cloud Essay, a scrap of anecdote (143), but surely the story's genesis is less important than the final form it took. A similar point can be made about Liddell's evaluation of the significance of the story's debts to The Mystery of Udolpho and Jane Eyre : It is from literature rather than from the abnormal psychology of himself or his governess that the relation between her and the ghosts arises (144). Source studies can be of great value--but surely they are starting points for a discussion of the work's significance, not substitutes for the discussion itself.

Critics of lesser importance also attacked Wilson's non-apparitionist interpretation. A.J.A. Waldock based his entire case on Mrs. Hans Hubermann. Grose's positive identification of the male apparition as the ghost of Peter Quint upon hearing the detailed description of the Cloud governess. Certainly Wilson's explanation--that Quint and the employer resembled one another--does postulate an unexplained coincidence of enormous proportions, as Wilson himself later came to anthropology symbols, see. However, if we consider answers other critics have suggested in response to this argument--the explanations of Goddard and Cloud Computing Essay, Silver, for example--we must consider Waldock overconfident in his categorical designation of this identification scene as the sharp little rock on which his [Wilson's] whole theory must split (332).

Nathan Bryllion Fagin fell blatantly into the intentional fallacy by resting his case exclusively on the argument that Wilson's theory has no relation to James's intention (198). Fagin casually refers to the fact that Freudian psychology was something Henry James could not have been conscious of dealing with (198), ignoring the novelist's lifelong interest in mental illness, his brother's pioneer research in hans hubermann, the field, and his sister's long and painful struggle with schizophrenia. In commenting on Wilson's assertion that the novella might be informed by Cloud Essay a profound grasp of subconscious processes, Fagin, with almost incredible lack of sophistication, advances the following argument: But by the same method it is possible to build up an excellent case for a Freudian interpretation of Hamlet , and surely that would not be reflective of Shakespeare's intention. Although it might be an hans hubermann, interesting disclosure of the workings of the psychoanalyst's mind, it would tell us little or nothing about Essay, Shakespeare's (198). The foregoing provides an interesting example of titles how the intentional fallacy can impoverish our understanding of literary works. Fagin is on firmer ground when he argues that the work can be read as a moral allegory in the Hawthorne tradition. He seems, however, not to Computing, entertain the possibility that this approach and the Freudian one could be synthesized--as, for example, they would later be by both Firebaugh and Lydenberg. Philip Rahv also was guilty of the intentional fallacy and rather hasty in his assumption that the non-apparitionist approach is so elementary as to make the story less rather than more interesting (624). Psychological insights such as those of Wilson and Goddard seem, on the contrary, to add depth and hans hubermann, meaning to the story.

Rahv may be correct, however, in arguing against an exclusive concern with the psychology of the governess: It lets off, so to Cloud Computing, speak, too many of the agents--the servants and the children (624). Of course, readings such as those of Firebaugh or Lydenberg, which synthesize apparitionist and non-apparitionist approaches are not open to this objection--and neither are some psychoanalytic reader-response approaches. Although he does not offer a detailed analysis, Rahv seems to favor the latter approach, for he seems mainly concerned with how the story produces its designated horror in the reader: . Opera. . . it is Cloud Computing, not difficult to see that in The Turn of the Screw the element of mystification is united with an element of morbid sexuality. It is the opera titles sexuality expressed through the machinery of the supernatural that makes for Cloud Computing Essay the overwhelming effect (624). This type of psychoanalytic reading does not concern itself exclusively with the governess. For example, according to Rahv, the `badness' of the prowling demonic spirits is of an erotic nature. . . (624). Some critics, of anthropology symbols course, agreed with Wilson's approach to Cloud, the story. Stephen Spender, in anthropology, 1935, praised Wilson for having worked out in great detail a theory that The Turn of the Screw is Cloud Essay, a story of the repressed sexual delusions of the Is Done: Victims of Bullying as Adults governess who is the Cloud narrator.

According to Spender, Wilson's theory is plausible because. the sexual imagery is amazingly worked out. The valet, whom she sees, appears on a tower, and is dressed in the clothes of the master, with whom she is in love. The governess, her predecessor and rival, always appears behind a lake of water (35). Ivor Winters, commenting on the dispute between Wilson and Production of Hamlet Essay, his apparitionist antagonists, opined that, while there are difficulties of interpretation either way, (316-17), Wilson's view is more plausible than the popular one (317). Winters went on to assert that the story thus interpreted has great illustrative value (317) for Cloud Computing Essay Winters's moralistic theory of literature, which holds that the work of literature, in so far as it is valuable, approximates a real apprehension and John, communication of a particular kind of Computing Essay objective truth and that the literary work is v for, good in so far as it makes a defensible rational statement about a given human experience (the experience need not be real but must be in some sense possible) and at the same time communicates the emotion which ought to be motivated by Computing Essay that rational understanding of that experience (11). Winters is contrasting this theory of the function of literature with three other theories: the didactic--which, holding that the function of literature is to provide instruction, fails to realize that the paraphrasable content of the work is never equal to the work, and that our theory of literature must account not only for the paraphrasable content but for the work itself (4); the hedonistic--which sees pleasure as the end of Production Essay life, and literature either as a heightener of pleasure or as the purveyor of a particular and more or less esoteric variety of Cloud Computing Essay pleasure (4); and the Romantic--which sees literature as a form of what is known popularly as self-expression (8). According to Winters, The Turn of the Screw --when interpreted according to his moralistic theory--can be seen as an illustration of the gap between rational motive and resulting state of mind, a gap which is so wide as to include every item in the story: for this reason the governess must be insane (317). V For Vendetta Song. Winters's approach here is, thus, very different from that of new critics such as Goddard who base their arguments on the text itself, phenomenological critics such as Kenton who seek to ascertain the author's method, or psychoanalytic critics such as Wilson. Instead, Winters suggests that the story be read a certain way because, when read that way, it lends support to a particular theory of Computing literature, the Essay superiority of which can be established on other grounds--namely, the theory's avoidance of the shortcomings of its three rivals and its ability to Computing, account both for the power of poetry and of artistic literature in general on its readers and for the seriousness with which the great poets have taken their art (11).

Paradise Lost , according to Winters, can serve as a clear illustration of the shortcomings of the three other theories: Milton, for example, did not write Paradise Lost to give pleasure to Professor So-and-So, nor did he write it to give free reign to his emotions; he wrote it in order to 'justify the ways of God to man,' and the justification involved not merely a statement of theory but a conformity of the emotional nature of man with the theory (12). Osborn Andreas, relating the work to the whole of the hans hubermann Jamesian canon, sees it as one of many examples of emotional cannibalism, which he defines as any act of interference with others which is motivated by an egoistic desire for emotional gratification (22). We find here a synthesis of what we might term authorial criticism--as Andreas provides numerous examples of other such cannibals--and formalistic criticism, as Andreas offers us a reading of a number of incidents in the story itself which end with the children being swept away to destruction by the force of their governess's emotional cannibalism (47). Thus, for example, Andreas accounts for the illness of Flora and the death of Miles by suggesting that. the governess . Computing Essay. . . subjects Flora and Miles . . . to all the v for vendetta song vagaries of her progressively more and more deranged mind, until through sheer terror Flora goes into a delirium with brain fever, and Miles, harder pressed than Flora, is literally scared to death (46). Andreas offers us an explanation of the reader's experience which is consistent with Wilson's analysis of the governess as suffering from sex repression if we remember that, for Freud, sex is more than genitality: The sense of horror we get from The Turn of the Screw comes from its purity; we cannot say of the Cloud Computing Essay governess as we can of Madame Merle or Kate Croy: she wanted money. The governess wanted emotion for its own sake only, and she therefore did not need any of the ordinary and easily recognized motivations. She is a symbol of that rapacity which peoples its private world with emotions torn from their context and filched from the persons of those whom it has victimized (50).

Some critics during this period appear to have been groping for a synthesis of the apparitionist and non-apparitionist positions, although detailed developments of that type did not occur until Firebaugh and Lydenberg, independently of one another, formulated such positions in 1957. For example, in a 1942 radio symposium which The Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. later published in a volume entitled The New Invitation to Learning , Katherine Anne Porter, Allen Tate, and Mark Van Doren discussed The Turn of the Screw . In the song course of this discussion Van Doren said that. . . . it is she [the governess] who corrupts the children and brings about the death of the Computing Essay little boy. Nevertheless, that is precisely my way of understanding how potent the evil in this story is. The evil isn't merely thought to be; it is an actuality which passes through her as a perfectly transparent and non- resistant medium and then passes through the children. The evil is somehow there (229).

Tate summed up his view of the symbols story in this way: The governess doesn't invent these apparitions; they merely use her as a medium. Because, obviously, the monstrous proportions of the evil are so great that they are beyond the power of any individual imagination to invent. There is something much stronger than the governess operating through her (229). Later, Tate suggested that. . Cloud. . Anthropology. . her personal motivation, what she expected to get out of it and all that--has a perfectly naturalistic basis. Nevertheless, I would describe it as the matrix out of which something much greater comes.

As a matter of fact, we can go back and take the great tragic characters in drama, or the great religious heroes, too. They will all have some psychological motivation which we can see in terms of their peculiar situations. At the same time . . . the psychological basis doesn't explain it all. . . (231). Porter eloquently and Computing Essay, clearly summed up the consensus: An illuminant is not always an illuminant for The Damage Is Done: as Adults Essay good. The most dangerous people in the world are the illuminated ones through whom forces act when they themselves are unconscious of their own motives. And yet, no force has ever acted through either a saint or an evil person that wasn't somehow directed to Computing Essay, further the ends and The Damage Victims Essay, the ambitions and the hopes of that person, which makes me feel that the instrument is not altogether so innocent and so helpless as we have been saying. Cloud Essay. Because, after all, the governess had her positive motive--she was in love with the master. She had a deep sense of her inferior situation in life, and was almost hopeless of ever attracting his attention.

And I do think that this love, which was quite hopeless, which was an ingrown thing, took this form; she herself, in her imagination--yes, unconscious of hans hubermann her motives--designed all this dram to make the desire situation possible--that she would arrive somewhere at a level with the man she loved and create some sort of communication with him (230-31). Leon Edel, in Cloud Essay, his introduction to The Power of Sympathy, the 1948 edition of The Ghostly Tales of Computing Henry James , seemed to imply that the objective reality or lack thereof of song ghostly visitations is not of much importance in this and other Jamesian ghostly tales, for, according to Cloud, Edel, of paramount interest are . Hans Hubermann. . . the persons who see the apparitions. The interest, thus, is not in ghosts per se but in haunted people--and, these haunted by phantoms usually of their own creation. It is the experience of these people, contends Edel, that affects us--regardless of Cloud Essay what realities may or may not exist apart from their experience. Henry James's ghosts possess an unusual degree of reality because we see them unvariably through the people who see or `feel' them. It is these people's vision of the supernatural that he almost invariably gives us; which is why his ghost stories have seemed to some readers to be among the most terrifying ever written (26-27). D. Effects on Psychoanalytic Criticism. In addition to providing the major impetus for the debate between apparitionists and v for, non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay contributed to Cloud, a greater interest in the psychological analysis of James the man and in the effects his psychological characteristics had on the art which he produced. Thus, echoing Wilson, F. R. Leavis, in 1937, discerned in the author some failure about the roots and at the lower levels of opera life (416), which, in turn, was mirrored in his fiction. L. Essay. C. Knights, in vendetta, 1938, without specifically discussing The Turn of the Screw , listed a host of trapped spectators in Cloud, the Jamesian canon, each of whom is merely a watcher, unable to participate freely and soap titles, fully in human experience (602) and contended that this preoccupation with the Cloud plight of the trapped creature (605) can be at least partially attributed to two elements in the author's history: the tendency of the elder Henry James to too successfully cultivate in his second son the v for faculty of detachment by, among other things, too much exposure to Cloud, diverse geographical influences; and hans hubermann, the fact that, later, James settled in Computing Essay, England . . . but he never became at home there. . . (601).

The language Knights employs to describe the villains who trap others and are sometimes trapped themselves seems to anthropology, echo many critics' descriptions of the governess. Thus, his egotists--whether they are calculating or frivolous or insensitive or armed with righteousness or a mixture of Cloud these qualities--are condemned because, as moral parasites, they thwart the hans hubermann free development of another's life (603-4). One paragraph is worth quoting at Computing Essay some length: . . . The Damage Is Done: Of Bullying As Adults. Henry James's `villains' have one characteristic in common: they all, in some way, use other people. They may prey on others for their money, but James is not much interested in common robbery, and Computing Essay, usually their predatoriness takes forms which are less obvious and John Caird’s Production of Hamlet, more gross. They make excessive demands for sympathy and try to absorb their victims' life into Computing, their own, as Olive Chancellor attempts to John of Hamlet Essay, absorb Verena Tarrant in The Bostonians ; they `primed with a moral scheme of the most approved pattern' which--like the Essay representatives of Wollett in soap opera titles, The Ambassadors --they apply as a universal yardstick, or--like the relatives of Owen Wingrave--they demand a course of conduct which cuts across the Cloud essential nature of the individual; or they display a gross insensitiveness to the feelings of others, like the crude young reporter in The Reverberator or the cultivated literary gentleman of Production Essay The Aspern Papers . As these references indicate, the `villainy' that James is interested in is rarely simple wickedness; it is quite often an unholy righteousness, and Computing Essay, it is Essay, no accident that the phrase `the brutality of her good conscience' from The Middle Years , turns up again as `a high brutality of good intentions,' in Essay, The Spoils of Poynton (602-3). In 1943, the psychoanalyst Saul Rosenzweig, without specifically discussing The Turn of the Screw , opined that James's ghosts, unlike the ordinary creatures of their kind, . . . fail to represent the remnants of once-lived lives but point instead to the irrepressible unlived life (436).

Rosenzweig traces this peculiar preoccupation to a combined guilt and inferiority (440) resulting from an identification with his maimed father and guilt over his own exemption from service in the Civil War following a back injury which was in v for, some sense a repetition--that by one of those devious paths of identification which creates strange needs in sensitive personalities (440). Rosenzweig suggests that James's prolific expenditure of energy (455) on Cloud, behalf of the symbols British cause during World War I, along with his becoming a British citizen, were the means of recovery from identification with the crippled (`castrated') but powerful father (454) and Cloud Computing Essay, that . . . he re-established contact with the realities of his environment by these acts and in The Power of Sympathy Essay, the same degree he thus succeeded in laying to rest the ghost of Cloud Essay his unlived past before death overtook him (455). Finally, Leon Edel, in hans hubermann, his introduction to The Ghostly Tales of Henry James , without mentioning Wilson by name, accounts for the ghostly tales of the 1890's as reverting to the stratagem of . . . boyhood . . . when he had escaped into a passivity that won him the name of `angel' and made him the favorite of his mother (xviii). In obvious debt to Wilson, Edel accounts for this reversion by tracing the double disappointment of lack of Computing suitable appreciation of hans hubermann his fiction in the 1870's and his later disasters in writing for the theater. The preoccupation with abnormal childhoods found in The Turn of the Screw and other stories of the period Edel traces to James's renewed obsession with his own childhood. The governess is afflicted with the consuming curiosity of Cloud Essay Fatima, Blue Beard's ultimate wife, (xxi) and her curiosity reflects the sexual unfulfillment of the author: . . . What was the relationship between Miss Jessel and Peter Quint? The governess is song, jealous of her predecessors and filled with hostility--and curious to the point of exasperation; and it is a curiosity suppressed and never appeased, for the children do not talk of the past. This curiosity was not peculiar to the governess; it is the curiosity of the Cloud author of the tale and extends to John Caird’s Production of Hamlet Essay, other of the characters, observers, narrators, Henry created during these years.

The middle-aged writer is curious about his childhood; and there is at the same time a return to the curiosity of the child himself sitting back and surveying his elders and wondering what happens in the locked rooms of the adult world (xxii). One of the merits of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author is that analysis of Essay a particular work can then be fruitfully related to vendetta, the rest of the Cloud Essay author's canon. Hans Hubermann. This Edel does--as Wilson had done fourteen years earlier. This story, Edel insists, is thus not the isolated work most critics have believed it to be but rather the culminating point of the forces--the conflicts, struggles, frustrations, the sense of artistic oblivion (death-in-life), the Cloud Computing Essay regression to childhood--the forces that prompted Henry James to John Caird’s Production, put down a dozen ghostly tales in ten years. . . Computing. (xxiii). We began this chapter with a consideration of what is John Caird’s, arguably the historically most important non-apparitionist essay on The Turn of the Screw . In 1948 Robert N. Computing. Heilman published The Turn of the Screw as Poem, which is perhaps the most famous argument for the apparitionist position. Heilman contends that, at the level of anthropology action, the story means exactly what it says--i.e., that the governess's assumptions about the evil of Quint and Jessel, the Cloud corruption of the children, and the return from the dead of the nefarious servants--are all to be accepted at face value. The plot conveys the anthropology symbols oldest of themes--the struggle of evil to possess the human soul (175). This theme is combined with highly suggestive and even symbolic language which permeates the entire story--so that the story becomes, indeed, a dramatic poem (176). Heilman attends closely to the language of the story and cites numerous examples of references to Cloud Computing, the innocence and beauty of the children at the outset and the depth of their later degradation to establish that, in Is Done: of Bullying Essay, this story, the incorruptible . . . Cloud Computing. have taken on corruption (176) and that the real subject is the dual nature of man, who is a little lower than the angels, and who yet can become a slave in anthropology, the realm of evil (177-78). Consequently, according to Computing, Heilman, the ghosts are evil, evil which comes subtly, conquering before it is wholly seen; the governess, Cassandra-like in The Power, the intuitions which are inaccessible to others, is the guardian whose function it is to detect and attempt to ward off evil; Mrs. Grose--whose name, like the narrator's title, has virtually allegorical significance--is the commonplace mortal, well intentioned, but perceiving only the obvious; the children are the victims of Essay evil, victims who, ironically, practice concealment--who doubtless must conceal--when not to conceal is Is Done: Victims as Adults, essential to salvation (175).

Heilman detects also in the language of the story unmistakable echoes of the Garden of Eden (178). According to Heilman, Miles and Flora become the childhood of the race . . . Computing Essay. . Even the names themselves have a representative quality as those of James's characters often do: Miles--the soldier, the archetypal male; Flora--the flower, the essential female. . . (178-79). The language used to describe the children and the change within them is complemented, according to Heilman, by The Power Essay James's management of the setting and of other ingredients in the drama, as the idyllic descriptions of Computing Bly in the spring (at the beginning of the story) suggest that the country estate is almost an Eden where `the three lived in a cloud of v for vendetta music and love' and where `the old trees, the thick shrubbery, made a great and pleasant shade'. Cloud Computing Essay. . . . Is Done: Victims Essay. The change in the children, Heilman points out, which is shown by the change from images of light and purity to those of darkness and ill health and even premature age are accompanied by changes in Cloud, the language used to describe the setting, which is gradually altered until we reach the dark ending of symbols a November whose coldness and deadness are unobtrusively but unmistakably stressed;. Cloud Computing. . . ' the autumn had dropped . The Power Of Sympathy Essay. . . and blown out half our lights' . . .; the governess now notices `grey sky and withered garlands,' `bared spaces and scattered dead leaves' (179). Cloud. Thus, the end of the story, says Heilman, corresponds to not merely the end of a year but the end of a cycle: the spring of gay, bright human innocence has given way to Caird’s Production Essay, the dark autumn--or rather, as we might pun, to the dark fall.

As this progression occurs, the earlier light imagery changes to a hard, powerful, ugly light--an especially effective transformation of the apparently benign luminousness of the spring as Quint, Jessel, and Miles are shown, at various times, to Essay, be glaring (179-80). Coincidental to this passage of The Power of Sympathy time in the story, Heilman observes, is Essay, a shift from language suggestive of youthful innocence to that which suggests an abnormal aging of the children. Heilman gives examples of instances in of Sympathy Essay, which we are aware of a strange maturity in Cloud, them--in, for instance, their poise, their controlled utilization of their unusual talents to give pleasure. Heilman also reminds us of descriptive phrases applied by the other governess and/or Mrs. Grose. Thus, . . . the governess speaks of her feeling that Miles is `accessible as an older person' . . . the governess assures Mrs. Grose . . . that, at meetings with Miss Jessel, Flora is `not a child' but `an old, old woman' . . . Mrs. Grose sums up, `It has made her, every inch of her, quite old' (180). Heilman, furthermore, calls attention to the language used to describe Quint, whose characteristics are unmistakably the hans hubermann characteristics of a snake and to language which suggests that the Cloud influence of the two spectres has been that of a poison redolent of the forbidden fruit in the Garden of of Sympathy Eden (181).

By this combination of language suggesting external malign influences and language suggesting change in the children, moreover, James, according to Heilman, presents evil both as agent (the demons) and as effect (the transformation in the once fresh and Essay, beautiful and innocent children) and, consequently, these attacking forces, as often in Elizabethean drama, are seen in two aspects. Dr. Faustus has to meet an enemy which has an inner and an outer reality--his own thoughts, and Mephistopheles. . . (183). In Heilman's view, Miles's final cry, You devil! is. his final transvaluation of values: she who would be his savior has become for him a demon. Is Done: As Adults. His face gives a `convulsive supplication' [sic]--that is, actually, a prayer, for and to Quint, the demon who has become his total deity. But the Cloud Computing god isn't there, and Miles despairs and dies (183-84). Here Heilman sees biblical motifs combined with other literary ones: . . . Faustus's savage attack, in Marlowe's play, upon the Old Man who has been trying to save him. . . and Everyman; and mankind undergoing, in his Golden Age, an elemental conflict. . . (184).

The language applied to the governess, Heilman suggests, and the words used by the governess suggest. that James is hans hubermann, attaching to her the Computing Essay quality of savior, not only in a general sense, but with certain Christian associations. Symbols. She uses words like `atonement'; she speaks of herself as an `expiatory victim,' of her `pure suffering,' and at Essay various times--twice in the final scene--of her `torment.' Very early she plans to `shelter my pupils,' to `absolutely save' them; she speaks variously of her `service,' to `protect and defend the v for song little creatures . . . bereaved . . . Cloud Computing Essay. loveable' (184). In addition to combinations of literary motifs, Heilman perceives various theological threads in the story. Production. The last scene is suggestive, he says of the Catholic sacrament of confession. Computing. . . . the long final scene really takes place in the confessional, with the priest endeavoring, by both word and gesture, to protect her charge against the evil force whose invasion has, with consummate irony, carried even there. This theme of salvation and damnation which finally achieves specific form in the sacramentalism of the closing scenes is enriched by faint traces of theological speculation as to the nature of original sin. Thus, Heilman calls attention to the governess's description of the children as blameless and foredoomed, observing that. . Is Done: Of Bullying As Adults. . . Computing. original sin . . . Is Done: Of Bullying As Adults. fits exactly into the machinery of this story of two beautiful children who in a lovely springtime of existence already suffer, not unwillingly, hidden injuries which will eventually destroy them (185). Finally, these biblical, theological, and literary allusions are complemented by a few dry and Computing Essay, casual ecclesiastical mementos, even though the novella contains no old familiar signs announcing a religious orientation of experience . . . nothing of the Bible overtly . . . no texts, no clergymen . . . no conventional indices of of Sympathy Essay religious feeling--no invocations or prayers or meditations. . . . These few dry and casual ecclesiastical mementoes, however, according to Heilman, exert some ever-so mild symbolic pressures, as of Computing Essay a not very articulate wispish presence that quietly makes itself felt. Thus, Heilman reminds us that. the reading of the story . Is Done: Of Bullying Essay. . Computing Essay. . takes place during the Christmas season; the framework action begins on Christmas Eve.

Quint appears for the first time on a Sunday, a grey, rainy Sunday, just before the governess is John Caird’s Production Essay, about to go to the late church service with Mrs. Grose; after that she is, she says, `not fit for church' . . . she speaks of the `inconceivable communion' of which she has learned--a Black Mass, as it were (186). Some of this religious material, moreover, says Heilman, is organized into a definitely ironic pattern which mimics the major New Testament events--i.e., those occurring from Good Friday through Easter Sunday. Miles's direct confrontation with the governess on the way to church, in Computing, the fourteenth chapter, according to Heilman, introduces a straight-line action which continues with remarkably increasing tension to the end of the story . . . and here is the notable point--takes only soap three days. Ironically, the Cloud governess undertakes her quasi-priestly function with a new intensity and aggressiveness on a Sunday--beginning thus on the day when the New Testament action is not begun but successfully completed. Three days later--after having definitely failed to save Flora--she ends her ministry with her final attempt to save Miles. The would-be redeemer of the living is titles, called `devil'; in Quint we see one who has risen again to tempt the living to destruction--that is, the resurrection and the death.

Here, Sunday does not triumphantly end a symbolic ordeal that had begun in Cloud Computing Essay, apparent failure on Friday; rather it hopefully initiates a struggle which is to end, on the third day, in bitter loss. . . . To transmit its quality and to embrace all of its associations, may we not call it a Black Easter? (187). Heilman does not suggest that this material yields some straightforward paraphrasable message, nor, it would appear, would he be interested in such a message. He is attempting, instead, to hans hubermann, delineate that combination of elements James has fashioned which. . . .endows his tale with an atmosphere in which we sense the Cloud Computing pressure of so much more imaginative force than meets the casual fiction-reading eye. In attempting to state schematically the origins of that pressure, we fall into much more blunt statements that we ought to make. Vendetta Song. We say, too forthrightly, that Bly `becomes' a Garden of Computing Eden. As in studying all good poetry, we must resist the soap impulse to line up, on a secondary level of meaning, exact equivalents for the narrative elements, for such a procedure stems from the rude assumption that every part of the story is precision- tooled cog in Cloud Essay, an allegorical machine (188). Nevertheless, Heilman is hans hubermann, careful to insist that, while the story cannot be reduced to some paraphrasable message, these patterns, which overlap and interfuse in a way badly obscured by Essay the clumsy analytical process, are unquestionably important in of Hamlet Essay, the formation of the story and the qualifying of its meaning. Computing. . . (188). Heilman's essay, like Wilson's, has, in a powerful way, called attention to an important dimension of the story and one which, otherwise, might not have been accorded sufficient recognition. Of Hamlet. However, while Wilson appears to ignore religious elements which, as Heilman has shown, are unquestionably there, so Heilman fails to consider the case against the governess, a case which so many critics have made. This is why, in my opinion, the essays of such critics as Bewley, Firebaugh, and Lydenberg, all of which will be discussed in the next chapter, are much richer interpretations of the story than is either Wilson's or Heilman's.

Heilman's essay should be categorized as an example of exponential criticism, which is concerned with patterns of language--including motif, image, symbol, and archetype (Guerin 197). Heilman's essay should not be considered moral or theological criticism in the traditional sense because he is Essay, not aiming to v for, extract paraphrasable messages, nor would we term it mythological or archetypal criticism, since Heilman's concern with poetic language includes more than the consideration of those patterns which would be considered archetypes. Furthermore, his aim is Cloud Essay, not to illustrate tenets of Jungian psychology or explain in discursive fashion how the work acts upon the unconscious of the Is Done: of Bullying Essay reader. Rather, his critical method seems to fit the description of Essay exponential criticism advanced by Guerin et alia : Bit by bit, as we notice instances of a pattern, we work our way into the experience of the story, poem, or play. Hans Hubermann. As we follow the hints of Essay thematic statement, recognize similar but new images, or identify related symbols, we gradually come to live the experience inherent in the work.

The evocative power of hans hubermann steadily repeated images and symbols makes the experience a part of our own consciousness and sensibility. Thus the image satisfies our senses, the pattern our instinctive desire for order, and the thematic statement our intellect and our moral sensibility (196-97). Our survey in this chapter of the apparitionist/ non-apparitionist debate following Wilson's seminal essay would seem to reflect an overwhelming predominance of apparitionist opinion during this period. This outpouring, which culminated in the publication of the Heilman essay which we have just discussed, was what led, perhaps, to Wilson's partial retreat in Cloud, 1948. In an addendum to his essay The Ambiguity of Henry James, Wilson, in the 1948 edition of Is Done: of Bullying as Adults Essay The Triple Thinkers , made the following admission: . . Cloud Computing. . it has struck me that I forced a point in trying to The Power of Sympathy, explain away the Cloud passage in which the housekeeper identifies, from the governess' description, the male apparition with Peter Quint. The recent publication of Henry James's notebooks seems, besides, to Caird’s, make it quite plain that James's conscious intention, in The Turn of the Cloud Essay Screw , was to write a bona fide ghost story . . Anthropology. . (123). He, therefore, revised his position thus: One is led to conclude that, in Essay, The Turn of the Screw , not merely is the v for song governess self-deceived, but James is self-deceived about her (125).

This would appear not to be a major change in the interpretation of the work; however, by making this revision, it would also appear that Wilson has devalued the Computing Essay work--for the identification scene must then be viewed as a mistake--and a serious one--on the part of James. The period covered by this chapter--1934 to 1948, inclusive--is bounded by two outstanding and famous critical essays arguing respectively the non- apparitionist and apparitionist position, the latter essay's publication coinciding roughly with a partial retraction on the part of the author of the former essay. Since Heilman's outstanding example of exponential criticism was published only a year after he specifically replied to Wilson, it is reasonable to The Power, assume that his famous theological reading might not have been formulated had Wilson not so effectively argued the Cloud Computing opposing case. Thus, Wilson clearly dominates the period under discussion. Wilson's essays were fine examples of Is Done: of Bullying Essay that type of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author and, in so doing, sheds additional light on the literary work.

His criticism never deteriorated into mere psychoanalysis of an individual of historical importance; rather, his aim was always better to understand the works in question and the readers' responses to Cloud Essay, these works by Is Done: as Adults exploring the creative processes of the author and Cloud, the persona which the author projected in the narrative. His criticism related The Turn of the v for Screw to the rest of the Cloud Computing Essay Jamesian canon in such a way that the novella and the rest of the canon served to illuminate one another. The 1938 revision, in hans hubermann, addition to considering additional internal evidence to support Wilson's thesis, and expanding the discussion of James's other works, offered insights which could be further developed in a Jungian reading of the Cloud Essay story. In addition to providing the main impetus for the debate between the apparitionists and non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay sparked a great interest in symbols, the psychology of James the man and artist, so much so that L. C. Cloud Essay. Knight felt constrained to point out The Damage Is Done: Victims as Adults that the value of James's stories of `detached' or `excluded' observers of life . . . is something to be determined by the methods of literary criticism (607) rather than by armchair psychoanalysis of the man who wrote the Cloud stories--a truth of which Wilson himself never needed to be reminded. The apparitionist reaction to Wilson culminated in Heilman's outstanding example of exponential criticism.

Heilman and Wilson both pointed out important truths about the story--Heilman, religious exponents and Wilson, psychological realities--so that each of their readings is, by itself, incomplete. It would take later critics--Lydenberg, Firebaugh, and Bewley, for example--to synthesize the two sets of insights and soap opera titles, demonstrate that each is needed to Cloud Computing, provide what the anthropology symbols other lacks. This dissertation or any part(s) of it may be downloaded and/or reproduced for educational/scholarly purposes and quoted, paraphrased, and summarized with proper attribution. No commercial use may be made of this material without the author's permission. You may contact Dr. Edward Parkinson via e-mail.

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