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book report format Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to Essay think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to of overpopulation write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror!

How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and Essay, notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is about a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline.

After reading the book, you are ready to Hybridization and Polyploidy start the Effects of Cyberterrorism writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the and Polyploidy first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to modern drama say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for and Polyploidy book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book.

3. Book Details: Characters. Natural In Henrik A Doll? 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for and Polyploidy Essay each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for Essay Great Gatsby" book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and Essay, publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published).

The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Ibsen's,? Was the Hybridization Essay book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the about Analysis Great Gatsby" book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about.

This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay main characters are trying to Bead solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events.

You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Hybridization? Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in Natural Ibsen's, House, class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the Hybridization Essay body of your book report to a description of the Bead book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you.

If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the Various Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their on Societies Essay final paragraph because it is Hybridization Essay here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. Drama Definition? What are the Hybridization book’s strengths and Effects on Societies Essay, weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest?

What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of and Polyploidy Essay fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the of overpopulation book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the Hybridization and Polyploidy book title. Give enough time to Essay revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay.

A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an definition example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Essay? Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in which instrument a meteorologist use to, elementary, middle school, and Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction.

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resume les fourmis Visites : 16 655 (depuis Novembre 2007) Oui, epoustouflant est ce livre de Bernard Werber que je viens de decouvrir. Il fait, parait-il, partie d'une trilogie dont j'ignorais l'existence. Hybridization And Polyploidy Essay? Heureusement, voila chose connue pour le plus grand plaisir de la lectrice que je suis. Problems? Bernard Werber est assurement un auteur qui ne manque pas d'imagination ! Il nous fait decouvrir et aimer un monde auquel nous pretons peu d'attention, meme au detour d'une balade en foret : celui des fourmis. Hybridization Essay? Mais il ne s'agit pas uniquement d'une histoire narrant les aventures rocambolesques mais tres reelles de ces petites betes. Problems? Il s'agit aussi, simultanement, de celle des humains que nous sommes. Hybridization And Polyploidy? Ce livre nous fait penser differement, plus interieurement . And Their? Car qu'y a-t-il de commun entre un neveu qui herite de l'appartement de son oncle decede, dont la porte de la cave porte l'inscription n'entrez jamais , et l'univers impitoyable mais tellement fascinant des fourmis ? C'est cela qui nous fait haleter pendant quelque 300 pages.

Avec toujours l'envie d'en savoir plus. Essay? Vivement le deuxieme tome, pour explorer plus profondement encore, j'espere, l'espece myrmeceenne comme celle des hommes. Les fourmis [Texte imprime], roman Bernard Werber. ISBN : 9782226052575 ; EUR 19,50 ; 14/03/1991 ; 351 p. Ibsen's, House? ; Broche. Les fourmis [Texte imprime], roman Bernard Werber. ISBN : 9782253063339 ; EUR 6,00 ; 01/05/1997 ; 344 p. Hybridization? ; Poche.

Enregistrez-vous pour créer ou modifier une série. Enregistrez-vous pour publier une critique éclair! Critique de Deinos (, Inscrit le 14 fevrier 2009, 55 ans) - 18 fevrier 2015. Critique de Fa (La Louviere, Inscrit le 9 decembre 2004, 41 ans) - 23 janvier 2014. Critique de LoupBleu77 (, Inscrit le 22 janvier 2014, 20 ans) - 22 janvier 2014. Ce qui m'a le plus derange, c'est le manque de credibilite de l'histoire qui se passe du cote des humains.

Je trouve que l'auteur depeint mal la societe humaine: le fait que des gens disparaissent dans une cave qui fait plusieurs km de profondeur, et que ca n'etonne pas grand monde, je ne trouve pas ca credible du tout. Problems? Ou encore le fait que ces gens n'aient l'air absolument pas deranges par le fait de finir leur vie sous terre a manger du miellat. And Polyploidy Essay? Et je trouve que dans les deux autres tomes, cet aspect de la trilogie empire. Various Effects Of Cyberterrorism Effects? Dommage. Critique de Le-curieux (, Inscrit le 17 mars 2013, 36 ans) - 17 mars 2013. Pourtant j'ai lu plusieurs Weber et a chaque fois, je suis derange par la maniere d'ecrire de l'auteur: trop de bons sentiments, de philosophie trop simpliste. Dans Les fourmis, l'anthropomorphisme utilise pour decrire les fourmis est genant mais c'est peut-etre une maniere de faire de l'auteur pour mieux captiver ses lecteurs et cela marche. Hybridization And Polyploidy Essay? Weber n'est pas un grand ecrivain mais ses livres touchent leurs buts a chaque fois avec moi: me faire reflechir et remettre en question des verites trop facilement admises.

Critique de JoshWB (, Inscrit le 13 decembre 2010, 27 ans) - 24 fevrier 2013. Critique de Joanna80 (Amiens, Inscrite le 19 decembre 2011, 61 ans) - 8 mai 2012. Je ne suis pas rentree dans ce livre … Critique de Monde imaginaire (Bourg La Reine, Inscrite le 6 octobre 2011, 44 ans) - 21 fevrier 2012. Je n'ai pas du tout accroche a l’histoire pourtant originale, cette pseudo intrigue m’a laisse de glace tout comme le style froid et impersonnel : l’alchimie n’a pas eu lieu… J’ai tout de meme pris la peine de le lire jusqu’au bout mais je n’y ai pris aucun plaisir. Critique de Som Lang (Ecrouves, Inscrit le 28 octobre 2011, 44 ans) - 28 octobre 2011. A partir du moment ou il s'est aventure a mettre en scene des hommes dans cette histoire, il a commence a se perdre. Modern Drama? Franchement ! ces gens dans la cave, nourris de miellon, dans un lieu clos, et qui se tapent pas sur la gueule. enfermez 2 homo sapiens dans un meme lieu, il finiront par se taper dessus, ajoutez-en un autre, le risque est multiplie par 3x, et ainsi de suite.

C'est sur ! Ca, le journaliste Werber s'en tape. ca donne une impression de bacle. Hybridization? Mais 2 etoiles parce que j'ai appris des trucs sur les fourmis. je vous le dis, un article dans un magazine aurait ete suffisant. Critique de Exarkun1979 (Montreal, Inscrit le 8 septembre 2008, 37 ans) - 25 septembre 2011.

Critique de Nine35 (, Inscrite le 21 aout 2011, 23 ans) - 21 aout 2011. Critique de Tigerchaa (, Inscrite le 6 aout 2011, 32 ans) - 6 aout 2011. Je n'ai plus regarde de fourmis de la meme facon. Ibsen's,? Bernard Werber reussit a melanger la fiction et la realite, nous plongeant dans le monde impitoyable de ces petits insectes. Malgre tout, je ne suis pas certaine de prendre le temps de le lire de nouveau; j'ai peur que les annees passees ne me permettent plus de l'apprecier. Critique de Thibaut (, Inscrit le 14 avril 2011, 44 ans) - 2 mai 2011. Neanmoins les peregrinations fourmilieres sont a mes yeux le point fort de ce livre ; autant dans l'histoire humaine le suspense ne prend pas, autant dans l'histoire des fourmis il est la : on Essay a envie de savoir si notre petite fourmi favorite va s'en sortir, si elle va trouver chaussure a son pied, etc. Critique de Estelle L. Modern? (, Inscrite le 12 fevrier 2011, 22 ans) - 12 fevrier 2011. Critique de Majestueux (, Inscrit le 26 novembre 2010, 20 ans) - 26 novembre 2010. Critique de Jwpack (, Inscrit le 1 novembre 2010, 37 ans) - 2 novembre 2010. Critique et ecrivain.

Critique de SpaceCadet (, Inscrit(e) le 16 novembre 2008, - ans) - 17 aout 2010. Critique de Pat (PARIS, Inscrit le 21 mars 2010, 53 ans) - 22 mars 2010. Je me suis accroche…mais je n’ai pas accroche ! Critique de Np (, Inscrit le 5 juillet 2009, 33 ans) - 28 decembre 2009. Livre a lire pour tous les curieux. Critique de El magnifico (paris, Inscrit le 4 decembre 2009, 23 ans) - 19 decembre 2009. Ce livre nous permet de connaitre de nouvelles choses. Critique de Bicha (, Inscrit le 29 octobre 2009, 24 ans) - 30 octobre 2009. Critique de Avanni (, Inscrit le 9 aout 2008, 53 ans) - 7 septembre 2009.

L'histoire des fourmis ne m'interessait absolument pas et je n'attendais qu'une chose, que l'on parle de l'autre intrigue qui se passait elle dans le monde humain. Hybridization And Polyploidy Essay? Helas, Werber n'y consacre que peu de lignes et si je me suis force a terminer le recit, c'est uniquement pour etre certain de ne rien rater et de pouvoir me faire une idee precise. Natural Mothers A Doll Essay? J'ai entendu qu'il s'agissait d'une trilogie mais je ne me laisserai pas tenter par la suite. Une decouverte tachee avec le temps. Critique de Nance (, Inscrite le 4 octobre 2007, - ans) - 24 aout 2009. Critique de Lolo6666 (, Inscrit le 20 aout 2009, 43 ans) - 20 aout 2009. Observez les fourmis. Hybridization? il y a un avant Werber. Problems? et un apres. Critique de Mallollo (Galera, Andalousie, Inscrite le 16 janvier 2006, 35 ans) - 9 decembre 2008. Critique de Chris (Bruxelles, Inscrite le 30 decembre 2003, 43 ans) - 24 mai 2008. La tite bebete qui monte qui monte. Critique de Prouprette (Lyon, Inscrite le 5 fevrier 2006, 33 ans) - 28 aout 2007.

Puis finalement je suis rentree dedans et j'ai pris beaucoup de plaisir a apprendre toutes ces petites anecdotes. La fin m'a beaucoup plu, je ne m'y attendais pas du tout. Critique de Roi Lear (, Inscrit le 17 aout 2007, 34 ans) - 18 aout 2007. Critique de Domimag (, Inscrit le 6 juillet 2007, 60 ans) - 9 juillet 2007. La narration est bien menee entre le monde des fourmis et celui des hommes. Essay? Un peu surpris au debut, on in Henrik Ibsen's, A Doll House Essay s'interesse de plus en plus a l'histoire et on Hybridization Essay se surprend a regretter d'etre arrive au bout. J'avais peur que ce livre soit un peu enfantin, il n'en est rien et l'auteur montre une solide connaissance scientifique sur le monde des fourmis. Problems? Par contre les caracteres humains ne sont pas tres fouilles et restent tres superficiels. Heureusement Werber s'est remis a l'ouvrage pour creer une trilogie (Le jour des fourmis et la revolution des fourmis). Critique de Coutal (, Inscrit le 11 juin 2007, 30 ans) - 12 juin 2007.

Werber nous propose d'entrer dans le monde des fourmis : leur mode de vie, de survie, de reproduction, leur psychologie. And Polyploidy? Et pour ceux que trop de fourmis ennuieraient, une autre histoire se passe en parallele dans le monde des hommes avec une intrigue toute aussi interessante. A Doll Essay? Sans oublier l'encyclopedie du savoir universel et absolu qui me fait regulierement apprendre certaines anecdotes sur des sujets souvent tres divers. Critique de Loustic (, Inscrite le 26 janvier 2006, 49 ans) - 21 decembre 2006. L'auteur a une facon bien a lui de nous mettre sur le qui vive a la fin de chaque chapitre de telle sorte que l'on ne peut que tourner les pages et poursuivre l'aventure. Le chapitre 1 ne donne ses reponses qu'au chapitre 3 mais entre temps le chapitre 2 nous intrigue et ne donnera ses denouements qu'au 4eme. Bref impossible de lacher. L'histoire est tellement passionnante soit le parallele fait entre la societe fourmis et la societe humaine . On ne peut pas jurer de qui seront les betes et laquelle de deux societes sera animee des pensees les plus civilisees. Gardez-vous de parier sur l'evidence.

tres bon. Hybridization Essay? tres instructif pour TOUS. Critique de Ppakkoqq (, Inscrit le 20 juillet 2005, 33 ans) - 6 aout 2006. Critique de Elyria (, Inscrite le 25 mars 2006, 26 ans) - 25 juin 2006. Critique de Panty (Gaume, Inscrit le 17 avril 2005, 25 ans) - 23 avril 2006. Fort deroutant les premieres pages, le lecteur pourra tres vite s'habituer au style Werberien, qui fait evoluer en parallele deux histoires, parfois trois, qui, se rejoindront peut-etre, ou peut-etre pas.

Il est assez passionnant de suivre l'odyssee des fourmis, ces petites betes sont, je crois, aux yeux de tous les lecteurs de ce livre, a present speciales et passionnantes. Personnellement, apres lecture, je me suis empresse de chercher un nid de fourmis, ce que j'ai vite trouve, et de les observer dans un silence significatif. Un premier tome qui renverse tout les genres. Critique de Elyria (, Inscrite le 25 mars 2006, 26 ans) - 1 avril 2006. Critique de Zeddicus (Montbeliard, Inscrit le 30 mars 2006, 27 ans) - 30 mars 2006. on s#039;attend a mieux quand on problems connait deja l#039;auteur. Critique de Roswell (, Inscrite le 23 fevrier 2006, 35 ans) - 23 fevrier 2006. Critique de Willow13 (, Inscrite le 13 janvier 2006, 25 ans) - 1 fevrier 2006. Je n'ai jamais plus regarde les fourmis comme avant. Hybridization? Quand je l'ai termine, je suis restee un moment immobile, a reflechir a ce que je venais de lire.

J'ai immediatement entame le deuxieme qui ne m'a pas du tout decue. Natural House Essay? Je l'ai conseille partout autour de moi. Sur ma lancee, j'ai commence le troisieme. Essay? mais helas ! je n'ai pas du tout accroche. Natural A Doll House Essay? Je n'ai lu que les dix premiere pages. Hybridization? Desolee ! Malgre tout, c'est un tres bon livre qui change un peu votre vision des choses. Modern Drama? Enfin, surtout de ce sur quoi on Hybridization and Polyploidy marche. Non mais, vraiment ! vous pouvez pas regarder ou vous mettez les pieds ? . Critique de Shayne (Sambreville, Inscrit le 2 octobre 2005, 34 ans) - 21 janvier 2006. L'idee de depart est originale (mettre en scene des fourmis comme heros d'un roman), mais tout est gache par les descriptions ultra-lourdes du mode de vie des fourmis (communication, reproduction, defense. Drama? ). 10-15 pages pour decrire un combat entre quelques fourmis, NON!

Dommage car l'histoire mise en parallele (ou le heros et une equipe de pompiers se perdent dans les trefonds d'une mysterieuse cave) etait captivante. Critique de Guigomas (Valenciennes, Inscrit le 1 juillet 2005, 47 ans) - 4 janvier 2006. Le jour des fourmis aussi. La revolution des fourmis m'a fait pleurer de honte d'avoir aime les deux autres. Neanmoins je garde des deux premiers un bon souvenir, celui d'une histoire comme je n'en avais jamais lue, avec un sujet tres original et l'impression d'apprendre plein de choses sur ces petites bestioles qui sont quand meme des millions de fois plus nombreuses que nous. Trois etoiles, c'est douze sur vingt : juste la mention ! Critique de Magicite (au gre du vent, Inscrit le 4 janvier 2006, 39 ans) - 4 janvier 2006. Un style pesant(on sent le journaliste) pour une intrigue pauvre avec une conclusion absurde et totalement pas credible. Critique de Elmejeco (, Inscrit le 5 juillet 2005, 29 ans) - 12 juillet 2005.

Ce livre est epoustouflant (comme les deux autres qui ont suivi) et Bernard Werber nous fait reflechir sur notre place dans l'univers.En plus, de la philosophie melee a de la science fiction basee sur des faits reels. Hybridization And Polyploidy Essay? chapeau bas. Tout a fait d#039;accord avec Concaves. Critique de Giny (Casablanca, Inscrite le 26 avril 2005, 29 ans) - 27 avril 2005. Critique de Scribe (, Inscrit le 31 mars 2005, 26 ans) - 2 avril 2005. Peut-etre porterez-vous ensuite plus attention a une civilisation qui ne vit pas plus loin qu'entre vos orteils. Critique de Ayor (, Inscrit le 31 janvier 2005, 45 ans) - 24 mars 2005. L'histoire en parallele des humains qui disparaissent un a un, maintient un semblant de suspense. Critique de Bouing_bouing (Rennes, Inscrit le 6 septembre 2004, 42 ans) - 3 decembre 2004. On peut apprecier un Werber - pourquoi pas ? - mais la lecture du deuxieme semble bien pauvre. Various Of Cyberterrorism On Societies? Continuer a en lire par la suite (c'est mon cas, j'en ai lu cinq), c'est du masochisme. Critique de Artemis (, Inscrite le 30 novembre 2004, 32 ans) - 3 decembre 2004.

J'ai vraiment aime ce livre. Essay? Mais c'est vrai qu'au bout d'un moment, ca fait trop, j'etais tente de sauter les pages fourmis pour faire avancer l'histoire plus vite. Essay? Finalement, on Hybridization s'y fait. Problems Of Overpopulation? La fin est remarquable! Critique de Kreen78 (Massy, Inscrite le 11 septembre 2004, 39 ans) - 2 decembre 2004.

Critique de Miriandel (Paris, Inscrit le 4 juillet 2004, 56 ans) - 31 juillet 2004. Un roman tres agreable. Critique de Manu55 (Joao Pessoa, Inscrit le 21 janvier 2004, 44 ans) - 27 avril 2004. Le premier opus de la saga des fourmis est bien ecrit, l'intrigue est interessante. Je me demande si le premier livre de Werber que l'on lit n'est pas le meilleur ? Son style et les constructions de ses oeuvres peuvent plaire lors de la lecture d'un premier roman. And Polyploidy Essay? Apres, le charme disparait bien vite, les ficelles etant les memes. Pourquoi en ai-je lu d'autres alors ? Critique de Martell (, Inscrit le 27 fevrier 2004, 64 ans) - 27 avril 2004. Je me souviens avoir eu la reflexion suivante: Ce roman gagnerait a etre reecrit par un des fideles traducteurs de S.King. Various Effects Effects On Societies? Ensuite j'ai realise que ca n'avait pas de sens. Essay? Mais je le relate pour illustrer mon appreciation du moment.

Critique de FightingIntellectual (Montreal, Inscrit le 12 mars 2004, 34 ans) - 27 avril 2004. Critique de Jhon (Bruxelles, Inscrit le 10 avril 2004, 29 ans) - 26 avril 2004. La litterature au service de la science. Critique de Aaro-Benjamin G. Problems? (Montreal, Inscrit le 11 decembre 2003, 48 ans) - 15 decembre 2003. Le defi de Werber etait de pouvoir maintenir une intrigue interessante sans jamais trop pencher dans le scientifique. Hybridization And Polyploidy? Un pari reussi. Which Would Atmosphere? Un roman intelligent. Critique de Folfaerie (, Inscrite le 4 novembre 2002, 48 ans) - 1 octobre 2003. Melange de polar, de SF et de traite d'entomologie, Les Fourmis nous invitent egalement a reflechir sur le parallele entre nos deux mondes, et les consequences des actes de l'oncle qui joue a l'apprenti-sorcier, sujet d'actualite s'il en est. Essay? Bref, merci M. Would A Meteorologist Measure Weather The Upper Atmosphere? Werber et vitement que je m'attelle a la suite ! tres agreable. Hybridization Essay? mais trop scientifique pour moi ! Critique de Florangel (Maisons-Laffitte, Inscrite le 19 mars 2003, 31 ans) - 3 juin 2003.

alors au debut j'avoue, je me suis ennuyee, bien que Werber soit un des ecrivains que j'admire, le fait qu'on decrive des fourmis comme ca pendant 50 pages-60, ca devient trop au bout d'un moment ! mais heureusement, je n'ai quand meme pas arrete de lire ce livre ! le suspense arrive enfin au moment ou on Analysis Gatsby" decouvre cette fameuse cave, cette porte, ou les gens n'y ressortent jamais, c'est vraiment terrible comme livre ! je vous promets que jamais plus vous ne jouerez avec des fourmis ou vous n'en ecraserez apres avoir lu ce livre ! ca fait du bien de le lire . Hybridization And Polyploidy Essay? a un moment je me rappelle, j'avais presque peur de continuer de le lire ! alors bien sur on problems se doute des le debut que ce sont des fourmis qui sont dans cette cave, mais la surprise est a la fin. And Polyploidy Essay? en fait dans ce livre, y a que du suspense et de la surprise tout le temps. About Analysis Great Gatsby"? que de l'attente, on and Polyploidy Essay fait qu'attendre en lisant ce qu'il va se passer. Essay About Great Gatsby"? c'est ca qu'il fait tres bien, cet ecrivain ! le seul truc que j'aurais voulu lui dire, c'est de raccourcir les passages de 3-4 pages ou on Hybridization Essay decrit les fourmis a chaque fois. Modern Drama Definition? faudrait en enlever quelques-uns, parce que sinon c'est toujours un peu pareil ! s'il avait ete un peu moins long (parce que c'est trop scientifique sinon!). Essay? la il aurait ete parfait ! :-)) j'ai eu du plaisir a le lire quand meme ! vous savez ce que j'ai envie de faire la ? d'aller dans mon jardin avec une petite boite, de mettre une fourmi, puis 2 dans cette petite boite et de les observer. Which Instrument Would Measure Weather From Atmosphere? j'ai envie de faire comme l'auteur maintenant ! c'est contagieux, on Hybridization and Polyploidy va devenir obsede par les fourmis . Various? respectons-les maintenant !! :-) Critique de Virgile (Spy, Inscrit le 12 fevrier 2001, 38 ans) - 5 septembre 2001. Il ne faut quand meme pas trop prendre au serieux les informations que donne ce livre, n'oubliez pas que c'est un roman et pas un livre de science, tout ce dont il parle n'est pas verite meme si certains ont tendance a le croire un peu vite. Ca se lit vite et sans ennui grace aux strategies de l'auteur mais on and Polyploidy n'en sort pas vraiment grandi. Un bon livre pour ado? Critique de Patman (, Inscrit(e) le 5 septembre 2001, 54 ans) - 4 septembre 2001. Critique de Veronicnac (Braine-le-Chateau, Inscrite le 11 juillet 2001, 38 ans) - 11 juillet 2001. A acheter si vous n#039;avez plus de publicites pour allumer le feu au bois. Critique de Concaves (Binche, Inscrit le 4 mai 2001, 40 ans) - 5 mai 2001. Quand le lecteur arrive, enfin!, a se plonger dans cette histoire, la voila coupee par intermittences du recit des anecdotes vecues par une fourmi pensante dont le seul but est de, faisant ainsi la nique aux milliers d'annees qui ont ete necessaires a sa race pour se forger ses instincts, prevenir la communaute d'un soi-disant danger.

L'auteur, certainement victime de sa consommation ethylique, tente tant bien que mal de nous faire croire que les fourmis seraient une civilisation a part entiere. Would Data From The Upper Atmosphere? Il finit meme par en conclure que la civilisation humaine n'est qu'un accident dans l'histoire des fourmis. J'avais deja lu des livres sans heros, voici un livre sans histoire. Un livre a la hauteur du monde que l'auteur veut nous decrire: infiniment petit. Critique de Obi-Wan (Uccle, Inscrit le 2 mars 2001, 45 ans) - 3 avril 2001. Seul petit Bemol : a trop vouloir construire son roman, a trop mathematiser son architecture, Bernard Werber alourdit son ecriture. Essay? Et cette structure semble devenir une fin en soi et non un moyen. Modern? Ce qui donne un cote un peu artificiel a l'ensemble. And Polyploidy Essay? Par moment, on modern se sent meme venir l'envie de lui supplier d'abandonner sa rigueur geometrique pour laisser son roman vivre. Mais malgre cette remarque, Les Fourmis sont un vrai moment de plaisir a devorer et d'etonnement a repetition. Critique de Leura (--, Inscrit le 29 janvier 2001, 66 ans) - 3 avril 2001.

Critique de Hal (Bruxelles, Inscrit le 21 mars 2001, 47 ans) - 29 mars 2001. Critique de Joujou (Bordeaux, Inscrite le 2 fevrier 2001, 48 ans) - 29 mars 2001. En achetant chez nos partenaires, vous aurons une commission ! Mais faire vivre les libraires independants est important aussi.

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college essay spoof Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to Hybridization Essay, assist, not intimidate.

Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the problems term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the common editorial abbreviation for Essay the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for more detailed discussion.). PAEAN : Among the earliest Greeks, the word paean signifies a dance and hymn with a specific rhythm which is endued with an absolving and healing power (Burkett 44). In later usage, any song of Natural Mothers in Henrik House Essay, praise to a deity is called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the hard palate--especially the Essay tongue touching or moving toward the hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in which either the ash or the /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. Effects Effects! For instance, Modern English cheese comes from and Polyploidy Essay, Old English ciese , which is modern drama definition, a cognate of Latin caseus . Scholars can tell the word in Old English must have been adopted after the time of Hybridization Essay, palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Thus, palatal dipthongization is Various Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their, useful for philologists who wish to date a borrowed word in Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the and Polyploidy blade of the Essay Bead tongue closer to the hard palate. PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an anti-bacchius , this is Essay, a three-syllable foot in which the first two syllables are stressed and and Their, the third syllable unstressed. It is very rare in English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and and Polyploidy, Ezra Pound make occasional use of it.

PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of parchment or vellum in which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the page and used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the original surface. This process would remove or fade the original writing sufficiently for the later scribe to write over the older material. It was a very common practice in problems of overpopulation medieval times since paper was so expensive. And Polyploidy Essay! Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by using UV light filters or chemicals to of "The Great Gatsby", make the Hybridization and Polyploidy erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the same way backward or foreward. Which A Meteorologist Use To Measure Weather From! Certain words in English naturally function as palindromes: for instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and so on. However, when individuals seek to combine several words at once, the result becomes a sort of perverse art. Here are some longer English examples culled from J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. (attributed apocryphally to Napoleon, who was exiled on Elba, though in and Polyploidy historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama!

Sex at noon taxes. Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. T. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad. I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on drab pot toilet. (W. H. Auden) Stop Syrian! I start at of overpopulation rats in airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. And Polyploidy Essay! Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on a vial of holy water in Saint Sophia's church in problems of overpopulation Constantinople that translates as Wash not only Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in circles by Various Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their on Societies Essay night and we will be consumed in fire. Probably the most excessive use of palindromes is the 1802 collection by Ambrose Pamperis, in which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74).

PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of a poem or song in which the poet renounces or retracts his words in Hybridization Essay an earlier work. Usually this is meant to Essay Bead Bar Network, apologize or counterbalance earlier material. The first recorded use of the palinode is a lyric written by the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Hybridization! Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to banish him to the Black Sea. Analysis Great Gatsby"! As a theme, the palinode is especially common in Hybridization and Polyploidy religious poetry and problems of overpopulation, love poetry.

The use of the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay palinode became conventional in patristic and medieval writings--as evidenced in Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and problems, others. More recent examples of palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to dust. Here, his palinode renounces the poetry of and Polyploidy Essay, sexual love for that of divine grace. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in Analysis of "The Great Gatsby" which the Hybridization and Polyploidy author takes back what he said about unfaithful women like Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde . Modern Drama! At the end of the Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to write a retraction for and Polyploidy all his secular literature. See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to contain all possible information on a subject. The term was first used as a title for Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of Roman law. Cf. summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Essay Bar Network, Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of public speaking, with established rules and conventions found in the works of Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, Menander and of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects, Hermogenes.

Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on Emperor Trajan and Hybridization, Isocrates' oration on the Olympic games of 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. Definition! pan everything + Lat. glossare to explain or comment upon): The word is an eponym based on the fictional Dr. Pangloss from and Polyploidy Essay, Voltaire's satire, Candide . Problems Of Overpopulation! Dr. Pangloss is a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the doctrine that all is for the best, and that we live in the best of all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for positive purposes, and if we could only decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. His arguments are a parody of Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is RIGHT. Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Candide , and Voltaire tries to show through the more inane Panglossian arguments that, in fact, the world is Hybridization, a highly flawed place and it does not live up to its ideal possibilities.

PANTHEON (Greek, all the gods): (1) A pantheon is Bar Network, a collective term for all the gods believed to exist in a particular religious belief or mythos . Hybridization Essay! Thus, we can talk of the Hittite pantheon, the Greek pantheon, etc. Which A Meteorologist Weather Data Atmosphere! (2) The Pantheon is and Polyploidy, a great temple in Rome dedicated to all the Olympian gods, not to be confused with the Parthenon , the great temple dedicateSd to the virgin goddess Athena, which is situated on top of the a meteorologist weather data the upper atmosphere Acropolis in Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from and Polyploidy, Malaysia. The pantun is a poem of no specific length, composed of Essay Analysis of "The, quatrains using internal assonance. The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in Essay the sense that the second and fourth lines of each stanza become the first and Essay Bead Bar Network, third lines of the following stanza. In the last quatrain, the first line of the poem appears again as the last, and the third line as the second, forming a circle for closure. (Alternatively, the poet may end the work with a simple couplet). Ernest Fouinet introduced the and Polyploidy Essay genre to French literature in the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and which instrument would a meteorologist measure data from the upper, Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in French verse.

Although rare in English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at the end of Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, a Greek tragedy in which the Essay Bead Bar Network chorus would remove their masks and step forward to address the audience directly in Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay speech rather than song. The parabasis usually contained the final thoughts or opinions of the playwright on some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. The concluding words of the drama chorus in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of people can relate to. Well-known examples of and Polyploidy Essay, parables include those found in drama the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and The Good Samaritan. In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of God is and Polyploidy, like . Natural Mothers Ibsen's, A Doll Essay! . . . Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in Greek, Latin or English. Meshalim in Hebrew refer to mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the speaker couches in story-form. Thus, in Matthew 13:11 and Hybridization, Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in parables so that outsiders will not be able to understand his teachings. It is only late in the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for instrument would data atmosphere ease of Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, understanding.

Non-religious works can be parables as well. For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. Cf. fable , allegory , and about of "The Great Gatsby", symbolism , or click here for a PDF handout discussing the differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the start of a line running horizontally to separate that material from earlier commentary. It was common in Hybridization Greek manuscripts to show a break in the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). (2) In modern English composition, it is which would measure data the upper atmosphere, a passage, section or subdivision of a longer essay, usually indicated by indenting the first line of the section. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of a larger subject-matter. For the sake of reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of Hybridization and Polyploidy, topic sentence to tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the paragraph to smooth the flow of ideas. PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone can help convey additional meaning to the spoken word; these are all examples of Essay of "The Gatsby", communication through paralanguage.

PARALLELISM : When the writer establishes similar patterns of grammatical structure and length. For instance, King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable. Essay! The previous sentence has parallel structure in use of adjectives. However, the following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and were equitable. If the writer uses two parallel structures, the result is isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the modern definition harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is Hybridization Essay, tricolon parallelism : That government of the people, by the people, and for problems of overpopulation the people shall not perish from the earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the dubious, and to startle the Hybridization Essay complacent. Shakespeare used this device to good effect in Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to each other in terms of problems of overpopulation, co-ordination or subordination; i.e. a loose association of clauses as opposed to hypotaxis . And Polyploidy! A common form of parataxis is asyndeton , in which expected conjunctions fail to appear for Essay about of "The Gatsby" artistic reasons.

For example, Shipley points out and Polyploidy, how the Essay Bar Network Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is praise enough). The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for this discussion and a comparison among Greek and Latin and English writers. Modern paratactic style is typically short and simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of Interpretation , Genette introduces the idea of Hybridization and Polyploidy, paratext, i.e., anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in Effects of Cyberterrorism on Societies Essay number, but they might include a list of other works the author has published on Essay the front cover of a book, the gender of the author as indicated by his or her name, reviews written about the book, and modern definition, editorial commentary about the and Polyploidy Essay work. For example, suppose the text we are reading is in Henrik Ibsen's, House Essay, a fictional story about a European woman who falls in love with a Persian graduate student. That Persian student is later viciously murdered by the European woman's xenophobic father. If we see the author's name is Susan Jones we might interpret the text differently than if we saw the Hybridization author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for instance. If the same author wrote a number of murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to read this new text as influenced by about of "The Great Gatsby" that early genre work, or even expect the current text to be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery. Hybridization! If we read a review calling attention to the theme of lust in a work, we might experience the book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on the theme of of overpopulation, intolerance. All of these external cues, however, are not actually in the narrative itself we are reading.

Thus, they are paratextual. A New Critic from the 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to determining the meaning of literary art, and the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and discuss them rather than try to sweep them away. PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of paper. A technical distinction is usually made between parchment and vellum , which is made from the hide of and Polyploidy Essay, young calves.

As Michelle P. Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the process for creating vellum or parchment is quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the animal skins were defleshed in a bath of lime, stretched on of overpopulation a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and cut to size. Differences in preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in and Polyploidy appearance than did the type of skin pused. Problems Of Overpopulation! Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in Essay the sixteenth century (with the Essay of "The Great rise of printing) but remained in use for Hybridization and Polyploidy certain high-grade books. (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the recipient from Essay about of "The Gatsby", certain acts of penitence and alleviating the sinner's punishment while in Hybridization Essay purgatory . Instrument Measure Weather! The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an indulgence as the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due to a sinner. Protestant students might wish to peruse the Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of indulgences to avoid common misconceptions and distortions.

The practice of selling these pardons as a means of fund-raising for the church or as a means of rewarding those who offered the church some service rose in prominence after the council of Hybridization Essay, Clermont in Various Effects and Their Effects 1095. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to any individuals willing to go on Crusade. By the fourteenth century, the practice had developed extensively, and pardoners were lay officials authorized by the pope to sell indulgences in exchange for financial donations. Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the sale of forged pardons, extortion, and deliberate misrepresentation of the scope of an indulgence (i.e., treating the indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).

Chaucer's Pardoner in The Canterbury Tales represents the worst excesses of pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for papal indulgences. See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, French school of poets that advocated art for Effects on Societies Essay its own sake and emphasized sensual and Hybridization and Polyploidy, vivid imagery divorced from emotional content (Harkins 275). Modern! The term Parnassian refers to Mount Parnassus in Greece. Essay! The toponymic name alludes to the way they often adopted themes from classical Greek mythology and philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the ceremonial entrance of the problems chorus. Usually the Essay chorus at this time chants a lyric relating to the main theme of the Essay Bead play. PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the serious manner and characteristic features of a particular literary work in order to make fun of those same features. The humorist achieves parody by exaggerating certain traits common to the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by magnifying and calling attention to the person's most noticeable features. Hybridization And Polyploidy! The term parody is Essay Bead Bar Network, often used synonymously with the and Polyploidy Essay more general term spoof , which makes fun of the general traits of a genre rather than one particular work or author.

Often the subject-matter of a parody is comically inappropriate, such as using the elaborate, formal diction of an epic to describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the first Greek parody to Hegemon of Thasos in The Poetics , though other writings credit the playwright Hipponax with the first creation of Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects on Societies, theatrical parody. Aristophanes makes use of parody in The Frogs (in which he mocks the style of Euripides and Aeschylus). Hybridization! Plato also caricatures the style of various writers in Bar Network the Symposium . In the Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and Chaucer is himself the basis of parodies written by Hybridization Alexander Pope and W. Effects And Their Effects On Societies! W. Skeat. Cervantes creates a parody of medieval romance in Don Quixote . Rabelais creates parodies of similar material in Gargantua and Pantagruel. And Polyploidy Essay! Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in Moriae Encomium . In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by turning the virtuous serving girl into a spirited and sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and false chasteness as a tool for snagging a husband. Natural In Henrik A Doll House! In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the Hybridization and Polyploidy sexually voracious Lady Booby. In the in Henrik A Doll House Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and Swinburne were the Hybridization Essay victims of far too many parodies in far too many works to list here.

See also mock epic , satire , and spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of semiology, parole is the use of Various Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects on Societies, language--i.e., manifestations of actual speech and writing. Parole contrasts with langue , the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for Hybridization Essay what English-speakers commonly refer to as a pun. See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in a play, the character the modern drama actor portrays or pretends to Hybridization Essay, be. The term comes from Renaissance drama. Since it was too expensive in Shakespeare's day to print playbooks for every single actor involved in a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only give each actor a roll of paper called a part; the part would list the Various of Cyberterrorism Effects on Societies dialogue for one character and all the cues belonging to that character (Greenblatt 1140).

The term role , synonymous with part, is similarly derived from such rolls of paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the requirement that literature must identify and be compatible with the methods and goals of the Hybridization Essay dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Any other literature, according to which instrument would the upper atmosphere, the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in art (275). PARTITIVE : One of several possible numbering systems in a language's grammar. For a discussion of partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for words as described by the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is Hybridization and Polyploidy, turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories.

In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite of primogeniture , partible succession is the problems of overpopulation practice in which all the children share equally in an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into equal shares for each surviving child. While this policy is in some ways more fair than primogeniture, in which eldest child takes all, it does result in the fragmentation of and Polyploidy Essay, estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. In the late medieval period, primogeniture was the common practice in much of Europe and Britain, but in problems the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in England and the Merovingian and Hybridization Essay, Frankish tribes of which instrument would use to measure data the upper atmosphere, France and Germany.

This practice is behind King Lear's sycophantic games in the first act of King Lear , as the play is set in ancient Celtic times, though the subplot about Edgar involves the much later later practice of primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the Essay term passus to refer to each numbered subdivision of Essay Bar Network, his poem, The Vision of Piers Plowman . The idea is each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Cf. canto and fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the life of Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. Essay Of "The Gatsby"! It usually idealized shepherds' lives in order to create an image of and Polyploidy, peaceful and uncorrupted existence. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and serenity attributed to country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in nature-centered activities. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the modern definition convention in Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in Roman literature, in Shakespeare's plays, and in the writings of the Romantic poets. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and dances. Conventional names for the shepherds and nymphs come from bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of Various Effects of Cyberterrorism on Societies, often accidental or awkward personification in Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay which a writer ascribes the human feelings of his or her characters to Essay Bead Bar Network, inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in Hybridization Essay the natural world.

J. A. Cuddon (692) notes the phrase first appears in of Cyberterrorism Essay John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an 1856 publication. For Ruskin, the term is derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in and Polyploidy which we read of a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the last of its clan. That dances as often as dance it can. For Ruskin, only the about greatest of Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, poets can get away with it. Aside from the negative connotations, the term is more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is a writer or speaker's attempt to of Cyberterrorism Effects, inspire an emotional reaction in an audience--usually a deep feeling of suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions. You can read more about rhetorical uses for pathos here. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to Hybridization and Polyploidy, evoke the feeling of of "The Great, pity or sympathetic sorrow in a reader or viewer.

PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the church fathers, i.e., the time of the early Church and the Church's first theologians, running through the and Polyploidy Essay last days of the apostles through the time of Natural in Henrik Ibsen's, A Doll House, Saint Augustine's conversion and Saint Jerome's compilation of the Bible in the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ. The patristic period appears on the tail-end of the Classical Roman Period, and it marks the beginning of the Medieval Period. Click here to download a PDF handout that puts these periods in chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in famous) scholarly collection of 228+ fat volumes of biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship.

The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of Greek writings from the patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the Patrologia Latina covers the same sort of material in Latin sources. These works are often not available in print in any other texts. This collection, known familiarly as the PL or the Migne (after one of its French editors), includes vast quantities of theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of relevant materials necessary for students seeking to understand the medieval world and medieval literature. Unfortunately, the Essay material is all in Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for English-speakers hindered by linguistic inabilities. Additionally, a series of editors compiled the volumes of the PL and they did not follow the same system of cataloging and organization as their predecessors. The result is a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of Essay Analysis Great Gatsby", indices and an additional index to the indices. Four generations of scholars have blessed the PL as an astonishing and ambitious collection of medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and blunders in pagination. Hybridization Essay! The PL is being displaced from Bar Network, its throne by Essay the Corpus Christianorum , an electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. However, major research libraries at this time are more likely to have an old, dusty set of shelves devoted to the PL than to have an expensive, computerized copy of the Corpus Christianorum . For a student of medieval literature who can speak Latin, the best starting spot is the index to Essay Bar Network, the indices, and from there work one's way backward.

If any readers find a library that is about to throw away or sell its copies of the PL, please contact me at kwheeler@cn.edu. I would like to have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to store all 228 of these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of giving financial or political support to an artist. A person who provides financial support for Essay an artist is Effects and Their Effects on Societies, known as a patron regardless of his or her gender. Sometimes patrons might seek to glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the Emperor Augustus was a patron for Essay Virgil. Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the deliberate goal of rousing Roman patriotism for the Augustan regime.

Patronage was also a common way for would a meteorologist measure weather the upper atmosphere aristocrats or wealthy merchants to and Polyploidy, flaunt their wealth and simultaneously give something of value to their community. Problems Of Overpopulation! The De Medici family in Florence, for instance, provided patronage to famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and painters. In England, John of Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for Chaucer at various points in his career. Many literary works are dedicated to a patron. Essay! For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of drama definition, sonnets are dedicated to a mysterious patron, W. H. In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to have an important noble or royal family member as a patron, for actors not in the service of such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. Authorized acting companies were thus referred to as their patrons' Men or Servants. For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men. After Queen Elizabeth died, the name was changed to the King's Men in 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is married to a member of an enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . This was a vital role for women in Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and dangerous responsibility. Hildeburh and Freawaru in Beowulf and the speaker of The Wife's Lament are probably examples of characters in Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in 1387 when lower-class Londoners and workers from the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the Labor Statutes of 1351, marched on London and incinerated the Savoy palace belonging to John of Gaunt and damaged property belonging to other noblemen, appealing directly to the young king, Richard II, for his intervention.

The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and Essay about Analysis Great, records of debt. They also lynched a number of competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for and Polyploidy their economic woes. According to legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the modern gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and Eve first existed, who was an aristocrat?) The revolt is commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and with other disruptive religious groups in England. At the time of and Polyploidy, their march on London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. References to this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and clear thinking. Essay Bead Bar Network! Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for Hybridization and Polyploidy academic research by college students.

Most are published two to Essay about Analysis Gatsby", four times a year. These publications are held in such high esteem because, when an article is submitted for publication, it is Hybridization Essay, passed on to two or three other experts in the field; they in turn critique the author's thinking and check the article's claims and problems, facts to make sure it is as accurate as possible and (theoretically) free from distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and misattributions. This contrasts with a book, in which only a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the and Polyploidy Essay author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in Various Effects Effects on Societies Essay which no official structure is Hybridization and Polyploidy, consistently available to in Henrik, ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the typos. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on Google and Hybridization and Polyploidy, web-browsing for their primary information. Problems Of Overpopulation! Some of the most important peer-reviewed journals for medieval literature students in English include The Journal of Essay, Medieval and Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and problems of overpopulation, Studies in the Age of and Polyploidy Essay, Chaucer . The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the absence of advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in the back or front for scholarly submissions, and its pages, which are typically on expensive acid-free paper to ensure archival survival. Often libraries do have these journals available in electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for not using them. If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian.

Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. Drama Definition! For instance, the word lewd originally referred to laymen as opposed to priests. Hybridization Essay! It underwent pejoration to mean ignorant, then base and finally obscene, which is the only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. The opposite of pejoration is amelioration , in which a word gains increasingly positive connotation.

Note that some older sources follow the Latin etymology, and thus spell the word peioration, and pronounce the word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and pronounce the letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to conceal his or her identity. For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the instrument a meteorologist measure weather from pen name O. Henry. Mary Ann Cross used the pen name George Eliot to hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the pen name James Tiptree, Junior. C.S.

Lewis used the pen name N.W. (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in some writings, including the first edition of A Grief Observed , and then played upon Hybridization, that by quoting the medieval authority Natvilcius in Perelandra (Duriez 147). Essay Analysis Of "The! Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the name Lemuel Gulliver, and so on. Writers might choose to use a pen name as a way to keep a certain name associated with certain types of Hybridization and Polyploidy, work, so that a writer might use one name for westerns and another name for science fiction novels. Other authors might seek to modern drama, hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of and Polyploidy Essay, these misfortunes can and do occur to authors, especially those writing in Natural Ibsen's, A Doll House totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of crime, adventure, violence, or horror. And Polyploidy! The term is an English archaism referring to cheaply printed books bound in paper at only a few pennies' cost.

English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in problems reference to the violent content. The equivalent term in Essay American slang is Essay Bead, dime-novel, again referring to the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to the cheap wood-pulp pressed to make the paper. My personal favorite penny dreadful from pre-1800 writing is Varney the Vampire: Or, The Feast of Blood! The title gives some indication of the content. See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, five feet in each line, it is written in pentameter . Each foot has a set number of syllables. Of Overpopulation! Iambs, spondees, and trochees are feet consisting of two syllables.

Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of Hybridization and Polyploidy, ten syllables. Anapests and dactyls are feet consisting of three syllables. Thus, anapestic pentameter and Essay of "The Great Gatsby", dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of fifteen syllables. See foot and meter . You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the Hybridization and Polyploidy Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of Russian writers led by the critic Voronsk in 1923 and associated with the definition journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). This group of writers opposed the Hybridization concept of of overpopulation, enforced proletarian literature and the oppression of Communist conformity on writers--but the and Polyploidy Essay Russian authorities dissolved the group in 1932 and Essay Bar Network, forced its members to merge with the and Polyploidy Essay Union of Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80). PERFECT RHYME : Another term for exact rhyme or true rhyme. Various Of Cyberterrorism On Societies Essay! See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the Renaissance printing industry, the term perfecting refered to and Polyploidy Essay, printing on the second side of a sheet of paper after the first side of that sheet had already been printed to make a double-sided copy.

In the 1500s, printers would typically do the Natural Mothers in Henrik Ibsen's, A Doll House Essay recto side of the sheet in the morning and the verso side in and Polyploidy Essay the afternoon or evening. By the 1700s, it became common to use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and the other side done on the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. Drama! (2) Passages of and Polyploidy, gospel text inserted at the head of a homily or sermon in medieval texts. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. Essay About Analysis Of "The! roundabout speech): The act of intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is Hybridization and Polyploidy, absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an idea that one could express briefly and simply. J.A. Cuddon cites an example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience, instead of her nose was blocked (701).

While writers after the modern period have generally considered concision and directness admirable traits in style, some rhetorical situations may call for of Cyberterrorism and Their Essay periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in order to and Polyploidy, avoid breaking a social taboo, in Essay about Analysis Gatsby" which case the periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . And Polyploidy! E.g., one might write he went to his final rest instead of he died, which is both periphrasis and a euphemism. In the 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of Various of Cyberterrorism, displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the time might refer to the scaly breed for reptiles or the feathered kind for Essay birds in a manner akin to Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the deliberate goal of tricking, misleading, or confusing the audience, that act is called ambage . If periphrasis appears to have no purpose, or appears awkward and unsuitable, or detracts from the impact of the writing, rhetoricians refer to which weather data, it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the blemish originates in unnecessary repetition, the fault is Hybridization, called macrologia . An example of macrologia would be they returned home into their own country from about Analysis Great, whence they had come (Shipley 365). This sentence would be briefer as they returned home. A sample passage of periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to be confused with the honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of modern periodicals like magazines and literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at Hybridization regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and so on). The subject-matter varied from current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and architectural features of London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the good taste and A Doll House Essay, education of the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of favor in more fiercely democratic and egalitarian times.

The first literary periodicals were French. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). Essay About Great Gatsby"! English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Athenian Mercury (1690), and the Gentleman's Journal (1692). The early 1700s was a time when the Hybridization English periodic essay flourished in particular. Effects Of Cyberterrorism On Societies Essay! This time was especially important in the development of the modern periodical and in the growing acceptance of the essay as a valid genre . Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Boswell either contributed frequently to and Polyploidy Essay, these magazines or edited and Ibsen's, A Doll House Essay, produced their own.

The Tatler (1709), the Spectator (1711), and the Guardian (1731), all established by and Polyploidy Addison and Steele, became profoundly influential in shaping the Mothers in Henrik Ibsen's, A Doll writing habits and publication customs of the modern world. Most of these publications ran for only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for Hybridization and Polyploidy decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in 1731 and Essay of "The Great, the last issue appeared in 1907, for instance, and the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to the reader ) until the reader reaches the final portion of the Hybridization Essay sentence. Problems Of Overpopulation! An example is this sentence by Bret Harte: The most common type of periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the verb falls at the very end of the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay sentence after the direct object, indirect object and other grammatical necessities.

For example, For the queen, the lover, pleading always at the heart's door, patiently waits. In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at the heart's door, the lover waits patiently for the queen. The non-periodic sentence is clearer in English. Use To Weather From The Upper Atmosphere! It tends to follow the subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to. The periodic sentence is more exotic and arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is particularly effective in synthetic languages (i.e. languages in Hybridization and Polyploidy which meaning does not depend on the order of words).

In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the outcome of drama, a grammatical action. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the and Polyploidy Essay height of Ibsen's, A Doll House Essay, dramatic style. In English, however, the result can become confusing or comic if the writer loses control, as evidenced in the work of Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by modern readers. Milton's employs a periodic style in Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the features of a classical epic --including the very grammatical structure of the original Latin and Greek works he loves and emulates. Compare to anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in which the sentences tend to be periodic. See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Periodic style in English is usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in comparison with the Hybridization more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of literature into chronological categories of Natural A Doll House, historical period or time as opposed to the categorization of literature according to Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of similar type. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and I placed all the books from the early 1800s on one shelf, and all the books written in the Victorian period on Various of Cyberterrorism Essay the next shelf, and Essay, all the Essay Bead Bar Network twentieth-century books on Essay the last shelf, I have organized my literature by periodization . Essay Bead Bar Network! If, however, I placed all the books containing tragic drama together on Hybridization one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on another shelf, and put all the poetry collections on the last shelf, I have organized my books according to genre . (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is not always clear. Which Would A Meteorologist From! A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and the twentieth century, for and Polyploidy instance. Other periods--such as the postmodern and modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point.

Still, the intellectual exercise can be useful for Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects thinking about how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into an era and for and Polyploidy thinking about the zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to divide literature into comprehensible sections through periodization . Definition! Dividing literature into and Polyploidy these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and contrast the writing, poetry, and drama produced in Essay Bar Network different ages, to and Polyploidy Essay, more easily trace chains of influence from one writer to another, and to appreciate more readily the connection between historical events and intellectual trends. A few common divisions include the following: the Ibsen's, A Doll Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and Hybridization and Polyploidy, Postmodern period. No universally accepted scheme exists for the divisions. For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods together as the Medieval period. Another might subdivide the Renaissance into the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, and problems of overpopulation, so on. Hybridization And Polyploidy! Click here for a PDF handout listing the Mothers periods in more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for sudden change): The sudden reversal of fortune in a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an observable change in direction. In tragedy, this is often a change from stability and happiness toward the destruction or downfall of the protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . Hybridization And Polyploidy! See above.

The word was particularly common in older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on Essay Bead Bar Network Callimachus' sarcastic description for his literary adversaries' work. Originally, in Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to Callimachus' own work, which focuses on brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Ovid, however, takes the term and Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into drama a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of Essay, oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an and Their Effects external representation of oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and Hybridization, minimizing others. One of the problems of overpopulation most famous personae is that of the speaker in Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.

Here, the Irish author Swift, outraged over and Polyploidy Essay Britain's economic exploitation of Ireland, creates a speaker who is a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and eating Irish children as a means of economic advancement. Another famous persona is Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and somewhat dull. Essay Great! Contrast with alter ego and poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the subject is first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and Essay, inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Personification is particularly common in about poetry, but it appears in nearly all types of artful writing. Examples include Keat's treatment of the Hybridization Essay vase in Ode on which instrument use to measure atmosphere a Grecian Urn, in which the urn is treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, the Yew Tree, in which the moon is a face in its own right, / White as a knuckle and terribly upset. / It drags the sea after it like a dark crime. When discussing the ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones.

A special sub-type of Essay about Great, personification is prosopopoeia , in which an inanimate object is given the ability of human speech. Apostrophe (not to be confused with the punctuation mark) is Essay, a special type of personification in which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to address some abstraction that is not physically present in the room. See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by Essay about Great the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to Essay, those he used. In the Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and recycled them in their own poetry. Examples include comparing eyes to the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to definition, goddesses, and so on. His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of Russian Utopian socialists who formed in 1845 and met at the home of M. Hybridization Essay! B. Butashevich-Petrashevski to read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the author Dostoyevski and the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287).

In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the Natural in Henrik House Essay circle arrested and Hybridization and Polyploidy, staged a mock drama and of Cyberterrorism Effects on Societies Essay, execution--only revealing at the last moment the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of execution, the members of the about Analysis Great group were sentenced to exile in Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in Hybridization Essay western Europe) have traditionally believed the Petrine doctrine . The Petrine doctrine is the belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by Christ that has since passed on to each Pope. In the instrument use to measure weather the upper atmosphere Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the Rock [ petros ], and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of and Polyploidy, hell will not prevail against it. Which A Meteorologist Use To Weather Data From! To you I will give the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven. What you bind on Hybridization and Polyploidy earth shall be bound in heaven, and what you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (A similar verse is found in John 21:15-17.) Medieval and modern Catholics believed the Various of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects Archbishop of Rome (i.e., the Pope) was in direct apostolic lineage back to Saint Peter. That means the and Polyploidy Archbishop who anointed the Pope had been annointed by others all the way back to Saint Peter.

Thus, the definition Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. They thought of the Pope as being the first among equals, an archbishop like any other. He did not have authority to command the whole church. The two halves of the medieval church in the West and and Polyploidy, the East argued about problems of overpopulation, this, but that was the sum of the Hybridization Essay dispute for several centuries. The differences between the two halves of the old Roman empire was exacerbated by the differences in language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is a sexualized representation of Essay Bead Bar Network, male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the penis. Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and rockets. Contrast with a yonic symbol. See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for and Polyploidy Essay one of three techniques to create charged language. A Meteorologist Use To Measure Weather Data From The Upper! In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to throw a visual image on Essay to the reader's imagination (37).

See also melopoeia and logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to Essay Bead, transmit information, but rather to reinforce social bonds, signal the beginning or end of a conversation, or engage in ritual activities. And Polyploidy Essay! For instance, if we pass a stranger in of overpopulation the hallway and say, Hi, howya doing? and pass on after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an and Polyploidy actual request for data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the other's presence. Similarly, thanks for stopping by or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to ease the transition to and from ritual activity rather than attempts at Gatsby" factual communication. Phatic communication is the term for this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of and Polyploidy Essay, words): Not to be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an important but now somewhat dated field of study in Great Gatsby" the 19th and early 20th century. Hybridization And Polyploidy! It covered the topics of of overpopulation, literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and mythology. Philologists were the ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of Hybridization and Polyploidy, regional folklore, fairy tales, and mythology before they vanished into modernity. This large and unwieldy field eventually split apart and Essay about Analysis of "The Gatsby", become the academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the distinct degrees of literature, lingustics, folklore, and so forth).

Few colleges offer degrees in philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in the first half of the twentieth century, J.R.R. Tolkien was the primary philologist in and Polyploidy Essay the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of tension. Of Overpopulation! C. S. Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is a philologist. No harm in him: only needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of wisdom): The methodical and Hybridization and Polyploidy, systematic exploration of what we know, how we know it, and why it is important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the term somewhat nebulously. They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about X is . Various Effects Of Cyberterrorism And Their Effects Essay! . Hybridization And Polyploidy! . Problems Of Overpopulation! when they really mean, My opinion about X is . . . or My attitude toward X is . Hybridization Essay! . . Traditional areas of Western philosophic inquiry include the following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and phobos (fear).

If the audience did not feel pity for the tragic hero in a play, or feel fear at his downfall, the modern play failed in its purpose. See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of a spoken word that serves as a building block in a larger syllable or word, and which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Phonetic transcription always indicates the spoken rather than the written word. And Polyploidy! This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an alphabet) and morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). For instance, in the word rerun , the morphemes are re- and run . Though the u- or the r- by themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into any smaller sounds, and thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in drama English. Linguists often transcribe English words into phonetic markings to indicate subtle differences in accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to Hybridization Essay, the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the written word). When they do so, they often enclose the phonetic symbols in slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and about Analysis of "The Great, enclose the graphic markings in chevrons like this so the reader can tell whether that linguist is discussing the Hybridization spoken form of the modern word or the written form of the word.

Contrast with grapheme and morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for a sentence with two parts of opposite Essay sounds, with a pivot in problems the middle separating the Essay two sections. An example from Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the moonlit sky. The distinction here is the first half of the Essay Bead Bar Network sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the sentence's alliteration shifts to liquid and and Polyploidy Essay, soft consonance (Carrick). Which Instrument A Meteorologist Use To! In poetry, such a shift often falls in the caesura, though the effect is not limited to alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of phonemes, or units of sound in Hybridization Essay spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to represent speech sounds. One common transcription system is the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). To see samples in PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Of Overpopulation! Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player). PHONOLOGY : According to Hybridization and Polyploidy, Algeo, The units of sound (phonemes) of a language with their possible arrangements and varieties of vocal expression (329).

More generally, the study of sounds and sound-systems in a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the from atmosphere same traits as a picaresque novel. See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the picaresque narrative and and Polyploidy Essay, the Räuberroman in German): A humorous novel in which the plot consists of a young knave's misadventures and escapades narrated in comic or satiric scenes. This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and trickery rather than through virtue or industry. The picaro frequently travels from place to place engaging in a variety of jobs for Various Effects Effects Essay several masters and Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, getting into mischief. The picaresque novel is usually episodic in nature and Natural Ibsen's, A Doll House, realistic in its presentation of the seamier aspects of society. The genre first emerged in 1553 in the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works. The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594).

Probably the most famous example of the genre is French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the Hybridization and Polyploidy genre's continuing influence on literature. Essay About Of "The! Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and Saul Bellow's The Adventures of Hybridization, Augie March . Instrument Would Measure Data From! The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from many languages and used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. By definition, a pidgin language is not a native language--but rather it is one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. However, artificial conditions (such as the enforced assimilation on and Polyploidy Essay slave plantations) can cause children to grow up with little use for their native tongues. This can cause the pidgin language to Various on Societies Essay, develop into a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for the dramatic genre called the well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the quality of revering those things that deserve reverence. The word is the source for our modern English words piety and piousness (reverence toward the divine), but the Latin term is far more all-embracing--indicating not only devotion to the gods, but also devotion to one's gens (family) and patria (homeland or country). Thus, it also means patriotism and familial responsibility.

In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to Aeneas is pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by Essay the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in Essay Bar Network which an and Polyploidy individual travels without material comforts to a distant holy place. Which Measure Data From The Upper Atmosphere! The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to Hybridization Essay, the celestial city of Natural, heaven or repeat the journey of a saint or biblical hero. Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in both Western Christian writings and Hybridization Essay, Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Bar Network, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. The tone is realistic, but the content is typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Contrast with the Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the Renaissance, the and Polyploidy Essay most expensive and prestigious bench seating was the pit--an area directly in front of the stage.

The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. In later centuries, the musical orchestra would be moved to this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in modern drama some languages to Hybridization and Polyploidy, distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is of Cyberterrorism on Societies Essay, most important for a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the countryside.

Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the Galician poems of Rosalia de Castro. Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an original idea, phrase, or section of writing from Hybridization, someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the Mothers in Henrik Ibsen's, House source via appropriate explanation or citation. Click here for more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the word platonic to mean intellectual rather than physical. Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay which the couple is attracted to each other for mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the imperfect physical world, another intangible world of abstract ideas has its own existence. These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in the physical world.

For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and Goodness theoretically exist in perfect forms. Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the abstract quality of Various, Beauty itself, can only enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the unenlightened do not realize is that it is and Polyploidy Essay, not these specific objects they should admire, but the quality of beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is eternal and Essay about Analysis Great, unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is that the physical world is the illusion or dream, and the world of the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay mind is closer to the real world of the eternal forms. Platonic thinking had profound influence on medieval theology and philosophy. In C. S. Lewis's The Last Battle . Professor Digory Kirke interprets the New Narnia of Heaven's relationship to Essay Analysis, Narnia and Essay, England as being one of Platonic forms (spiritual) and modern definition, Platonic shadows (material) , and Aslan refers to the land of England and Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of material shadows rather than spiritual realities. Hybridization! See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in Honor of Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, and Natural Mothers in Henrik Ibsen's, House Essay, Wordsworth's Ode on and Polyploidy Intimations of Immortality from problems, Recollections of Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and perfect ideas, images, or patterns of which physical reality is but an imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. See discussion under Platonic for full details. PLAY : A specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the character they portray.

See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of speech or writing in which an idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. Hybridization And Polyploidy Essay! For example, tiny little town is a pleonasm, as opposed to tiny town or little town. Various Of Cyberterrorism And Their On Societies Essay! Likewise, Shipley points out With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. I also steer students away from them. Hybridization And Polyploidy Essay! However, pleonasms have been fashionable in other centuries. Geoffrey of Vinsauf favored them in Effects Effects his twelfth-century style manual, the Poetria Nova. Hybridization And Polyploidy Essay! The New Testament book of Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out (8). Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in which the Bar Network author emphasizes alertness by using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and relationship of actions and events in Essay a work of fiction.

In order for about Analysis of "The a plot to begin, some sort of catalyst is necessary. While the temporal order of events in the work constitutes the story, we are speaking of plot rather than story as soon as we look at how these events relate to one another and Hybridization Essay, how they are rendered and organized so as to achieve their particular effects. Note that, while it is most common for events to of overpopulation, unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the first event happens first, the second event happens second, and so on), many stories structure the plot in such a way that the reader encounters happenings out of order. A common technique along this line is to begin the story in the middle of the action, a technique called beginning in medias res (Latin for in the middle[s] of Hybridization, things). Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the a meteorologist weather data from the upper atmosphere main plot (as in many of Shakespeare's plays).

PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in a variety of cultures share the game of Hybridization and Polyploidy, pluck buffet. In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to see who is bravest or toughest. Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to any game in which two individuals challenge each other to some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the winner. For instance, the about of "The poem Garland depicts Richard the Lion-Hearted and and Polyploidy, Robin Hood having an archery contest, and the loser must Beare a buffet on his hede. This exchange becomes an important theme in ballads like Robin Hood and which measure data, Guy of Gisborne . Pluck buffet may also lie at the heart of a Celtic motif known as the trade of blows in which one warrior agrees to trade strikes with another; in the case of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and Hybridization, the green elf-knight play the game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by poets, i.e., language that would not be common in their everyday speech. The most common signs of Bead Bar Network, poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and unusual figures of and Polyploidy, speech. Teachers often point to Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of abysm and climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of thee and thine . When they ask students, why did this poet write in such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the way people talked back then. On the contrary, in Bar Network the 1500s, Spenser is resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in the 1300s--not the language of his own time. The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from abyss/chasm and climate/temperature , not words he would hear in everyday use on the London streets.

Likewise, the pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. Hybridization! These poets chose such language precisely because it is unusual for their time--because it is Natural Mothers Essay, different from humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for certain genres and characters to use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. As M. H. Abrams notes in volume I of The Norton Anthology , the results were phrases such as the finny tribe for fish and the the bleating kind for sheep (2958). To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown.

The point, however, is that poetic diction is vastly different from daily speech. POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of a poet or other literary writer to depart from the norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in Hybridization and Polyploidy order to create a special effect in or for the reader. When applied to prose writers, the Effects Effects term is often called artistic license. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer in the late 1600s. He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and punishments proportionately to the virtues and villainies of each character in the story. Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for his crimes, we say it is poetic justice. Hybridization Essay! This formula for resolving plots has fallen into disfavor in later centuries, and no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications. POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of his or her situation or feelings. It is a convention in poetry that the speaker is modern drama, not the same individual as the Hybridization Essay historical author of the poem. For instance, consider the poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . Lord Byron wrote the poem as a young man in his late twenties.

However, the speaker of the poem depicts himself as being an problems elderly man looking back cynically on and Polyploidy Essay the days of which would use to weather from, youth. Hybridization! Clearly, the voice talking and narrating the story is not identical with the problems of overpopulation author. In the and Polyploidy same way, the Essay speaker of the poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in Italy who is cold-blooded--quite capable of murdering a wife who displeases him--but the author of the poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in the early nineteenth-century. Many students (and literary critics) attempt to Essay, decipher clues about the author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the words in a poem. Instrument Would Use To Weather The Upper Atmosphere! However, such an activity must always be done with caution. And Polyploidy! Shakespeare may write a sonnet in which the would use to measure from atmosphere poetic speaker pours out his passion for a woman with bad breath and wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is a convention in some genres , such as the medieval visio or dream vision, that the poetic speaker is a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. See also authorial voice and dream vision , above. POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. These patterns typically consist of patterns of meter (regular patterns of high and low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in Hybridization Essay each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of of overpopulation, these elements.

The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of Hybridization, normal communicative speech in the attempt to embody an Various Effects on Societies Essay original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Hybridization! Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the Natural Mothers House dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. However, rhyme is actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. In classical Greece and Rome, meter was the trait that separated poetry from prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to act of creating or making something--both in the biological act of procreation and in the realm of the mind. It covers the action itself as well as the moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and and Polyploidy Essay, encompasses, as the Essay about Analysis of "The Gatsby" character Diotima argues in The Symposium, all of the following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in a city through the attainment of and Polyploidy Essay, worthy fame, and (3) poiesis in the soul through virtuous habits and moral education. Essay Of "The Great Gatsby"! The word is related to the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and who tells it. It is the method of narration that determines the position, or angle of vision, from which the story unfolds. Point of view governs the reader's access to the story. Many narratives appear in the first person (the narrator speaks as I and the narrator is Hybridization Essay, a character in the story who may or may not influence events within it). Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to be someone standing outside the Various Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects Essay story who refers to all the characters by Essay name or as he , she , they , and so on).

When the narrator reports speech and action, but never comments on the thoughts of other characters, it is the problems of overpopulation dramatic third person point of view or objective point of view. The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the Hybridization and Polyploidy agents and events in the story, and is free to move at will in time and Effects on Societies Essay, place, and who has privileged access to and Polyploidy Essay, a character's thoughts, feelings, and problems, motives. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is confined to what is experienced, thought, or felt by a single character, or at Hybridization Essay most a limited number of characters. Drama Definition! Finally, there is the unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader). Hybridization And Polyploidy! Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in a limited point of modern drama definition, view narration, the character through whom the reader experiences the author's representation of the world. See point of view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of Hybridization, a single town and its immediate environs. Some of these city-states were democracies in Effects and Their Effects which every male citizen voted on every government action. Others were oligarchies in which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and shared powers.

Others were dictatorships in which a single military leader came to power. The two most influential city-states were Athens and Sparta. They eventually rose to power over their neighbors through combinations of alliances and conquests. Athens was famous for its culture and art and intellectual life. Sparta was famous for its toughness and its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to each other. Each one arose independently. And Polyploidy Essay! For an analogy, in both early Mayan architecture and in Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. However, since no contact took place between the two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the design independently rather than adopting it from a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the other). Instrument Would Use To The Upper! Circumstances such as the lack of mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to support any large edifice--leading to pyramid designs by default.

In the same way, similar legends appear across the world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in Norse and Germanic legend, and Silverhand in Celtic stories). Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in their pantheons. And Polyploidy! This lack can be explained by the theory of polygenesis. Men who are crippled cannot join the hunters in gathering food or join the farmers in Essay Bead Bar Network digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to stay in the village and Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to Bead, the untrained without these years of experience. And Polyploidy! However, the Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects archetype of the crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the technology of metal-working. In the same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in Welsh, Chaldean, and Greek legends. Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of Essay, myth would argue that myths of drama definition, a universal flood appear only in cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. Hybridization And Polyploidy! Aborigines in the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for instance.

This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in different places through polygenesis. See also archetype . Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to achieve an overwhelming effect in a sentence. For example, This term, I am taking biology and English and problems of overpopulation, history and math and music and physics and sociology. All those and s make the student sound like she is completely overwhelmed. It is the opposite of asyndeton . Both polysyndeton and asyndeton are examples of rhetorical schemes. And Polyploidy! For a literary example of polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and non-omnipotent--in contrast with the idea of a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pompé . A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and religious procession.

Worshippers would don special garb, line up in rows by the thousands, and then travel through the city or from one holy site to another (such as from the problems of overpopulation Parthenon to the site of the and Polyploidy Essay Eleusinian mysteries). The most important pompé in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and scrubbed, and the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in a procession leading to the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to modern, wear for the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the bow-wow theory , the ding-dong theory , and the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in which a writer mentions an absence to evoke the counterpart presence. This is the verbal equivalent of Hybridization Essay, negative space in sculpture or painting.

POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to Essay Analysis of "The Great Gatsby", the philosophical, artistic, and literary changes and tendencies after the 1940s and 1950s up to the present day. We can speak of postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and poetry using the same generic label. Hybridization And Polyploidy Essay! The tendencies of postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and multiculturalism, (4) parody and pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in Essay about modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and and Polyploidy, intensifies these earlier characteristics. Natural Ibsen's, House! It also seems to me that, while modernism rejected much of Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, tradition, it clung to Bar Network, science as a hopeful and objective cure to the past insanities of history, culture and superstition.

Modernism hoped to tear down tradition and longed to build something better in its ruins. Postmodernism, on the other hand, is often suspicious of Hybridization Essay, scientific claims, and often denies the possibility or desirability of establishing any objective truths and shared cultural standards. It usually embraces pluralism and spurns monolithic beliefs, and it often borders on of Cyberterrorism Essay solipsism. While modernism mourned the passing of unified cultural tradition, and wept for its demise in the ruined heap of Essay, civilization, so to speak, postmodernism tends to dance in the ruins and play with the fragments. Some of the new literary movements growing from postmodernism include the darker or horrific tales of modern drama, science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the Absurd, and so on. Finally, postmodernism is often used loosely and interchangeably with the critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and psychoanalytical approaches to Hybridization Essay, literature that developed during and after the 1970s. To see where postmodernism fits into a chronology of literary movements, click here for a PDF handout.

POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. A Meteorologist Use To Weather Atmosphere! By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Several words in Latin and Greek are postpositives. POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and loose term for any of the literary theories appearing after the structuralist movement in linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of deconstruction . The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the structuralist movement--like individual identity, the subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to the beginning of a word. For instance, the prefix re- can be added to the word play to create the Hybridization and Polyploidy word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the prefix pre - and the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the popular success of an earlier work but set before the events in that successful earlier work, and incorporating characters, settings, and Analysis of "The Great Gatsby", situations with which the audience is already familiar. Contrast with sequel and series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the Hybridization and Polyploidy Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in 1848 as a protest against conventional art and literature. A band of young London artists, poets, and Analysis of "The, intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to re-creating the type of medieval art existing before the Renaissance . Hence, they took their name from Hybridization Essay, Raphael (1483-1520), the earliest major Renaissance artist in Italy. Like the Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to regain the spirit of Various Effects of Cyberterrorism Essay, simple devotion and adherence to and Polyploidy Essay, nature.

Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an interest in chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and Frederick George Stephens initially. The movement later grew to include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the craftsman and writer; the author Swinburne, and Burne-Jones the artist. In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to propagate their views and writings. Click here to download a PDF file of Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to sample the diction and style of problems, Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the and Polyploidy Essay Romantic movement in European literature of the late 1700s and early 1800s. Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in expression of personal feelings, a new interest in landscape, the cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . . . the Natural in Henrik Ibsen's, A Doll House Essay supernatural, and the melancholy mood of 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for further details. PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is and Polyploidy Essay, said to be prescriptivist if it has the in Henrik A Doll House goal of fashioning guidelines or rules for Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay grammar, spelling, and Mothers in Henrik A Doll, word use, as opposed to Essay, describing unjudgmentally how a group of people tend to definition, use language. Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at a later date, a press variant is a minor and usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run.

Greenblatt notes they usually result from corrections made in the course of printing or from slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to and Polyploidy, material in Genesis and which a meteorologist use to weather the upper atmosphere, the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of editing--in contrast with the older J Text and E Text . The name P Text comes from Priestly Text. Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Babylonian exile of 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. (Some scholars in the minority argue that portions of the material might date pre-exilicly from the late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the time of the exile, the Judaic priests were probably desperate to retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the challenge of harmonizing their world view with that of Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in the Hebrew text and they are incorporated into the Hebrew Bible thereafter. This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and dictionaries (such as the 1979 version of Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible ) refer to their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of Hebrew and Hybridization, Chaldean, a Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary. Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and Essay Bead Bar Network, long-lasting the linguistic effects of the Exile were on the Hebrew vocabulary.

Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the and Polyploidy P Text, and definition, these are probably the latest additions to the Genesis account. Hybridization! The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into Bead Bar Network contact with the Chaldeans--at least not in the form in Hybridization Essay which they come down to us today in surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on ritual observances such as the Sabbath, circumcision, and dietary taboos believed to be late additions to the religious tradition. Other features of the P text--such as the Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects on Societies Essay details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and descriptions of the tabernacle--appear to have come from now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and modified in the P tradition. Hybridization Essay! Finally, the P text is marked the would use to weather from prominence it gives to Aaron (as opposed to the dominant role of Moses in the J and Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, E texts), the account of Moses' death in Deuteronomy, the legal materials of Leviticus and Numbers, and a series of genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the J, E, and P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and educational resources . Students should also. To understand the difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of allowing the first born legitimate male child to inherit all of his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon the father's death. Essay Bead Bar Network! Primogeniture was a key issue in determining succession to the royal throne, and it plays an important part in Edmund's villainy in King Lear , in King Henry V's claim to the French throne in Henry V , and in many other Shakespearean plays.

In medieval times, primogeniture lead to huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of making a livelihood. And Polyploidy Essay! Since the firstborn son inherited everything, the only legitimate option for the other sons was becoming celibate and Mothers House Essay, then joining the church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. Since this was not always a preferable option for hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in coups to gain the family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from one war to another seeking their fortunes. Hybridization Essay! When Pope Urban II called the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, the church saw that part of the solution to this problem was to would a meteorologist use to measure data the upper atmosphere, provide a legitimate arena of warfare for these dispossessed knights. The opposite custom of dividing inheritance is known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in monasteries, but in the 1440s and 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. Even though forerunners of the and Polyploidy printed book might have existed in Holland, the most important developments were in Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in 1456. John of Gutenberg is credited with the invention by fifteenth-century writers, and the invention spread rapidly to Natural Ibsen's, A Doll Essay, Italy, France, Holland, and other countries.

William Caxton set up a printing press in Europe (Bruges) in 1475, and there printed the first book in English, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Essay, Troye . Returning to England in 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in Westminster. Problems! He next printed a number of Latin texts before printing in Hybridization English the Dicts or Sayings of the Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and Essay Great, others for about a hundred titles in total. His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over the business after Caxton's death and published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to the modern internet revolution. It made books for the first time cheap enough for mass production and mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and cultural knowledge, and fueling the Essay flames of religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is Ibsen's, A Doll Essay, one that an individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and and Polyploidy, agree upon Essay Analysis of "The Great, its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only be discernable in the context of one specific story or poem.

Examples of private symbols include the elaborate mythologies created by J. R. R. Tolkien in The Silmarillion (such as the One Ring as a symbol of power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of Constantinople as a symbol to represent poetic artifice in Sailing to Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the cycles of history and the sphinx as an emblem of the and Polyploidy Antichrist in The Second Coming. See also token and emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to this term. (1) The most general usage refers to any play in which the main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to his or her society at large. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman is representative of a problem play in drama definition that Loman must face the challenges of what the author considers false values in and Polyploidy a capitalistic society. (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the term problem play to of Cyberterrorism on Societies Essay, a group of Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well . These plays explore dark and ignoble aspects of human psychology without attempting to solve or resolve the plot to and Polyploidy Essay, the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level. Various Effects Effects Essay! Because of the uneasy endings, the Hybridization plays do not seem to Effects on Societies, follow the standard conventions of Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an objection and then immediately answers it; by doing so, the rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in and Polyploidy a publicly performed play or in modern published material would result in a ten-pound fine for Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay the performer or printer, a substantial sum.

Three of Shakespeare's quartos show signs of revision to meet the requirement of the Natural Mothers Ibsen's, A Doll Profanity Act, such as omissions of obscenity, the word God changed to heaven, or Jove, etc. Contrast with the Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of wordiness or periphrasis characterized by unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). And Polyploidy! A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to be prolix. See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the action or a set of introductory speeches before the Mothers House first entry ( parados ) of the chorus. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the play's background events. And Polyploidy! (2) In later literature, a prologue is a section of which instrument a meteorologist measure data from, any introductory material before the first chapter or the main material of a prose work, or any such material before the first stanza of a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of a play adapted for performance by and Polyploidy a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and last minute revisions or corrections. In some promptbooks, the characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the moral of a fable appearing before the main narrative. If the Natural in Henrik summary is found at the end of the narrative, it is called an epimythium . Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an and Polyploidy Essay old word that more accurately reflects the Essay current pronunciation than the original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the term referred to a committee of cardinals the Roman Catholic church founded in and Polyploidy 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). This group established specific educational materials to be sent with priests-in-training for foreign missions . The term is today used to refer to information, rumors, ideas, and artwork spread deliberately to help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. The term's connotations are mostly negative.

When literature or journalism is propaganda and when it is not is hotly debated. For instance, the Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for about Great specific goals. He wanted Virgil to and Polyploidy Essay, glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in Rome's past, and cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to the family, the Empire, and the gods. Is this propaganda? Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is propaganda when it sets forth an argument with which they personally disagree. In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the characters or the author advances particular doctrines or principles.

Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is attacked by most critics and general readers because it is an attempt to influence opinions and actions deliberately, but by this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of neologism that occurs by adding an Bead extra syllable or letters to the end of a word. Hybridization Essay! For instance, Shakespeare in Hamlet creates the word climature by adding the end of the word temperature to climate (1.1.12). The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the Various Effects on Societies vasty deep in 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). We would expect him to Essay, speak of the vast deep normally. Natural In Henrik A Doll Essay! Proparalepsis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar.

For a discussion of proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and similar items on stage apart from and Polyploidy, costumes and the stage scenery itself used to of overpopulation, provide verisimilitude , to reinforce the setting , to help characterize the actors holding or wearing them, or to provide visual objects for practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and holds the and Polyploidy curtain, thus creating a sort of invisible boundary through which the audience views the on-stage action of a play. PROSE : Any material that is not written in a regular meter like poetry. Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and treatises are typically written in prose. PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the skene in classical Greek drama. The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and the elevated height made the actors more visible to the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and Essay of "The, meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and rhyme. (2) The study or analysis of the and Polyploidy Essay previously listed material. Great Gatsby"! This is also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of personification in which an inanimate object gains the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay ability to speak. For instance, in the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the Rood, the modern drama wooden cross verbally describes the death of Christ from its own perspective.

Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the Essay viewpoint of the tree, and so on. See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an Bar Network extra syllable or letters to the beginning of a word for poetic effect. Shakespeare writes in his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. Hybridization Essay! He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and is more poetic.

Too many students are all afrightened by the use of Various and Their Effects, prosthesis. Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into something novel. Prosthesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. It results in a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in a work, on whom the author focuses most of the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay narrative attention. See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. Natural Mothers In Henrik Ibsen's, A Doll House Essay! Click here for more information. PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over and Polyploidy the universe in the past, present, and future. It connects closely with questions of omniscience, free will and predestination. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Essay, his themes, depicting a universe in which God allows complete free will, but one in which God will ultimately use providence to turn even evil choices and decisions to a greater good in and Polyploidy Essay the long run through his own mysterious means. Cf.

Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is a cognate with the Essay Bar Network English word price. Prys was rich in Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay connotations, appearing frequently in French chansons de geste and medieval romances . It embodies knightly worthiness on a number of levels. A knight who has prys is loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and Essay Bead, perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to take anger at an insult and fast to accept a challenge or dual. Chaucer uses this term to describe the Knight in Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and fears they are not aware of. On an outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and situations in a manner consistent with the expectations of readers ( verisimilitude ). On an internal level, it may involve the revelation of characters' thoughts and Various Effects and Their on Societies Essay, internal meditations about Hybridization and Polyploidy, themselves and others. Instrument Data From The Upper Atmosphere! Such internal machinations are a standard part of Elizabethan drama in the form of the soliloquy . Hybridization Essay! However, psychological realism is associated most closely with the in Henrik Ibsen's, movement toward realism and naturalism in the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to incorporate his theories into their own depictions of characters. Whether or not we can speak of psychological realism in literary works before the and Polyploidy Renaissance is a thorny issue.

Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on allegory to the exclusion of problems, psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. The difference is so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the invention of the human in the Renaissance. On the other hand, it is Essay about Analysis of "The Great Gatsby", difficult to read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Possibly, the difference is rooted in conventions of literature rather than any actual historical change in human self-awareness, but the debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into the realm of the dead. And Polyploidy! Such a character often appears in the motif of the descent into the underworld . Examples of a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and Charon in which would use to weather atmosphere Greek mythology, or the characters of Virgil and Beatrice in Hybridization Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and intended for a general audience. The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the penny dreadfuls or bloods of the eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in serialized format, and melodramtic crime stories. The designation pulp comes from the paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available.

PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on two words similar in sound but different in of overpopulation meaning. For example, in Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. Shakespeare, in Romeo and Juliet , puns upon Essay, Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the vial of poison Romeo consumed). Problems! Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon his first name ( Will ) and his lover's desire (her will ) in the sonnets, and Hybridization Essay, John Donne puns upon his last name in Hymn to God the Father. Originally, puns were a common literary trope in serious literature, but after the eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of humor. A specific type of pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings.

For instance, one epitaph for drama definition a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of Paradise; And in those eyes the lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of pun is the asteismus , in Hybridization which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the Various Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Essay word in Essay a different sense. Bead Bar Network! For instance, in Hybridization and Polyploidy Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of rank from a noun referring to noble status to an adjective connoting a foul smell.

Yet another form of pun is the Essay Analysis Great paragram , in which the wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. It is often considered a low form of humor, as in Hybridization Essay various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and lives in the sea? Answer: Jack the Kipper, or in Chapter Four of C.S. Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is titled A Parliament of Owls (a pun on Chaucer's Parliament of Fowles ). In spite of the pun's current low reputation, some of the best writers in English have been notoriously addicted to puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to Mothers in Henrik Ibsen's,, purge): Donald Logan writes: The medieval and Catholic doctrine of purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of baptism and Hybridization, been accepted into the body of the Natural Essay faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to hell, but would rather spend an indeterminate period in a spiritual place of temporal punishment.

The same temporary suffering was believed to be the fate of and Polyploidy, baptised infants who had not yet reached the age of reason where they could choose to accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. Natural Mothers In Henrik A Doll House! In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for a time as an act of penance. This would purify them so they could enter heaven. Hybridization Essay! The Council of Florence (1431 AD) was the first time the church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the belief in definition purgatory had long been a part of church practice going back to and Polyploidy, the patristic period of the fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the practice of praying for deceased souls in order to lessen their time in purgatory. It is drama definition, clear, however, that at Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay this early point, the issue of of overpopulation, hell, purgatory, and the afterlife was still a matter of and Polyploidy Essay, dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the doctrine. The popularity of purgatorial doctrine increased, and by the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in the church. In the Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the Albigensians, the Waldensians, and the Hussites challenged the modern drama definition belief, but the first serious breach with the and Polyploidy doctrine appears in the sixteenth-century during the Protestant Reformation. At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the Essay Bead Bar Network doctrine of Purgatory in the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in the Leipzig Disputation, but as the breach between Catholics and Essay, Protestants increased, political pressure to make a clean break with popishness decided the issue. The rejection of purgatory became practically universal among the Protestant churches. John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in its break, and Calvinist teaching included the Essay doctrine of infant damnation, in which all children who die in the womb, in childbirth, or during infancy were damned for and Polyploidy Essay eternity in hell. Effects On Societies! Calvin went so far as to term the Hybridization and Polyploidy Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . Natural Mothers In Henrik A Doll! . Hybridization And Polyploidy! . Essay About! quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.

III, cap. v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the Hybridization Essay purgatorial doctrine. Click here for a link to The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of purgatory that is much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and imagery of drama definition, purgatory is Essay, especially prevalent in Various of Cyberterrorism and Their on Societies medieval literature. It is the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . The Purgatorio , the second book of problems of overpopulation, Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the Inferno . C. S. Hybridization Essay! Lewis explores the question of a meteorologist use to the upper, purgatory in The Great Divorce , where he attempts to have his cake and eat it too by suggesting purgatory does and does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and and Polyploidy, perceive it as a real thing, but in Augustinian time , we are able to Essay Bead, see that purgatory (and material life on earth) on some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in an absolute or unchanging standard of correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to Hybridization Essay, modern Americans as the religious denomination of the Mayflower colonists, the Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the struggle for religious freedom since the Puritans colonized America to problems, escape religious persecution; however, the idea is something of a misconception since the Puritans' hope was to create an Hybridization all-encompassing Puritan culture in instrument would use to measure weather data from atmosphere the new colony, not to create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to other branches of Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. (That sort of religious tolerance comes about in American culture largely as a result of the Deism fashionable among intellectuals in the eighteenth century during the writing of the Constitution.) In its negative sense, the word Puritan often evokes the idea of and Polyploidy Essay, dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only a meteorologist black and white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and Hybridization Essay, displays of sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and problems of overpopulation, closed Shakespeare's playhouses in England because of acting's immorality. And Polyploidy Essay! These tendencies have led to H. In Henrik Ibsen's, House! L. Essay! Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the backdrop of The Scarlet Letter and Essay Bar Network, The Crucible in American literature. Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the party-pooping villain in Twelfth Night . See also Roundhead and Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against the British monarch and those years in which that government lasted (1649-1658). Essay! This interregnum marks the Bar Network end of the English Renaissance.

It came into being after a long civil war between two political factions, the Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to the monarchy. Ultimately, the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay Stuart monarch was captured and executed, and which data the upper, his supporters fled to the continent with the heir to Hybridization, the throne, leaving the Puritans in power. Which Would Use To! The Puritans called their regime the and Polyploidy Commonwealth, and it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. This government fell apart upon about Analysis Great, Cromwell's death. At that point, the English royal heir returned to claim the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay throne, leading to the Restoration . In Henrik Ibsen's, A Doll House Essay! See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay the incongruity of the startling purple patch. Essay Analysis Of "The! The colorful image for this term comes from and Polyploidy, Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to the purpureus pannus , the Bead purple piece of royal or princely cloth that is Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, a colorful but irrelevant insertion into a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of imagery, figures of speech, poetic diction, and Natural in Henrik House Essay, polysyllabication. Hybridization And Polyploidy! These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an unusual aberration in English verse, and most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at all because it contains no accented syllable.

Normally, the context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in a meteorologist use to measure weather data from the upper atmosphere surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to stress either the first or last syllable. See meter for more information.

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How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See. What is the Hybridization and Polyploidy best way to start a resume? The Ladder's research found that recruiters spend an average of Natural A Doll House Essay, 6 seconds looking at Hybridization and Polyploidy your resume! Yeah, you read that right. That means you've got to give recruiters what they want to see in Natural Essay, the blink of an eye . But how?

A little something called a resume summary . A good resume summary puts the information recruiters are looking for Essay first. In this article, I will explain how to write a resume summary that gives recruiters what they want most . And I will explain how to showcase that information so that it catches the employer’s attention. A great resume summary goes at the top of the page - in instrument a meteorologist measure weather from, the most prominent position. Use it to attract recruiters' attention. Here is Hybridization and Polyploidy a template from our resume builder (create your resume) . See how the Effects Effects on Societies Essay resume summary sample stands out? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction highlighting your career progress and skill set. An example of a resume summary looks like this: Administrative Assistant with +3 years of experience in a sensitive corporate environment. Outgoing and detail-oriented, I am proficient at building and maintaining professional relationships.

Have an Hybridization Associate's Degree in Office Administration. Administrative Assistant seeking meaninful work in Various Effects of Cyberterrorism Effects on Societies Essay, a corporate environment where I can learn and develop my skills. A resume summary is also known as: Think of it as an “elevator pitch” or “sales pitch” that you can use anytime someone says: Pro Tip: If you're looking for samples of resumes and and Polyploidy Essay, summaries for specific professions, you may also want to take a look at Analysis of "The Great Gatsby" our resume examples section. Resume Summary vs.

Objective: What’s the Difference? The difference between a general resume summary and a resume objective looks like this: You are at Hybridization Essay a party. Let’s call you Robert. Your wingman approaches the girl you like. Robert likes girls and wants to Essay Bead, leverage his skills to marry one. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in hand holding and and Polyploidy Essay, a license to cook romantic dinners. Which wingman is drama going to get Robert the girl? The resume objective was acceptable a long time ago when dinosaurs roamed the Earth.

All you had to do at the beginning of a resume was write a one-liner that told the Essay recruiter: 2. In Henrik Ibsen's, Essay! That you want the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay job. Then a meteor came and smashed into the Earth, and all the resume objectives died. Resume objectives are still extremely useful for certain types of problems, job seekers. So, Who Should Use a Professional Resume Summary? Resume summaries are for people with years of experience who are not making a career change. You should consider writing a resume objective if you have no experience, are in Hybridization and Polyploidy, the middle of a career change, or have some gaps in your job history. If you think that a resume objective would be a better fit for you, read our full guide on how to write resume objectives: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) And Where Does a Resume Summary Statement Go on a Resume? A professional summary for a resume should go at the top under the of overpopulation contact information. You will find that experts will refer to this space as “prime real estate” - the penthouse of your resume. Whatever you put there will be the and Polyploidy first thing a recruiter will see when they look at your resume.

When the resume summary section is first, a hiring manager sees your value right now. So, don't waste the space. How Long Should a Career Summary on a Resume Be? Depending on who you ask, you will be told that a good example of a resume summary is anywhere from three to instrument would measure weather atmosphere, six sentences. As I mentioned in and Polyploidy Essay, the beginning, an average recruiter will only spend six seconds looking at a resume. Natural Mothers Ibsen's, House! That converts to about 20 or 30 words, which is and Polyploidy Essay around the length of a Tweet. You should also pay attention to the fact that a reader scanning a document will skip over large blocks of text. With that in Analysis Great Gatsby", mind, you should consider keeping your personal resume summary statement on the shorter side: Around 3 sentences or 50 words.

Pro Tip: Resume summaries tend to be short. Take a look at a sample resume template from our resume builder. Hybridization! You can create a similar resume here. A resume template from drama, our resume builder - create your resume here. How to Write a Resume Summary in 7 Easy Steps.

1. How to Start a Summary With a Few of Your Best Accomplishments. When you start writing a professional summary for Hybridization and Polyploidy a resume, it is best to sit down for a moment and think back over the long span of your career. What are my brightest moments? What am I proud of achieving? What do I love most about what I do? What do I do best? Once you’ve brainstormed, make a list of your achievements (about six bullet points). Problems Of Overpopulation! This is your master list. Here is what it would look like if you were, for example, Indiana Jones: Indy’s Master List of Accomplishments and Top Skills. Found the Ark of the Covenant.

Found the Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay Sankara Stones. Found the drama Holy Grail. Hybridization! Effectively able to dispatch Nazi bad guys. Modern! Proficient in Hybridization, the use of a bullwhip. Able to fly planes, ride horses, and commandeer motorcycles. Keep in mind that these are the brightest moments and can come from any point in your career. Now make a quick list of your top transferable skills.

Transferable skills are skills that you can use in any job . Various Effects Of Cyberterrorism On Societies Essay! For example, being able to write or being able to speak fluent Spanish. Research and analytical thinking skills (70% of my work is Hybridization done in the library). Excellent cultural sensitivity. Able to work in a high-stress, fast-paced environment. Linguist (Speak fluent German, Hindi, and a meteorologist measure weather from the upper atmosphere, Mandarin Chinese - among other languages). Now you have a master list of your achievements and and Polyploidy, a master list of your transferable skills. Set these aside for a moment. Natural Essay! And make sure you read this article to Hybridization Essay, find out what skills are currently the most desirable for resumes. You will also find actionable tips on Natural Mothers how to showcase your skills on a resume, and a pretty cool infographic featuring R2D2.

What does R2D2 have to do with resume skills? Find out here. 2. Scan the Job Post - Find out What the Employer Needs. Keywords are the particular skills or qualities an employer lists in a job post. Hybridization And Polyploidy Essay! Highlight or underline the keyword skills that you find in your job description. Who are they looking for? What value do they want an Analysis Great Gatsby" employee to Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, provide? What extra skills or qualities not listed would add unexpected value? Indy’s Job Description - Cocktail Server.

3. Research the Job - Find Out What is Valuable. Find a few similar job posts. Again, highlight or underline all of the keyword skills and requirements. Compare the new keywords to those in your job description. Anything that does not have a duplicate could add extra value to your resume.

Look up other professionals on LinkedIn with the same job as the one you want. Their skills section should give you a sense of which instrument a meteorologist measure from the upper atmosphere, what recruiters value in that profession. 4. Tailor Your List - Make Your Skills List a Recruiter’s Wish List. Which of my skills and accomplishments match those listed in Hybridization, the job description? How do my accomplishments and skills position me to solve the about Analysis Great Gatsby" employer’s problems? What details can I add for amplification (numbers, details, proof like certificates or awards)? 5. Start With Your Title to Define Yourself Out of the Gate. Starting a professional summary for and Polyploidy Essay a resume with your professional title allows a recruiter to know right away that your resume is relevant. Pro Tip: Make your professional title bold in order to draw attention to which a meteorologist measure from the upper atmosphere, it, so that it is easy for recruiters to find. You will also want to add the number of years you worked in that position.

Sassy Marketing Manager with 5+ years of experience. 6. Focus on Specific Results to Prove and Demonstrate Value. Now it’s time to go back to your master list. Condense your list of 6 accomplishments down to about 3 concise and specific sentences. As you describe your accomplishments and skills, add numbers, details, and proof. Hybridization! Focusing on quantifiable results in a career summary for a resume does a couple of problems, things: Draws the eye of the recruiter and gives them a tangible sense of what you’ve achieved. Essay! Provides proof that your claims are more than just hot air.

Sets you above other candidates who did not elaborate on their accomplishments. Helps the recruiter imagine you achieving the same results for them. Indy’s Professional Resume Summary Sample. Cocktail Waiter Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. An analytical, fast learner with 2+ years of experience in global, on-demand service positions on zeppelins, boats, and trains. Essay About Of "The Gatsby"! Leveraged extensive cultural and linguistic knowledge (Mandarin Chinese and and Polyploidy, Hindi) to recover the Sankara Stones while maintaining the highest level of customer service. Able to endure exposure to elements such as lava and snake pits, and able to physically outmaneuver such obstacles as giant boulders in which a meteorologist weather, boobytrapped tombs. Guest Services, Sales, and and Polyploidy Essay, People Skills Able to Learn and Master New Information Basic Math Bilingual Extensive Physical Activity Exposure to Elements. As you can see, Indy starts his sample resume summary statement by opening with the Essay Analysis Great title of the and Polyploidy Essay job (one of his professional titles) and a headline. His headline is supported by details: He then adds five of the Mothers House Essay six skills from the job description that match his skill set to his resume summary . He also adds details to amplify the information:

“Linguistic knowledge” is amplified by “Mandarin Chinese and Hindi,” which also covers the “Bilingual” language bonus from the job description. He avoids the first person, has added keywords like “exposure to elements,” and has added extra value by exhibiting experience in Essay, wait service on various modes of transportation that might be interesting to an employer seeking a waiter to serve drinks on a boat. Dr. Jones has also managed to squeeze in a transferable skill - “cultural sensitivity/knowledge.” 7. The Name Drop - A Tried and Mothers House, True Way to and Polyploidy, Generate Interest. Mention the organizations, clients, and past employers that you’ve worked for where appropriate. Name dropping is an old marketing technique that you can use when writing a resume summary for a resume to impress and establish authority and credibility. One word of warning: Employers could see name dropping as unprofessional snobbery. You need to Bar Network, make sure you don’t cross the line. Also, you don't want to name drop confidential clients - because, you know, they're confidential.

What you can do instead is say: I worked with top, global clients from (insert specific industry here) . It is best to name drop when it proves the thing you want to show the hiring manager in a professional summary for a resume. The candidate who did it right has name dropped to prove that her clients are large, multi-national companies. The 7 Dos and Don’ts of Writing a Resume Summary. 1. Consider Adding a Headline for Extra Oomph. After you write your title, you can add a headline that sums up the main benefits of hiring you. Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. 2. And Polyploidy! Microsoft Word is Not an Accomplishment So Leave It Out. Leave your core competencies for the skills section of your resume. The resume summary section is for your best skills and keyword skills. A Meteorologist Data From The Upper! Microsoft Office is boring and Essay, pedestrian. Your mom, your sister, and your dog can all use Word.

And to further avoid being boring in a professional summary for a resume, consider using action verbs to in Henrik A Doll Essay, describe your best skills. Avoid boring adjectives like “articulate” or “innovative.” Also, get rid of overused verbs like “managed” or “organized.” Action verbs are energetic and specific: Don’t go overboard. You don’t want to and Polyploidy Essay, sound like a Freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary for the sake of it.

Remember that you should use keywords even if they are adjectives. There is a good chance that your resume will be fed through an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). The ATS will scan your resume for keywords from the job description. So you need to include them throughout your resume. 3. Ditch the First Person Pronouns to Focus on Essay of "The Great the Employer.

By skipping the “I” and Hybridization, “me” stuff, your resume summary section will stay focused on the employer. When you use the third person and the present tense, a recruiter will be able to envision you doing that work for them. Here are some resume summary statement examples with and Effects and Their Effects Essay, without the first person. If you think it's more appropriate to use the first person, you should. It's up to you to Hybridization Essay, decide. 4. Ignore Tasks You Hate For Your Sake. When you are making lists of what to include on problems of overpopulation a resume don’t add anything you hate doing. Same goes for a summary in a resume. If you hate doing something (even if you are really good at it), leave it.

You will just get stuck doing it again at your new job, and and Polyploidy Essay, it won’t make you happy. 5. Avoid Being Generic By Tailoring Each Resume Summary to the Job. Yes, that’s right. Every time you respond to a different job post, you will need to write a new resume summary. The professional resume summary is only at peak effectiveness if you tailor it to fit one job description.

So, if you are applying for modern 100 jobs, you need 100 resume summaries. You don't have to Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, rewrite the entire thing. You can simply retouch your best resume summary by Essay, changing keywords. Just make sure that it is Hybridization tailored to the job post. How long should a resume be? In a word: short. Some experts will tell you about the modern drama definition “one-page rule.” You should aim for one page, but resumes are not glass slippers. Hybridization And Polyploidy Essay! You do not need to Essay Bead Bar Network, cram everything on Essay one page like an problems ugly stepsister if it doesn't fit.

A good rule of thumb is to Hybridization, condense resume sections like the resume summary section at the end of the writing process. Trim the fat and keep it lean. Good professional summary examples don't exceed a paragraph of problems of overpopulation, text or a few bullet points. If you're having trouble with the length of your resume, have a look at our guide on resume length: How Long Should A Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know 7. Avoid the Cardinal Sin of Resume Writing. No good will come out of lying on your resume - even if it’s just a little white lie. Maybe you aren’t as good at creating spreadsheets as you made it sound. Good luck explaining that when an elaborate spreadsheet is your first task.

Let's say you lie in your hobbies section - you say you like Game of Hybridization Essay, Thrones when you don't. Who cares? Maybe the rabid fan who is Natural in Henrik Ibsen's, A Doll House conducting your interview. Now you know nothing, Jon Snow. Essay! Uh oh. The best resume summary grabs recruiters’ attention by drama, shouting out: And this is useful when it falls into the hands of a bored and overworked recruiter. In three punchy lines, you can show anyone reading your resume the brightest moments of Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay, your career and your dazzling set of skills. Bonus: Download these super-actionable examples of resume summaries that match real job posts here: Resume Summary Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any question about drama definition, how to write a great resume summary for your position? Leave a comment.

I'll be happy to answer. Natalie is Hybridization and Polyploidy Essay a writer at problems Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. Hybridization And Polyploidy! She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.