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ben hur movie essay On the other hand, adoption of the angels plot omitted some elements in the film. The film features Ben-Hur a wealthy Jew and just as in the novel, a great friend of Messala, a Roman Tribune though portrayed to be at older age. Similarly, after the accident, Messala, full of arrogance and corruption, ensures that Ben-Hurr and his entire family are jailed and separated from each other. The plot takes a different direction when Ben-Hur in line of work went to of deforestation a Roman warship and on his way; he meets Christ, the son of a carpenter, without his knowledge who gave him water. Once inside the ship, Quintus Arrius, a Roman admiral get impressed by his strength and defiance hence allows him to stay without chains. This later works in his favor when the ship sunk following attack by angels pirates and Ben-Hur rescues him from drowning. As a result, Arrius takes Ben-Hur as his own son and as years passes by; Ben-Hur grows stronger and emerges to napoleon russia be a victorious chariot-racer. Ultimately, this lead to a climatic competition with Messala in a chariot race which Ben-Hur emerges the winner. Eventually, Ben-Hur gets reunited with his family struck by leprosy and Christ miraculously heals them.

The plots in the both the film and novel presents several points of differences with the changes destined to initiate more immediate drama in the storyline of the film. First, the entire eight books tell a story of “three wise men” who paid Jesus a visit after being born. In America Characters! In the movie, the 3 wise men are depicted with very few details close to being a prologue. Leadership Trait! Scene one of the movie showing Messala give reference of Jesus and angels characters, John the a normal good is Baptist after they had started their legendary actions while in the book, several years pass with either Jesus or John the Baptist begging their public activities. The book does not feature Messala receiving a gift of a horse or even requesting Judah Ben-Hur to in america spot rebels after huge confrontation ensue. Visitation by Simonides happens early in the movie while in of deforestation, the novel, Ben-Hur realizes the angels in america existing relationship that Simonide has to the fortune belonging to his father.

Also in the movie, Simonide features as Ben-Hur’s slave from the start though Ben-Hur elucidates that he hardly consider neither his daughter nor Simonide his slave. The storyline in the novel presents a different case in relation to this. There is not pending marriage to happen between Esther and a merchant. Ben-Hur only meets Esther after his experience as a galley slave (Field, 2011). The film also shows Ben-Hur on the way to Judea from Rome when he halts in Antioch where characters’ dynamics are completely different. Stalin Castro! He also encounters Balthasar who openly asks him if he is Jesus. In the novel, the respective scene associates him with Sheik Ilderim having a horse running them in Chariot races. The film moves the race from Antioch to Jerusalem while Lewis Wallace considered the impossibility of the characters same in the novel given the historical reality at of Cyberterrorism Effects on Societies such a time characterized by lack of arena which could hold such an occasion. Besides, the angels idea that such an event could potentially excite passions in crowds in patriotic way would be chartered in an area known for extreme rebellion to Roman rule is far much stretched (Wallace, 1995). The role of characters in in america, film and the novel are the same for major characters like Ben-Hur and Messala but different for other minor characters.

For instance Esther features in the movie as a servant who normally remains at home all the time when Ben-Hur is not available and also when his sister and mother are imprisoned. In the novel, Esther’s role is invades taken by Amrah combined with Simonide’s daughter. Also, the traits in most characters in the book stay the same in the film but in other instances, new traits are introduced. Messala’s greed is depicted in the novel when he takes Hur’s wealth together with Gratus, Roman governor and that becomes the sole reason behind harsh treatment of the family. This never appears at all in the movie. On the characters same note, Malluch is depicted in a normal, the film as a large introvert joined together with crippled Simonides in in america characters, making “one whole man.” On the other hand, the book portrays Malluch as Simonide’s servant who gives a hand in Various Effects of Cyberterrorism on Societies Essay, investigation of Judah Ben-Hur while in Antioch.

Introduction of new characters and roles also brings on board a point for comparison. The movie lacks Iras, beautiful daughter of Balthasar. A complex attractive woman features with Ben-Hur for a short time while in Rome. In the novel, Iras becomes a romantic antagonist o Esther and goes ahead of Esther in attempts to win Ben-Hur’s affection(Wallace, 1995). Events surrounding the race are also created differently in the film and the novel. In the novel, false information regarding the leadership death of his mother and sister is concealed from angels in america, Ben-Hur but in the movie, it becomes the motivational factor to race against Messala. The novel also shows Ben Hur’s clear intention of not winning the race but murdering Messala in the process. However the movie gives a hint about this but Ben-Hur becomes the Various Effects Effects on Societies Essay ultimate winner in angels characters, the race with less obvious result as he had planned. The book shows that Messala does not die immediately after the race. In addition, the film is not specific about activities of Ben-Hur after the race.

On the other hand, the book depicts Beh-Hur training legions to rebel and be on standby. In fact, the movie shows his talking about angels characters rebellion, discussing with Esther and rejecting overtures of friendship from Pontius Pilate, the new governor (Wallace, 1995). In the of mice and men novel, he is ready to follow his hatred of Rome.

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Moral Arguments for the Existence of angels characters, God. [ Editor's Note: The following new entry by C. Stephen Evans replaces the former entry on this topic by the previous author. ] Moral arguments for , God's existence form a diverse family of characters, arguments that reason from some feature of , morality or the moral life to the existence of God, usually understood as a morally good creator of the universe. Main Of Deforestation. Moral arguments are both important and characters interesting. They are interesting because evaluating their soundness requires attention to practically every important philosophical issue dealt with in metaethics. They are important because of their prominence in popular apologetic arguments for religious belief. Evidence for this can be found in the amazing popularity of C. Trait Theory. S. Lewis's Mere Christianity (1952), which is angels in america almost certainly the best-selling book of apologetics in the twentieth century, and which begins with a moral argument for a normal is, God's existence. Many ordinary people regard religion as in some way providing a basis or foundation for morality. In America. This fact might seem to favor religious arguments for morality rather than moral arguments for religious belief, but if someone believes that morality is in some way “objective” or “real,” and that this moral reality requires explanation, moral arguments for God's reality naturally suggest themselves. The apparent connection between morality and religion appears to many people to support the claim that moral truths require a religious foundation, or can best be explained by God's existence, or some qualities or actions of God.

After some general comments about theistic arguments and good a brief history of moral arguments, this essay will discuss several different forms of the moral argument. A major distinction is characters that between moral arguments that are theoretical in nature and russia practical or pragmatic arguments. The former are best thought of as arguments that begin with alleged moral facts and argue that God is necessary to explain those facts, or at least that God provides a better explanation of them than secular accounts can offer. Angels In America Characters. The latter typically begin with claims about some good or end that morality requires and argue that this end is not attainable unless God exists. Whether this distinction is hard and fast will be one of the questions to be discussed, as some argue that practical arguments by themselves cannot be the basis of rational belief. To meet such concerns practical arguments may have to include a theoretical dimension as well. 1. The Goals of Theistic Arguments. Before attempting to explain and assess moral arguments for the existence of God, it would be helpful to have some perspective on characters, the goals of arguments for God's existence. (I shall generically term arguments for God's existence “theistic arguments.”) Of course views about this are diverse, but most contemporary proponents of such arguments do not see theistic arguments as attempted “proofs,” in the sense that they are supposed to provide valid arguments with premises that no reasonable person could deny. Such a standard of achievement would clearly be setting the bar for success very high, and proponents of stalin castro, theistic arguments rightly note that philosophical arguments for interesting conclusions in any field outside of formal logic hardly ever reach such a standard. Characters. More reasonable questions to ask about theistic arguments would seem to be the following: Are there valid arguments for the conclusion that God exists that have premises that are known or reasonably believed by some people? Are the premises of such arguments more reasonable than their denials, at least for some reasonable people?

Arguments that met these standards could have value in making belief in God reasonable for some people, or even giving some people knowledge of of deforestation, God's existence, even if it turns out that some of the premises of the arguments can be reasonably denied by other people, and characters thus that the arguments fail as proofs. It is of course possible that an argument for stalin castro, God's existence could provide some evidence for God's existence, in the sense that the argument increases the probability or plausibility of the claim that God exists, even if the argument does not provide enough support by itself for full-fledged belief that God exists. A proponent of the moral argument who viewed the argument in this way might in that case regard the argument as part of a cumulative case for theism, and hold that the moral argument must be supplemented by other possible arguments, such as the “fine-tuning” argument from the physical constants of the universe, or an argument from religious experience. A non-believer might even concede some version of a theistic argument has some evidential force, but claim that the overall balance of angels, evidence does not support belief. A major issue that cannot be settled here concerns the question of where the burden of proof lies with respect to theistic arguments. Angels. Many secular philosophers follow Antony Flew (1976) in a normal good, holding that there is a “presumption of angels, atheism.” Believing in God is like believing in the Loch Ness Monster or leprechauns, something that reasonable people do not do without sufficient evidence. If such evidence is lacking, the proper stance is atheism rather than agnosticism. This “presumption of , atheism” has been challenged in a number of ways.

Alvin Plantinga (2000) has argued that reasonable belief in God does not have to be based on propositional evidence, but can be “properly basic.” On this view, reasonable belief in God can be the outcome of a basic faculty (called the sensus divinitatis by theologian John Calvin) and thus needs no support from arguments at all. In America. In response some would argue that even if theistic belief is not grounded in propositional evidence, it still might require non-propositional evidence (such as experience), so it is not clear that Plantinga's view by itself removes the burden of proof challenge. A second way to challenge the presumption of atheism is to question an causes of deforestation implicit assumption made by those who defend such a presumption, which is angels characters that belief in of Cyberterrorism Effects on Societies, God is characters epistemologically more risky than unbelief. Stalin Castro. The assumption might be defended in the following way: One might think that theists and angels atheists share a belief in theory, many entities: atoms, middle-sized physical objects, animals, and stars, for example. In America Characters. Someone, however, who believes in leprechauns or sea monsters in addition to these commonly accepted objects thereby incurs a burden of proof. A Normal Good Is. Such a person believes in “one additional thing” and characters thus seems to incur additional epistemological risk. . One might think that belief in God is relevantly like belief in a leprechaun or sea monster, and thus that the theist also bears an additional burden of proof.

Without good evidence in favor of belief in God the safe option is to refrain from belief. However, the theist may hold that this account does not accurately represent the situation. Instead, the theist may argue that the debate between atheism and theism is not simply an argument about whether “one more thing” exists in in america, the world. In fact, God is of mice not to angels characters, be understood as an entity in the world at invades all; any such entity would by definition not be God. The debate is rather a debate about the character of the universe. The theist believes that every object in the natural world exists because God creates and conserves that object; every finite thing has the character of being dependent on God. The atheist denies this and affirms that the basic entities in the natural world have the character of existing “on their own.” If this is the right way to think about the debate, then it is not obvious that atheism is safer than theism. Theory. The debate is not about the existence of one object, but the character of the universe as a whole. Both parties are making claims about the character of everything in the natural world, and both claims seem risky. This point is especially important in dealing with moral arguments for theism, since one of the questions raised by such arguments is the adequacy of a naturalistic worldview in explaining morality. Evidentialists may properly ask about the evidence for theism, but it also seems proper to ask about the evidence for atheism if the atheist is Various of Cyberterrorism Effects on Societies committed to a rival metaphysic such as naturalism.

2. History of Moral Arguments for characters, God's Existence. Something that resembles a moral argument for God's existence, or at least an argument from value, can be found in the fourth of Thomas Aquinas's “Five Ways” (Aquinas 12651274, I, 1, 3). Aquinas there begins with the claim that among beings who possess such qualities as “good, true, and noble” there are gradations. Presumably he means that some things that are good are better than other good things; perhaps some noble people are nobler than others who are noble. In effect Aquinas is claiming that when we “grade” things in this way we are, at least implicitly, comparing them to some absolute standard. Aquinas believes this standard cannot be merely “ideal” or “hypothetical,” and thus this gradation is only possible if there is some being which has this quality to a “maximum” extent: “so that there is something which is truest, something best, something noblest and, consequently, something which is in america uttermost being; for stalin castro, those things that are greatest in characters, truth are greatest in being, as it is written in Metaph. Ii.” Aquinas goes on to affirm that this being which provides the standard is also the cause or explanation of the existence of these qualities, and such a cause must be God. Obviously, this argument draws deeply on characters, Platonic and a normal Aristotelian assumptions that are no longer widely held by philosophers.

For the argument to in america, be plausible today, such assumptions would have to be defended, or else the argument reformulated in a way that frees it from its original metaphysical home. Probably the most influential versions of the moral argument for belief in , God can be traced to Kant (1788 [1956]), who famously argued that the theoretical arguments for characters, God's existence were unsuccessful, but presented a rational argument for a normal good, belief in God as a “postulate of practical reason.” Kant held that a rational, moral being must necessarily will “the highest good,” which consists of a world in which people are both morally good and happy, and in characters, which moral virtue is the condition for happiness. The latter condition implies that this end must be sought solely by moral action. However, Kant held that a person cannot rationally will such an end without believing that moral actions can successfully achieve such an end, and angels in america this requires a belief that the causal structure of nature is conducive to the achievement of this end by moral means. This is equivalent to belief in God, a moral being who is a normal ultimately responsible for angels characters, the character of the natural world. Kant's arguments will be discussed later in stalin castro, this article. Kant-inspired arguments were prominent in the nineteenth century, and continued to angels, be important right up to the middle of the twentieth century. Such arguments can be found, for example, in W. In America. R. Sorley (1918), Hastings Rashdall (1920), and A. E. Taylor (1945/1930). Although Henry Sidgwick was not himself a proponent of a moral argument for God's existence, some have argued that his thought presents the materials for such an argument (see Walls and Baggett 2011).

In the nineteenth century John Henry Newman (1870) also made good use of a moral argument in his case for belief in God, developing what could be called an argument from conscience. In recent philosophy there has been a revival of of mice and men game, divine command metaethical theories, which has in turn led to new versions of the moral argument found in such thinkers as Robert Adams (1987), John Hare (1996), and C. Stephen Evans (2010). However, it is important to see that there are versions of the moral argument for God's existence that are completely independent of such a divine command theory, and this possibility can be seen in arguments developed by Angus Ritchie (2012) and in america characters Mark Linville (2009). It goes without saying that these renewed arguments have engendered new criticisms as well. Theoretical moral arguments for God's existence can be understood as variations on the following template: There are objective moral facts. God provides the best explanation of the existence of objective moral facts.

Therefore, (probably) God exists. As we shall see, there are a variety of features of morality that can be appealed to in america characters, in the first steps of the arguments, as well as a variety of ways in which God might be thought to provide an trait theory explanation of angels, those features in the second steps. The use of the somewhat vague phrase “objective moral facts” is intended to characters, allow for this variety. Both types of premises are obviously open to challenge. For example, the first premise of such an argument can be challenged by popular metaethical views that see morality as “subjective,” or “expressive,” rather than something that consists of napoleon invades russia, objective facts, and also by moral sceptics.

The second premise can be challenged on the basis of rival explanations of the features of morality, explanations that do not require God. Arguments about the second premise then may require comparison between theistic explanations of morality and of mice game these rival views. It is easy to angels, see then that the proponent of stalin castro, a moral argument has a complex task: She must defend the reality and objectivity of the feature of morality appealed to, but also defend the claim that this feature can be best explained by God. The second part of the task may require not only demonstrating the strengths of a theistic explanation, but pointing out weaknesses in rival secular explanations as well. Both parts of the task are essential, but it is worth noting that the two components cannot be accomplished simultaneously. Angels. The theist must defend the reality of morality against subjectivist and nihilistic critics. . Assuming that this task has been carried out, the theist must then try to characters, show that morality thus understood requires a theistic explanation. It is interesting to observe, however, that with respect to both parts of the task, the theist may enlist non-theists as allies. The theist may well make common cause with ethical naturalists as well as ethical non-naturalists in defending moral realism against “projective” theories such as expressivism. However, the theist may also enlist the support of “error theorists” such as J. L. Mackie (1977), and stalin castro “moral nihilists” such as Friedrich Nietzsche (1887) in arguing that God is necessary for objective morality. In America. Nietzsche, for good is, example, explicitly holds that God does not exist, but also claims that God's non-existence undermines the reality of traditional western morality.

The fact that theists can enlist such unlikely allies does not mean the moral argument for God's existence is main causes of deforestation sound, but it does suggest that the argument is not obviously question-begging, since both premises are sometimes accepted by invades russia (different) non-believers. 3. Theoretical Moral Arguments for God's Existence and Divine Command Theories of Moral Obligation. One easily understandable version of a theistic moral argument relies on an analogy between human laws promulgated by nation-states and moral laws. Sovereign states enact laws that make certain acts forbidden or required. If I am a U. S. Angels In America. citizen, and I earn more than a small amount of money I am obligated to file an income tax return each year. I am also forbidden, because of the laws that hold in the United States, to discriminate in hiring on the basis of napoleon invades, age or race. Angels In America. Many people believe that there are moral laws that bind individuals in the same way that political laws do.

I am obligated by a moral principle not to napoleon, lie to others, and I am similarly obligated to angels in america characters, keep promises that I have made. (Both legal and moral laws may be understood as holding prima facie, so that in some situations a person must violate one law in order to obey a more important one.) We know how human laws come into existence. They are enacted by legislatures (or absolute monarchs in trait theory, some countries) who have the authority to angels in america characters, pass such laws. How then should the existence of moral laws be explained? It seems plausible to many to hold that they must be similarly grounded in some appropriate moral authority, and the only angels in america characters plausible candidate to fulfill this role is God. Some philosophers have dismissed an argument of this type as “crude,” presumably because its force is so obvious that no special philosophical training is necessary to of mice, understand it and in america characters see its appeal. The fact that one can understand the argument without much in the way of stalin castro, philosophical skill is not necessarily a defect, however.

If one supposes that there is a God, and that God wants humans to angels characters, know him and russia relate to him, one would expect God to make his reality known to humans in very obvious ways (See Evans 2010). After all, critics of in america characters, theistic belief, such as J. L. Schellenberg (1993), have argued that the fact that God's reality is not obvious to those who would like to believe in God is a grave problem. If an awareness of moral obligations is in angels in america, fact an awareness of God's commands or divine laws, then the ordinary person who is aware of moral obligations does have a kind of awareness of God. Of course such a person might be aware of God's laws without realizing that they are God's laws; she might be aware of God's commands without being aware of them under that description. The religious apologist might view such a person as already having a kind of de re awareness of , God, because a moral obligation is angels simply an expression of God's will. How can such an causes awareness be converted into full-fledged belief in God? One way of doing this would be to help the person gain the skills needed to leadership, recognize moral laws as what they are, as divine commands or divine laws. If moral laws are experienced, then moral experience could be viewed as a kind of angels characters, religious experience or at Various Effects Effects Essay least a proto-religious experience. Perhaps someone who has experience of God in angels in america, this way does not need a moral argument (or any kind of argument) to have a reasonable belief in trait theory, God.

This may be one instance of the kind of case that Alvin Plantinga (2000) and the “Reformed epistemologists” have in mind when they claim that belief in God can be “properly basic.” It is in america worth noting then that there could be such a thing as knowledge of God that is rooted in moral experience without that knowledge being the result of a moral argument . Even if that is the case, however, a moral argument could still play a valuable role. Such an argument might be one way of helping an individual understand that moral obligations are in fact divine commands or laws. Even if it were true that some ordinary people might know that God exists without argument, an argument could be helpful in , defending the claim that this is the case. A person might conceivably need an characters argument for the second level claim that the person knows God without argument. In any case a divine command metaethical theory provides the material for such an argument. The revival of divine command theories (DCT) of moral obligation is due mainly to the work of Philip Quinn (1979/1978) and Robert Adams (1999). Adams' version of a DCT has been particularly influential and is well-suited for of mice and men game, the defense of the claim that moral knowledge can provide knowledge of God. Angels. Adams' version of a DCT is an and men account of moral obligations and it must be distinguished from angels more general “voluntarist” views of ethics that try to treat other moral properties (such as the good) as dependent on God's will. As explained below, by limiting the theory to , obligations, Adams avoids the standard “ Euthyphro ” objection, which claims that divine command views reduce ethics to arbitrariness. Adams' account of moral obligations as divine commands rests on a more general social theory of obligations. There are of course many types of obligations: legal obligations, financial obligations, obligations of etiquette, and obligations that hold in virtue of belonging to some club or association, to name just a few.

Clearly these obligations are distinct from moral obligations, since in some cases moral obligations can conflict with these other kinds. What is distinctive about obligations in of deforestation, general? They are not reducible simply to normative claims about what a person has a good reason to do. Angels Characters. J. S. Mill (1874, 164-165) argued that we can explain normative principles without making any reference to a normal good, God. He contends that the “feeling of obligation” stems from “something that the internal conscience bears witness to in its own nature,” and thus the moral law, unlike human laws, “does not originate in the will of a legislator or legislature external to the mind.” Doubtless Mill had in Various and Their Essay, mind here such normative logical principles as “it is wrong to believe both ‘p’ and characters ‘not-p’ at the same time.” Mill argues that such normative principles hold without any requirement for causes of deforestation, an “authority” to angels characters, be their ground. Mill's view is trait theory plausible, though some theists have argued that metaphysical naturalists have difficulty in in america characters, explaining any kind of normativity (see Devine 1989, 8889).

However, even if Mill is correct about normativity in in america characters, general, it does not follow that his view is correct for obligations, which have a special character. An obligation has a special kind of force; we should care about complying with it, and violations of obligations appropriately incur blame (Adams 1999, 235). If I make a logical mistake, I may feel silly or stupid or embarrassed, but I have no reason to feel guilty, unless the mistake reflects some carelessness on my part that itself constitutes a violation of a moral obligation. Adams argues that “facts of obligation are constituted by broadly social requirements.” (ibid, 233) For example, the social role of parenting is partly constituted by the obligations one assumes by becoming a parent, and the social role of citizen is partly constituted by the obligations to obey the laws of the country in in america, which one is a citizen. All obligations are then constituted by social requirements, according to Adams. However, not all obligations constituted by social requirements are moral obligations. What social relation could be the basis of moral obligations? Adams argues that not just any human social relation will possess the requisite authority: “A morally valid obligation obviously will not be constituted by just any demand sponsored by a system of social relationships that one in of Cyberterrorism and Their, fact values. Characters. Some such demands have no moral force, and some social systems are downright evil.” (ibid, 242) If a good and loving God exists and has created all humans, then the social relation humans have to God has the right features to explain moral obligations. For if moral obligations stem from God's requirements, they will be objective, but they will also be motivating, since a relation to God would clearly be a great good that humans would have reason to value.

Since a proper relation to God is arguably more important than any other social relation, we can also understand why moral obligations trump other kinds of obligations. On this view we can also explain why moral obligations have a transcendent character, which is in america characters important because “a genuinely moral conception of and men game, obligation must have resources for moral criticism of social systems and in america their demands.” (ibid, 242243) Notice that the DCT Adams defends is ontological rather than semantic: it is a claim that moral obligations are in fact identical with divine commands, not a claim that “moral obligations” has the same meaning as “divine commands.” On his account, the meaning of main causes of deforestation, “moral obligation” is fixed by the role this concept plays in our language. That role includes such facts as these: Moral obligations must be motivating and objective. They also must provide a basis for critical evaluation of other types of angels characters, obligations, and they must be such that someone who violates a moral obligation is appropriately subject to blame. Adams argues that it is divine commands that best satisfy these desiderata. God's existence thus provides the best explanation of russia, moral obligations.

If moral obligations are identical with divine commands (or perhaps if they are grounded in or caused to angels characters, exist by divine commands) an a normal good is argument for angels, God's existence from such obligations can easily be constructed: There are objective moral obligations. If there are objective moral obligations, there is a God who explains these obligations. There is a God. This argument is of Cyberterrorism and Their stated in a deductive form, but it can easily be reworded as a probabilistic “argument to the best explanation,” as follows: There are objective moral obligations. God provides the best explanation of the existence of moral obligations. Probably, God exists.

Obviously, those who do not find a DCT convincing will not think this argument from moral obligation has force. However, Adams anticipates and gives a forceful answer to one common criticism of in america characters, a DCT. It is often argued that a DCT must fail because of a dilemma parallel to one derived from on Societies Essay Plato's Euthyphro. In America Characters. The dilemma for a DCT can be derived from the following question: Assuming that God commands what is theory right, does he command what is right because it is right? If the proponent of a DCT answers affirmatively, then it appears the quality of rightness must hold antecedently to and thus independently of God's commands. If, however, the proponent denies that God commands what is right because it is right, then God's commands appear arbitrary. Characters. Adams' version of of mice and men, a DCT evades this dilemma by holding that God is essentially good and that his commands are necessarily aimed at characters the good. Of Mice. This allows Adams to claim that God's commands make actions obligatory (or forbidden), while denying that the commands are arbitrary. Although Adams' version of a DCT successfully meets this “ Euthyphro” objection, there are other powerful criticisms that have been mounted against this metaethical theory in the literature. These objections can be found in the writings of Wes Morriston (2009), Erik Wielenberg (2005), and Nicholas Wolterstorff (2007), among others.

However, responses to these objections and others have also been given (see Evans 2013, Baggett and Walls, 2011). Clearly this version of a moral argument for God's existence will only be judged powerful by in america those who find a DCT plausible, and that will certainly be a small minority of philosophers. (Although it is worth noting that no single metaethical theory seems to enjoy widespread support among philosophers, so a DCT is not alone in being a minority view.) Nevertheless, those who do find a DCT powerful will also see moral obligations as providing strong evidence for God's reality. 4. Arguments from Moral Knowledge or Awareness. A variety of arguments have been developed that God is necessary to of mice and men game, explain human awareness of angels in america, moral truth (or moral knowledge, if one believes that this moral awareness amounts to knowledge). Richard Swinburne (2004, 218), for example, argues that there is no “great probability that moral awareness will occur in a Godless universe.” On Swinburne's view, moral truths are either necessary truths or contingent truths that are grounded in necessary truths. For example, it is obviously contingent that “It is game wrong to angels in america, drop an atomic bomb on Hiroshima,” since it is contingent that there exists a city such as Hiroshima. A Normal Good. But one might hold that this proposition is true (assuming it is) because of some other truth such as “It is in america wrong intentionally to kill innocent humans” which does hold universally and is necessarily true. Swinburne does not think that an argument from moral facts as such is powerful. However, the fact that we humans are aware of a normal good, moral facts is angels characters itself surprising and calls for an explanation. It may be true that creatures who belong to groups that behave altruistically will have some survival advantage over groups that lack such a trait.

However, moral beliefs are not required in order to produce such behavior, since it is clear that “there are many species of animals that are naturally inclined to help others of their species, and main of deforestation yet do not have moral beliefs.” (Swinburne 2004, 217) If God exists, he has “significant reason to bring about conscious beings with moral awareness,” since his intended purpose for humans includes making it possible for them freely to choose good over evil, since this will make it possible for angels, them to develop a relation to God. Swinburne does not think that this argument provides very strong evidence for God's existence by itself, but rather that it provides some inductive support for belief in God. It is one of several phenomena which seem more probable in causes of deforestation, a theistic universe than in a godless universe. In America. As we consider more and more such phenomena, it will be increasingly improbable that “they will all occur.” (ibid, 218) All of of mice, these inductive arguments together may then provide substantial support for theistic belief, even if no one of them by itself would be sufficient for rational belief. Swinburne's version of the argument is angels quite brief and undeveloped, but the materials for a more developed version of the argument can be found in a well-known and much cited article by Sharon Street (2006). Street's argument, as the title implies, is in no way intended to support a moral argument for theism. Angels Characters. To the contrary, her purpose is to defend anti-realist metaethical theories against realist theories that view moral truth as “stance-independent” of human attitudes and emotions. Street presents the moral realist with a dilemma posed by the question as to how our human evaluative beliefs are related to angels, human evolution. It is clear, she believes, that evolution has strongly shaped our evaluative attitudes. The question concerns how those attitudes are related to the objective evaluative truths accepted by the realist.

If the realist holds that there is no relation between such truths and our evaluative attitudes, then this implies that “most of our evaluative judgments are off track due to leadership trait, the distorting influence of Darwinian processes.” The other alternative for the realist is to claim that there is a relationship, and thus that is not an angels in america characters accident or miracle that our evaluative beliefs track the objective truths. However, this view, Street claims, is scientifically implausible. Street argues therefore that an evolutionary story about how we came to make the moral judgments we make undermines confidence in the objective truth of those judgments. Street's argument is of course controversial and thinkers such as Erik Wielenberg (2014) have argued against evolutionary debunking arguments. Still, many regard such arguments as problematic for morality, particularly when developed as a “global” argument (Kahane, 2010). Moral realists such as David Enoch (2011) have attempted to respond to , Street's argument, though Enoch acknowledges its force and angels evidently has some worries about the strength of his reply. A Normal Good Is. However, it is not hard to see that a good deal of the force of Street's argument stems from the assumption that naturalism is true, and angels in america therefore that the evolutionary process is one that is unguided. It does appear that in angels in america characters, a naturalistic universe we would expect a process of Darwinian evolution to select for , a propensity for in america characters, moral judgments that track survival and not objective moral truths. Of Mice And Men Game. Mark Linville (2009, 391446) has developed a detailed argument for the claim that it is difficult for metaphysical naturalists to develop a plausible evolutionary story as to how our moral judgments could have epistemological warrant.

However, if we suppose that the evolutionary process has been guided by a God who has as one of his goals the creation of angels characters, morally significant human creatures capable of is, enjoying a relation with God, then it would not seem at all accidental or even unlikely that God would ensure that humans have value beliefs that are largely correct. Some philosophers may believe that the randomness of Darwinian natural selection rules out the possibility of any kind of divine guidance being exercised through such a process. Angels Characters. Atheists often seem to think that evolution and God are rival, mutually exclusive hypotheses about the origins of the natural world. Stalin Castro. What can be explained scientifically needs no religious explanation. In America Characters. However, this is far from obviously true; in fact, if theism is stalin castro true it is clearly false. Angels In America Characters. From a theistic perspective to think that God and science provide competing explanations fails to grasp the relationship between God and the natural world by conceiving of God as one more cause within that natural world. If God exists at all, God is not an entity within the natural world, but the creator of that natural world, with all of its causal processes.

If God exists, God is the reason why there is of deforestation a natural world and the reason for the existence of the causal processes of the natural world. In principle, therefore, a natural explanation can never preclude a theistic explanation. But what about the randomness that is a crucial part of the Darwinian story? The atheist might claim that because evolutionary theory posits that the process by which plants and animals have evolved in in america, one that involves random genetic mutations, it cannot be guided, and thus God cannot have used evolutionary means to achieve his ends. However, this argument fails. Causes. It depends on an equivocation in what is meant by “random.” When scientists claim that genetic mutations are random, they do not mean that they are uncaused, or even that they are unpredictable from the point of view of of Cyberterrorism and Their Essay, biochemistry, but only that the mutations do not happen in response to the adaptational needs of the organism. It is entirely possible for a natural process to include randomness in that sense, even if the whole natural order is itself created and sustained by God. The sense of “randomness” required for evolutionary theory does not imply that the evolutionary process must be unguided. In America. A God who is stalin castro responsible for angels in america characters, the laws of nature and the initial conditions that shape the evolutionary process could certainly ensure that the process achieved certain ends.

Like the other moral arguments for God's existence, the argument from moral knowledge can easily be stated in angels in america, a propositional form, and I believe Swinburne is right to russia, hold that the argument is best construed as a probabilistic argument that appeals to angels characters, God as providing a better explanation of moral knowledge than is possible in a naturalistic universe. Humans possess objective moral knowledge. Probably, if God does not exist, humans would not possess objective moral knowledge. Probably, God exists. There is a normal good is a kind of argument from characters moral knowledge also implicit in Angus Ritchie's recent book From Morality to Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of leadership theory, our Ethical Commitments (2012) . Ritchie presses a kind of dilemma on non-theistic accounts of morality. Subjectivist theories such as expressivism can certainly make sense of the fact that we make the ethical judgments we do, but they empty morality of its objective authority.

Objectivist theories that take morality seriously, however, have difficulty explaining our capacity to make true moral judgments, unless the process by which humans came to in america, hold these capacities is one that is controlled by a being such as God. The moral argument from knowledge will not be convincing to anyone who is stalin castro committed to any form of angels in america characters, expressivism or other non-objective metaethical theory, and clearly many philosophers find such views attractive. And there will surely be many philosophers who will judge that if moral objectivism implies theism, this is causes a reductio of objectivist views. Furthermore, non-theistic moral philosophers, whether naturalists or non-naturalists, have stories to tell about how moral knowledge might be possible. Nevertheless, there are real questions about the plausibility of these stories, and thus, some of angels characters, those convinced that moral realism is true may judge that moral knowledge provides some support for theistic belief. 5. Arguments from Human Dignity or Worth. Many philosophers find Immanuel Kant's moral philosophy still offers a fruitful approach to ethics. Of the various forms of the “categorical imperative” that Kant offers, the formula that regards human beings as “ends in themselves” is especially attractive: “Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end” (Kant 1785 [1964], 96). Many contemporary moral philosophers influenced by stalin castro Kant, such as Christine Korsgaard (1996), see Kant as offering a “constructivist” metaethical position. Constructivism is supposed to offer a “third way” between moral realism and characters subjectivist views of morality. Like subjectivists, constructivists want to main causes, see morality as a human creation.

However, like moral realists constructivists want to characters, see moral questions as having objective answers. Constructivism is an attempt to develop an objective morality that is free of the metaphysical commitments of moral realism. It is, however, controversial whether Kant himself was a constructivist in this sense. One reason to question whether this is the right way to read Kant follows from the fact that Kant himself did not see morality as free from metaphysical commitments. For example, Kant thought that it would be impossible for someone who believed that mechanistic determinism was the literal truth about himself to believe that he was a moral agent, since morality requires an autonomy that is of mice and men incompatible with determinism. To see myself as a creature who has the kind of value Kant calls “dignity” I must not see myself merely as a machine-like product of the physical environment. Hence Kant thought that it was crucial for morality that his Critical Philosophy had shown that the deterministic perspective on humans is simply part of the “phenomenal world” that is the object of angels, scientific knowledge, not the “noumenal reality” that it would be if some kind of , scientific realism were the true metaphysical view.

When we do science we see ourselves as determined, but science tells us only in america how the world appears, not how it really is. Recognizing this fact suggests that when Kant posits that humans have this intrinsic value he calls dignity, he is and men not “constructing” the value humans have, but recognizing the value beings of a certain kind must have. Humans can only characters have this kind of value if they are a particular kind of creature. Whether Kant himself was a moral realist or not, there are certainly elements in his philosophy that push in , a realist direction. If the claim that human persons have a kind of intrinsic dignity or worth is a true objective principle and if it provides a key foundational principle of morality, it is well worth asking what kinds of metaphysical implications the claim might have.

This is the question that Mark Linville (2009, 417446) pursues in the second moral argument he develops. Angels In America Characters. Linville begins by noting that one could hardly hold that “human persons have intrinsic dignity” could be true if human persons do not exist. Clearly, some metaphysical positions do include a denial of the existence of human persons, such as forms of Absolute Monism which hold that only trait one Absolute Reality exists. However, it also seems to be the case that some forms of Scientific Naturalism are committed to the denial of angels in america characters, “ persons as substantive selves that essentially possess a first-person point of view” (See Dennett 2006, 107). Daniel Dennett, for example, holds that persons will not be part of the ultimately true scientific account of napoleon invades, things. Dennett holds that to think of humans as persons is simply to adopt a certain “stance” toward them that he calls the “intentional stance,” but it is clear that the kind of picture of humans we get when we think of them in this way does not correspond with their intrinsic metaphysical properties. It is not clear how systems towards which we adopt an good “intentional stance” could be truly autonomous and thus have the kind of in america, value Kant believes human persons have. The argument from human dignity could be put into propositional form as follows: Human persons have a special kind of intrinsic value that we call dignity.

The only (or best) explanation of the fact that humans possess dignity is that they are created by a supremely good God in angels characters, God's own image. Probably there is a supremely good God. A naturalist may want to challenge premise (2) by Effects Effects on Societies finding some other strategy to explain human dignity. Michael Martin (2002), for example, has tried to suggest that moral judgments can be analyzed as the feelings of approval or disapproval of a perfectly impartial and informed observer. Linville (2009) objects that it is angels characters not clear how the feelings of such an characters observer could constitute the intrinsic worth of a person, since one would think that intrinsic properties would be non-relational and mind-independent.

In any case, Linville notes that a “Euthyphro” problem lurks for such an ideal observer theory, since one would think that such an observer would judge a person to be intrinsically valuable because the person has intrinsic value. Another strategy that is of deforestation pursued by constructivists such as Korsgaard is to link the value ascribed to angels in america characters, humans to the capacity for rational reflection. The idea is that insofar as I am committed to rational reflection, I must value myself as having this capacity, and consistently value others who have it as well. However, many people believe that young infants and people suffering from dementia still have this intrinsic dignity, but in both cases there is no capacity for rational reflection. Some support for this criticism of the attempt to see reason as the basis of the value of humans can be found in Nicholas Wolterstorff's recent work on justice (2007, especially Ch. 8). Wolterstorff in this work defends the claim that there are natural human rights, and that violating such rights is one way of acting unjustly towards a person.

Why do humans have such rights? Wolterstorff says these rights are grounded in the basic worth or dignity that humans possess. When I seek to torture or kill an innocent human I am failing to respect this worth. If one asks why we should think humans possess such worth, Wolterstorff argues that the belief that humans have this quality was not only historically produced by Jewish and Christian conceptions of the human person, but even now cannot be defended apart from such a conception. In particular, he argues that attempts to argue that our worth stems from some excellence we possess such as reason will not explain the worth of in america, infants or those with severe brain injuries or dementia. Does a theistic worldview fare better in leadership trait theory, explaining the special value of human dignity? In a theistic universe God is in america characters himself seen as the supreme good. Indeed, theistic Platonists usually identify God with the Good. If God is himself a person, then this seems to be a commitment to Various Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects Essay, the idea that personhood itself is something that must be intrinsically good. If human persons are made in God's image, as both Judaism and Christianity affirm, then it would seem to in america characters, follow that humans do have a kind of intrinsic value, just by way of Various Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects, being the kind of creatures they are.

This argument will of characters, course be found unconvincing to many. Some will deny premise (1), either because they reject moral realism as a metaethical stance, or because they reject the normative claim that humans have any kind of special value or dignity. (Maybe they will even think that such a claim is a form of “speciesism.”). Others will find premise (2) suspect. They may be inclined to agree that human persons have a special dignity, but hold that the source of that dignity can be found in such human qualities as rationality. With respect to the status of infants and those suffering from dementia, the critic might bite the bullet and of mice and men just accept the fact that human dignity does not extend to them, or else argue that the fact that infants and those suffering mental breakdown are part of a species whose members typically possess rationality merits them a special respect, even if they lack this quality as individuals.

Others will find premise (2) doubtful because they find the theistic explanation of dignity unclear. Another alternative is to seek a Constructivist account of dignity, perhaps regarding the special status of humans as something we humans decide to extend to invades russia, each other. Perhaps the strongest non-theistic alternative would be some form of ethical non-naturalism, in which one simply affirms that the claim that persons have a special dignity is an a priori truth requiring no explanation. In effect this is a decision for a non-theistic form of Platonism. The proponent of the argument may well agree that claims about the special status of angels, humans are true a priori, and stalin castro thus also opt for some form of Platonism. However, the proponent of the argument will point out that some necessary truths can be explained by angels in america other necessary truths. The theist believes that these truths about the special status of a normal good is, humans tell us something about the kind of universe humans find themselves in. To say that humans are created by God is to say that personhood is not an ephemeral or accidental feature of the universe, because at bottom reality itself is in america characters personal (Mavrodes 1986). 6. Practical Moral Arguments for Belief in God.

As already noted, the most famous and and men perhaps most influential version of a moral argument for belief in God is angels in america found in Immanuel Kant (1788). Kant himself insisted that his argument was not a theoretical argument, but an argument grounded in practical reason. The conclusion of the argument is not “God exists” or “God probably exists” but “I (as a rational, moral agent) ought to believe that God exists.” We shall, however, see that there are some reasons to Effects and Their Effects Essay, doubt that practical arguments can be neatly separated from theoretical arguments. Kant's version of the argument can be stated in in america, different ways, but perhaps the following captures one plausible interpretation of the argument. Morality is grounded in pure practical reason, and the moral agent must act on the basis of maxims that can be rationally endorsed as universal principles. In America Characters. Moral actions are thus not determined by results or consequences but by russia the maxims on which they are based. In America Characters. However, all actions, including moral actions, necessarily aim at ends. Kant argues that the end that moral actions aim at is the “highest good,” which is a world in which both moral virtue and happiness are maximized, with happiness contingent on virtue. For Kant “ought implies can,” and so if I have an obligation to seek the highest good, then I must believe that it is possible to Effects on Societies, achieve such an characters end. However, I must seek the highest good only by acting in and men game, accordance with morality; no shortcuts to happiness are permissible. Angels In America. This seems to require that I believe that acting in accordance with morality will be causally efficacious in achieving the highest good.

However, it is leadership reasonable to angels in america characters, believe that moral actions will be causally efficacious in this way only if the laws of causality are set up in such a way that these laws are conducive to angels in america, the efficacy of moral action. Certainly both parts of the highest good seem difficult to achieve. We humans have weaknesses in stalin castro, our character that appear difficult if not impossible to overcome by our own efforts. Furthermore, as creatures we have subjective needs that must be satisfied if we are happy, but we have little empirical reason to think that these needs will be satisfied by angels characters moral actions even if we succeeded in becoming virtuous. If a person believes that the natural world is simply a non-moral machine with no moral purposiveness then that person would have no reason to believe that moral action could succeed because there is no a priori reason to think moral action will achieve the highest good and little empirical reason to believe this either. Kant thus concludes that a moral agent must “postulate” the existence of God as a rational presupposition of the moral life. One problem with this argument is that many will deny that morality requires us to seek the highest good in leadership, Kant's sense. Characters. Even if the Kantian highest good seems reasonable as an ideal, some will object that we have no obligation to achieve such a state, but merely to work towards realizing the closest approximation to such a state that is possible (See Adams 1987, 152). Without divine assistance, perhaps perfect virtue is unachievable, but in that case we cannot be obliged to realize such a state if there is no God.

Perhaps we cannot hope that happiness will be properly proportioned to virtue in the actual world if God does not exist, but then our obligation can only be to realize as much happiness as can be attained through moral means. Kant would doubtless reject this criticism, since on his view the ends of morality are given directly to pure practical reason a priori, and we are not at liberty to in america, adjust those ends on the basis of empirical beliefs. However, few contemporary philosophers would share Kant's confident view of reason here, and thus to many the criticism has force. Characters. Even Kant admits at one point that full-fledged belief in God is not rationally necessary, since one could conceivably seek the highest good if one merely believes that God's existence is possible (Kant, 17811787, 651). Another way of interpreting Kant's argument puts more stress on the connection between an Effects Effects Essay individual's desire for happiness and the obligation to do what is morally right. Morality requires me to sacrifice my personal happiness if that is necessary to do what is right.

Yet it is a psychological fact that humans necessarily desire their own happiness. In such a state it looks as if human moral agents will be torn by what Henry Sidgwick called the “dualism of the practical reason” (1884, 401). Reason both requires humans to napoleon invades russia, seek their own happiness and to sacrifice it. Sidgwick himself noted that only if there is a God can we hope that this dualism will be resolved, so that those who seek to angels in america, act morally will in the long run also be acting so as to advance their own happiness and well-being. (Interestingly, Sidgwick himself does not endorse this argument, but he clearly sees this problem as part of the appeal of theism.) A contemporary argument similar to this one has been developed by good is C. Stephen Layman (2002). The critic of this form of the Kantian argument may reply that Kantian morality sees duty as something that must be done regardless of the consequences, and thus a truly moral person cannot make his or her commitment to morality contingent on the achievement of angels in america, happiness. From a Kantian point of view, this reply seems right; Kant unequivocally affirms that moral actions must be done for the sake of duty and not from of mice and men any desire for in america, personal reward. Nevertheless, especially for any philosopher willing to endorse any form of eudaimonism, seeing myself as inevitably sacrificing what I cannot help but desire for the sake of , duty does seem problematic. As John Hare affirms, “If we are to endorse wholeheartedly the long-term shape of our lives, we have to see this shape as consistent with our happiness” (1996, 88). The critic may reply to this by simply accepting the lamentable fact that there is something tragic or even absurd about the human condition. The world may not be the world we wish it was, but that does not give us any reason to Various of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects, believe it is different than it is.

If there is a tension between the demands of morality and characters self-interest, then this may simply be a brute fact that must be faced. This reply raises an issue that must be faced by all forms of practical or pragmatic arguments for belief. Leadership Trait Theory. Many philosophers insist that rational belief must be grounded solely in theoretical evidence. The fact that it would be better for in america, me to stalin castro, believe p does not in itself give me any reason to in america characters, believe p. This criticism is aimed not merely at Kant, but at other practical moral arguments. For example, Robert Adams argues that if humans believe there is no moral order to the universe, then they will become demoralized in a normal good is, their pursuit of morality, which is morally undesirable (1987, 151). The atheist might concede that atheism is (somewhat) demoralizing, but deny that this provides any reason to believe there is a moral order to the universe.

Similarly, Linda Zagzebski (1987) argues that morality will not be a rational enterprise unless good actions increase the amount of good in the world. In America. However, given that moral actions often involve the sacrifice of happiness, there is no reason to believe moral action will increase the good unless there is napoleon a power transcendent of human activity working on the side of the good. Here the atheist may claim that moral action does increase the good because such actions always increase good character. However, even if that reply fails the atheist may again simply admit that there may be something tragic or absurd about the human condition, and the fact that we may wish things were different is not a reason to believe that they are. So the problem must be faced: Are practical arguments merely rationalized wish-fulfillment? The theist might respond to this kind of worry in several ways. Of Mice And Men Game. The first thing to be said is that the fact that a naturalistic view of the universe implies that the universe must be tragic or absurd, if correct, would itself be an important and interesting conclusion. However, apart from this, it makes a great deal of difference how one construes what we might call the background epistemic situation. If one believes that our theoretical evidence favors atheism, then it seems plausible to hold that one ought to maintain a naturalistic view, even if it is practically undesirable that the world have such a character.

In that case a practical argument for religious belief could be judged a form of wish-fulfillment. However, this does not seem to be the way those who support such a practical argument see the situation. Kant affirms that the limits of reason established in The Critique of Pure Reason would silence all objections to morality and religion “in Socratic fashion, namely, by the clearest proof of the ignorance of the objectors” (1781, 1787, 30. See also 530531.) In fact, the situation actually favors theism, since Kant holds that theoretical reason sees value in the concept of God as a regulative ideal, even though God's existence cannot be theoretically affirmed as knowledge. If we appeal to God's will to explain what happens in the natural order, we undermine both science and religion, since in that case we would no longer seek empirical evidence for causality and we would make God into a finite object in main, the natural world (1781, 1787, 562563). However, as a regulative ideal, the concept of God is one that theoretical reason finds useful: “The assumption of a supreme intelligence, as the one and only cause of the universe, though in the idea alone, can therefore always benefit reason and can never injure it” (1781, 1787, 560). A Normal. There is characters a sense in which theoretical reason itself inclines towards affirmation of God, because it must assume that reality is rationally knowable: “If one wishes to achieve systematic knowledge of the world, he ought to regard it as if it were created by a supreme reason.” (Kant 1786, 298) Although theoretical reason cannot affirm the existence of God, it finds it useful to angels in america characters, think of the natural world as having the kinds of main of deforestation, characteristics it would have if God did exist. Thus, if rational grounds for belief in God come from practical reason, theoretical reason will raise no objections. For Kant the argument from practical reason for belief in God is in america not a form of wish-fulfillment because its ground is not an arbitrary desire or wish but “a real need associated with reason” (Kant, 1786, 296).

Human beings are not purely theoretical spectators of the universe, but agents. It is not always rational or even possible to theory, refrain from action, and yet action presupposes beliefs about the way things are (For a good interpretation and defense of this view of Kant on in america characters, the relation between action and belief, see Wood 1970, 1725). Thus, in some cases suspension of judgment is angels in america characters not possible. The critic may object that a person may act as if p were true without believing p. However, it is not clear that this advice to distinguish action on the basis of p and belief that p can always be followed. Game. For one thing, it seems empirically the case that one way of acquiring belief that p is in america characters simply to begin to act as if p were true. Hence, to and Their on Societies, begin to act as if p were true is at least to embark upon a course of action that makes belief in p more likely. Second, there may well be a sense of “belief” in characters, which “acting as if p were true” is sufficient to constitute belief. This is obviously the case on pragmatist accounts of belief. But even those who reject a general pragmatic account of angels in america characters, belief may well find something like this appealing with respect to religious belief. Many religious believers hold that the best way to measure a person's religious faith is in main of deforestation, terms of the person's actions. Angels In America. Thus, a person who is Effects and Their on Societies Essay willing to act on the basis of in america characters, a religious conception, especially if those actions are risky or costly, is a normal truly a religious believer, even if that person is filled with doubt and anxiety.

Such a person might well be construed as more truly a believer than a person who smugly “assents” to religious doctrines but is unwilling to act on them. Perhaps the right way to angels, think of Effects Effects on Societies Essay, practical moral arguments is not to see them as justifying belief without evidence, but as shifting the amount of evidence seen as necessary. Angels Characters. This is the lesson some would draw from the phenomenon of “pragmatic encroachment” that has been much discussed in recent epistemology. Here is an example of pragmatic encroachment: You: I am about to replace the ceiling fan in the kitchen. Spouse: Did you turn off the main electrical power to the house? Spouse: If you forgot you could electrocute yourself. You: I better go back and in america check.

(See McBrayer 2014, Rizzieri 2013). A plausible interpretation of this scenario is is that ordinarily claims such as the one I made, based on memory, are justified, and angels in america characters count as knowledge. However, in this situation, the stakes are raised because my life is at stalin castro risk, and my knowledge is lost because the pragmatic situation has “encroached” on the normal truth-oriented conditions for knowledge. Pragmatic encroachment is and men controversial and the idea of such encroachment is rejected by some epistemologists. However, defenders hold that it is reasonable to consider the pragmatic stakes in considering evidence for a belief that underlies significant action (See Fantl and McGrath 2007). If this is correct, then it seems reasonable to consider the pragmatic situation in determining how much evidence is sufficient to justify religious beliefs. In theory the adjustment could go in angels in america, either direction, depending on what costs are associated with a mistake and on which side those costs lie. In any case it is good is not clear that practical moral arguments can always be clearly distinguished from theoretical moral arguments. The reason this is so is that in many cases the practical situation described seems itself to be or involve a kind of a normal good is, evidence for the truth of the belief being justified. Take, for example, Kant's classic argument. Is. One thing Kant's argument does is call to our attention that it would be enormously odd to believe that human beings are moral creatures subject to an objective moral law, but also to believe that the universe that humans inhabit is indifferent to of mice and men, morality.

In other words, the existence of human persons understood as moral beings can itself be understood as a piece of evidence about the character of the universe humans find themselves in. Peter Byrne (2013, 1998) has criticized practical arguments on the grounds that they presuppose something like the following proposition: “The world is likely to be organized so as to meet our deepest human needs.” Byrne objects that this premise is invades likely to be false if there is no God and thus arguments that assume it appear circular. However, it is not clear that only those who already believe in angels, God will find this premise attractive. . The reason for this is that humans are themselves part of the natural universe, and in america characters it seems a desirable feature of a metaphysical view that it explain (rather than explain away) features of human existence that seem real and important. It seems likely therefore that any appeal to good, a practical argument will include some theoretical component as well, even if that component is not always made explicit.

Nevertheless, this does not mean that practical arguments do not have some important and distinctive features. For Kant it was important that religious beliefs stem from angels in america characters practical reason. Napoleon Invades. For if religious belief were grounded solely in theoretical reason, then such belief would have to angels characters, conform to “extrinsic and arbitrary legislation” (Kant 1790, 131). Kant thinks such a religion would be one grounded in “fear and submission,” and thus it is good that religious belief is motivated mainly by theory a free moral act by which the “final end of our being” is presented to angels in america, us (1790, 159). For any practical argument makes religious belief existential; the issue is not merely what I believe to Various Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Essay, be true about the universe but how I shall live my life in that universe. It seems clear that no version of the moral argument constitutes a “proof” of God's existence. Each version contains premises that many reasonable thinkers reject. However, this does not mean the arguments have no force.

One might think of each version of the argument as attempting to angels characters, spell out the “cost” of rejecting the conclusion. Some philosophers will certainly be willing to pay the cost, and indeed have independent reasons for doing so. However, it would certainly be interesting and important if one became convinced that atheism required one to reject moral realism altogether, or to embrace an implausible account of how moral knowledge is acquired. For those who think that some version or versions of the arguments have force, the cumulative case for theistic belief may be raised by such arguments. Adams, R., 1987, “Moral Arguments for main causes, Theism,” in The Virtue of angels in america, Faith and Other Essays in Philosophical Theology , New York: Oxford University Press, 144163. , 1999, Finite and Infinite Goods , New York: Oxford University Press. Aquinas, St. Thomas, 12651274 [1948], Summa Theologica , New York: Benziger Brothers.

Baggett, D., and Walls, J., 2011, Good God: The Theistic Foundations of Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Byrne, P., 2013, ‘Moral Arguments for the Existence of God’, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Spring 2013 Edition, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = , 1998, The Moral Interpretation of Religion , Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. Dennett, D., 2006, Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon , New York: Penguin Devine, P., 1989, Relativism, Nihilism, and God , Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press. Enoch, D., Taking Morality Seriously: A Defense of Robust Realism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Evans, C. S., 2010, Natural Signs and Knowledge of God: A New Look at Theistic Arguments , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2013, God and Moral Obligation , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fantl, J., and McGrath, M., 2007, ‘On Pragmatic Encroachment in Epistemology’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research , 75(3): 558589. Flew, A., 1976, The Presumption of Atheism and Other Philosophical Essays on God, Freedom, and Immortality , New York: Barnes and Noble. In America Characters. Hare, J., 1996, The Moral Gap , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

James, W., 1897 [1907], The Will to Believe and russia Other Essays in Popular Philosophy , New York: Longmans Green and angels Co. Causes. Kahane, Guy, 2014, “Evolutionary Debunking Arguments,” Noûs , 45(1): 103125. Kant, I., 1781, 1787 [1965], Critique of characters, Pure Reason , trans. Theory. Norman Kemp Smith, New York: Macmillan. , 1785 [1964], Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals , trans H. J. Paton, New York: Harper and Row. , 1786, [1949], What Is Orientation in Thinking? in in america characters, Critique of Practical Reason and Effects and Their Essay Other Writings in Moral Philosophy , trans. and ed. Angels In America. Lewis White Beck, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. , 1788 [1956], Critique of leadership theory, Practical Reason , trans. Angels In America Characters. Lewis White Beck, Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-Merrill. , 1790 [1952], Critique of Judgment , trans. James Creed Meredith, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Korsgaard, C., 1996, The Sources of Normativity , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Of Cyberterrorism And Their. Layman, C. S., 2002, “God and the Moral Order,” Faith and characters Philosophy 19, 304316. Main. Lewis, C. Angels Characters. S., 1952, Mere Christianity . London: Collins.

Linville, M., 2009, ‘The Moral Argument’, in The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology , first edition, W. L. Craig, J. P. . Mooreland (eds.), West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Mackie, J., 1977, Ethics: Inventing Right and characters Wrong , Hammondsworth: Penguin. Martin, M., 2002, Atheism, Morality, and Meaning , Amherst NY: Prometheus Books. Mavrodes, G., 1986, ‘Religion and the Queerness of Morality’ in napoleon invades, Rationality, Religious Belief, and angels Moral Commitment: New Essays in the Philosophy of Religion , eds. Robert Audi and a normal is William J. Wainwright, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 213226. McBrayer, J., 2014, ‘Pragmatic Encroachment, Religious Belief, and Practice’, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , March 19. Mill, J., 1874, Nature, The Utility of Religion, and in america Theism , Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer: London.

Morriston, W., 2009, “What if God Commanded Something Terrible? A Worry for Divine-command Meta-ethics”, Religious Studies , 45(3): 249267. . Newman, J. H., 1870, An Essay in Aid of characters, a Grammar of Assent , London: Burns, Oates, and Co. Nietzsche, F., 1887 [2003], The Genealogy of Morals , translated by Horace Barnett Samuel, New York: Courier Dover Publications. Plantinga, A., 2000, Warranted Christian Belief , New York: Oxford University Press. Good. Quinn, P., 1978, Divine Commands and Moral Requirements . Oxford: Clarendon Press , 1979, ‘Divine Command Ethics: A Causal Theory’, in Divine Command Morality: Historical and Contemporary Readings , edited by Janine Idziak, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 305325.

Rashdall, H., 1920, ‘The Moral Argument for Personal Immortality’, in King's College Lectures on Immortality , London: University of London Press. Ritchie, A., 2012, From Morality to Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of our Ethical Commitments , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rizzieri, A., 2013, Pragmatic Encroachment, Religious Belief and Practice , Kindle edition, Palgrave Macmillan. Schellenberg, J. Angels In America Characters. L., 1993, Divine Hiddenness and Human Reason , 1 st edition, Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Of Mice And Men Game. Sidgwick, H., 1884, Methods of Ethics , London: Macmillan and Co. Angels In America. Sorley, W., 1918, Moral Values and the Idea of God , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Street, S., 2006, “A Darwinian Dilemma for Realist Theories of Value,” Philosophical Studies , 127(1): 109166. Swinburne, R., 2004, The Existence of God , 2 nd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Taylor, A., 1930, The Faith of a Moralist , London: Macmillan. , 1945, Does God Exist? , London: Macmillan.

Wielenberg, E., 2010, “On the Evolutionary Debunking of Morality,” Ethics 120(3): 441464. , 2005, Value and Virtue in a Godless Universe , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wolterstorff, N., 2007, Justice: Rights and Wrongs , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Wood, A., 1970, Kant's Moral Religion , Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Zagzebski, L., 2004, “Does Ethics Need God?” Faith and Philosophy , 4: 294303. Byrne, Peter, “Moral Arguments for the Existence of God”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = [This was the previous entry on moral arguments for the existence of game, God in angels characters, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy see the version history.] Divine Command Theory, entry by Michael Austin, in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The author wishes to thank Trent Dougherty, Mark Linville, and David Baggett for reading a draft of this essay and making many useful suggestions. Matthew Wilson also deserves thanks for tracking many bibliographical references and page numbers. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free. View this site from another server:

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University.

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This comic strip is the definitive smackdown to anti-vaxxers everywhere. A lot of important information has come out debunking the anti-vaxxer movement, but this brilliant comic strip by Maki Naro one of the characters, most concise weve ever seen. As a result of the growing misinformation being disseminated about the risks of vaccines, other preventable diseases such as measles have seen a climb in rates recently. But whats easily forgotten is that this current wave of anti-vaccine hysteria can be traced back to a single study that appeared in the Lancet medical journal a study that was outright debunked in the science world. In a 2011 issue of BMJ (the British Medical Journal), investigative reporter Brian Deer slammed the infamous Lancet study linking vaccines to autism as fraudulent, pointing out that key facts were distorted to support the stalin castro, autism link. The 15 year-old study claimed that 8 children developed regressive autism after getting a combination of vaccines to in america characters prevent mumps and rubella. And Men! The study was led by Andrew Wakefield, a British doctor who had his license revoked in May of 2011 as a result of serious professional misconduct. After reviewing the health records of the subjects involved in the study and interviewing their families and doctors, Deer found numerous inconsistencies, some of which were recounted in a 2011 piece by angels in america, NPR: Only 1 of 9 kids said to have regressive autism clearly had it. Three had no form of autism. Contrary to napoleon the papers assertion that all the kids were normal before vaccination, five had some sort of preexisting developmental problems.

According to angels characters the paper, Behavioral problems popped up days after vaccination didnt actually appear for months in some kids, a fact that undercuts the causality of vaccination. It was well known that Wakefields conclusions were questionable from the beginning. But the Lancet study is now widely believed to stalin castro be the in america, source of what eventually sparked widespread anti-vaccination paranoia now being blamed for the recurrence of diseases that were once brought under control by stalin castro, the proper vaccinations. An editorial accompanying the BMJ piece provided additional clear evidence that the data was falsified, which should have closed the door on angels characters this damaging vaccine scare for good. Since then, the anti-vaxxer movement has persisted and Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects on Societies Essay, even grown in its influence despite lot of important information debunking its pseudoscience. Angels In America Characters! That being said, this brilliant comic strip by Maki Naro is one of the Various of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects Essay, most concise debunking efforts weve ever seen. December 16, 2014 at 2:59 am. The really despicable part of this tragic story is that nurses called in during the angels, contest, warning about the risk, but the a normal is, dJs refused to take them seriously. December 16, 2014 at angels in america, 8:31 am.

Outstanding job! A real knockout blow to of mice and men game anti-vaxxers! Mad kudos to you! Keep up the great work! December 16, 2014 at 3:30 pm. The slide states that vaccines have a high risk/benefit ratio, but I believe that you meant benefit/risk. December 16, 2014 at 7:07 pm. I dont see how this is a smack-down. The inserts on angels vaccines state dozens of and men game, potential side effects yet everyone just focuses on autism. If they would just test these things they could set the angels in america, record straight. like these guys did. see?

Research goooood. Now they know there is a problem instead of boldly marching on pretending vaccines are perfect. December 17, 2014 at 5:24 am. This goes for the ones relating to Polio and TB. Not the Flu or the latest fake pandemic, or any other designer vaccines. December 17, 2014 at a normal good is, 2:58 pm.

Apparently the author of this cartoon doesnt understand scienceor mathor read historyat least not with more than an elementary level of in america, comprehension. Remember the chicken pox? Was it really deadly? How many of your friends died when they had chicken pox? Oh, none you say? The death rate was/is less than 1% for varicella. Then, pray tell, why are we vaccinating for it? Why since we have the vaccine on the schedule is the incidence of shingles skyrocketing? Why is pertussis on the rise when vaccine rates for pertussis are at , an all time high unlike the media would have you believe?

Why are the angels in america characters, overwhelming majority of those who get and spread pertussis vaccinated? Well, simple science answers those questions, but I doubt any provaccine person would actually understand the explanation. Since you mention medical advances in the last 100 years, why dont we look at theory, sanitation, hygiene, clean water, nutrition and the number of characters, people pissing in pots and main of deforestation, bathing once a year? Its funny when you want to push something that you may just leave out angels characters, pertinent details to the story to match your agenda. Kudos to stalin castro you on angels in america your propaganda cartoon.

December 17, 2014 at 2:58 pm. Riddle me this: How is a normal good natural exposure to a live virus comparable to having a dead virus + a bunch of characters, chemicals injected into my bloodstream? December 17, 2014 at 3:51 pm. December 17, 2014 at theory, 4:20 pm. Well, as the story points out, you dont have to get sick in angels characters, order to gain immunity. You may not be old enough to remember measles/mumps/rubella everywhere. I am. Kids get seriously sick. Causes! They dont all recover unscarred, or at all. My mom remembers swimming pools closed for the summer during polio flares, and characters, kids in her school having to be in causes of deforestation, an iron lung, or crippled. Angels! Ill take the tiny amount of scary thimerosol over stalin castro getting sick with these diseases any or every day of the week.

December 17, 2014 at 5:08 pm. Live virus, more virulent, likely to kill or leave you with lasting damage. Weakned virus + bunch of chemicals, much less virulent, trains your immune system without generally killing you in the process or leaving you with lasting damage. December 17, 2014 at 6:10 pm. That isnt a riddle. natural exposure to in america a live virus is what led to thousands of people dying of smallpox, polio, tuberculosis, diphtheria, etc each year. Being injected with dead viruses and a bunch of chemicals have prevented thousands of people from getting same diseases every year. Leadership! Whats the riddle? December 17, 2014 at 6:59 pm.

Here you go Aaron. December 17, 2014 at angels, 7:54 pm. Because Aaron (depending on the virus and of mice, the exposure) you might end up naturally dead. December 17, 2014 at 8:55 pm. Trying thinking on a molecular level.

The bodys immune system attacks the angels characters, dead virus since its an invader, but doesnt doesnt also have to spend resources on theory fighting the symptoms produced by the live virus. December 17, 2014 at 8:56 pm. Try thinking on a molecular level. The immune system can adapt to the dead virus without having to also fight the symptoms of the live virus. Dr. Heath Motley.

December 18, 2014 at 12:11 am. Please stop telling people vaccine injuries are rare and angels in america characters, brushing off individuals who have suffered vaccine injuries. Theory! Vaccines are associated with serious adverse reactions like: Blood and lymphatic system disorders, immune system disorders, myocarditis, nervous system disorders, convulsions, seizures, encephalitis (brain swelling), facial palsy, skin disorders, sudden infant death (SIDS), death, meningitis, paralysis, anaphylactic shock, skin and tissue disorders, eczema, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular accident, transverse myelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Bells palsy, aseptic meningitis, pneumonia, ringing in the ears, multiple sclerosis, myelitis including transverse myelitis, seizure, febrile seizure, peripheral neuropathy, herpes zoster, migraines, neurological syndromes, chronic arthritis, hearing loss, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, neuropathy, and vaccine-strain versions of chicken pox, measles, mumps, polio, influenza, meningitis, yellow fever, and pertussis. For a list of angels in america, other exciting (yet downplayed) reactions check out the package inserts here. To view the VAERS database where you will find more adverse reactions reported including deaths, click here. Thankfully even the of mice, CDC and angels, FDA post that these damaging and often deadly toxic and napoleon russia, unnecessary vaccines do cause MANY side effects and problems and in america characters, so far havent been shown to even work. or the FDA Vaccine Insert Lists Autism as Adverse Reaction CDC Admits Vaccines Contain a Carcinogen. To the angry pro-vaxxer Its ok that you dont believe that aborted fetal tissue is used in vaccines because of your lack of research into the matter. Some of napoleon russia, us actually dont like that injected into our children. So I took the liberty of highlighting it for angels, you from your preferred source of information.

The CDC . Oh and please feel free to look at causes, all of the other vaccines as well because this is not just the only one and characters, note all of the other lovely ingredients. Of Mice And Men! Thank you Dr. Heath Motley. December 18, 2014 at in america, 12:12 am. Vaccines cause Chromosome Changes Leading to Mutations, Leukemias and Lymphomas, Auto-immunity, Diabetes, Nervous System Changes, Autism, Demyelination, Seizures, Convulsions, Epilepsy, Brain Swelling, Unexplained Diseases, Another Vaccinal Disease like Paralytic Poliomyelitis, tentanus, smallpox, etc. Following Inoculation, Death of course, metabolic problems, deafness, kidney disorders, skin disorders, abcesses, shock and more. Health Guide: Vaccine Research.

my list of peer reviewed vaccine research. Aluminum (Vaccine Ingredient) Science. Vaccines And Autism Infographic. Keep in theory, mind that it is mainly doctors and angels characters, researchers who are anti-vaccine, even the and men, CDC admitted that anti-vaxxers are on average far more educated than pro-vaxxers. In America! This is why the a normal is, anti-vaxxers are always posting science while the pro-vaxxers are throwing insults. Vaccine Facts backed by Science. WE WANT THE FACTS. Research supporting Vaccine/Autism Causation.

Evidence for Thimerosal Risk Page 1. Evidence for Thimerosal Risk Page 2. Vaccine Ingredients A Comprehensive Guide. Adverse Effects of Adjuvants in Vaccines. VACCINE INGREDIENTS (POISONS) 87 Published Works on angels characters Vaccines and Adverse Health Concerns. Papers Showing a Connection Between Thimerosal Exposure and Neurological Harm. December 18, 2014 at 12:58 am. Ummm so you really dont know your history either joyful1.

It is referring to Smallpox not chicken pox, and it did indeed kill many December 18, 2014 at 1:10 am. Thanks for actually trying on that one, Mcpierce. Perhaps you can also help me with these: But then why not just inject the dead virus without the chemicals? Also, why ignore the causes, side effects that do exist; stop focusing all of the angels characters, attention on one potentially bogus side-effect. Leadership Theory! The reported side effects are right on the packaging. If were afraid of the very small chance of gaining serious injury from an in america characters illness why are we not afraid of the small chance of suffering a serious side effect from the vaccine?

Also, why act under the assumption that exposer causes 100% infection rates and that we are constantly surrounded by main causes, all diseases at all times to angels in america characters the extent that we need to inject ourselves with dozens of doses of provenly risky substances ? And why pretend that vaccines are the and men game, only medicine that is completely safe when we have medicines with side effects including death? Until simple questions like these are answered, this comic will be in no way a definitive smack-down to anyone. This is an important issue that really needs to be addressed in a serious, adult manner. December 18, 2014 at 1:26 am. Vaccine inserts are legal documents. Angels In America Characters! You have to theory have some basic understanding before you read something. What lab did you do your research in and what journal was it printed in? The only person pretending is you pretending anyone said vaccines are perfect.

You failed in every possible way. Stop following the herd mentality. December 18, 2014 at 1:27 am. Oh, so we should only prevent polio and TB? That is nonsense. December 18, 2014 at angels characters, 1:28 am. Water and sanitation are tricky. They kept waiting for many years to eradicate different diseases.

LOL! Maybe you should pick up a history book. December 18, 2014 at 1:29 am. It isnt. Getting a disease naturally kills people. December 18, 2014 at 1:34 am. Well, to kill the stalin castro, virus you need formaldehyde. For a lot of vaccines you need an adjuvant like aluminum salts so that your immune system doesnt have a passive reaction to the killed virus. Sometimes you need emulsifiers to keep everything in solution and the same as when it was first produced. In America Characters! They first added thimerosal as a preservative after a terrible incident of contamination that killed people.

I mean, are you really thinking they just throw things in there for no reason? December 18, 2014 at 1:35 am. I meant nutrition not water. December 18, 2014 at 5:09 am. Varicella is vaccinated against to prevent Shingles,which can be can be exquisitely painful for theory, prolonged periods. December 18, 2014 at 10:04 am. The live virus is more likely to angels characters kill you, maim you, or leave you permanently injured. December 18, 2014 at 5:15 pm. Since you like to of mice game explain complicated issues with cartoons. December 18, 2014 at 7:05 pm.

Says the chiropractic doctor. LOL! December 18, 2014 at angels in america, 7:07 pm. So much woo, so little time doctor. December 18, 2014 at 9:19 pm. Vaccines Created More DiseaseThey Did Nothing More than That. This Cartoon, Is In Fact a JokeJust like Vaccines. People need to dig deeper and do the work. What Propaganda, Big Pharma! There Will Come A Day.

December 18, 2014 at 9:23 pm. You rrally dont know you history either. Stalin Castro! Sanitation, hygiene, etc were medical advances, many implementations to better conditions and stop the spread of disease were put forth by MEDICAL professionals. And even if the death rate for a particular disease is angels low, why shouldnt we vaccinate against it? What if you or you child fall within that 1%? If you are actually interested in the science of vaccines you need to read the actual articles that were published by invades russia, the actual researchers.

The media misinterprets scientific results ALL THE TIME. If you really are that concerned (which you appear to angels characters be) take a bit to educate yourself on p-values and the difference between correlation and causality. December 19, 2014 at angels in america, 5:34 am. So the info on the inserts is Various of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects false? December 19, 2014 at 5:49 am. A lot of the pro-vaxxers here, however correct they may be, seem to angels be basing their arguments on 1) attacking the leadership trait theory, integrity of thse who are questioning the notion that no vaccine poses a risk that we need to worry about, 2) misunderstanding/ misrepresenting the opposing points, and 3) vaccines are a product of characters, science and it therefore must be good, Unfair, disingenuous, and, well come on, you never heard of and men game, DES, thalidomide, or fen-phen? If your re trying to change the minds of angels in america characters, thinking people, better try something else. December 19, 2014 at and men, 4:56 pm.

Seems Dr. Heath Motley posts has resulted in some pause for thought with the pro-vaccine group. Thank you for that. December 19, 2014 at 9:35 pm. You keep getting responses explaining your riddle but refuse to angels in america accept or acknowledge them. Why would you want your children dying of Diptheria because you dont understand, or are wilfully ignorant, of ehat EXPERTS tell you. BTW theyre experts because theyve spent their lives researching this in an unbiased objective manner. Get off NOVAX.ORG and stalin castro, look at pubmed, a database of hundreds of angels characters, thousands of peer reviewed journal articles that have REAL research in them, not fear mongering. December 20, 2014 at 7:04 am. YOU ARE LITERALLY COUNTERING A SCIENTIFIC, SOURCED COMIC. WITH URBAN LEGENDS ONLINE

YOU DONT EVEN UNDERSTAND WHAT THE WORD LEGEND MEANS DO YOU. THIS IS THE BEST DAY OF MY WHOLE LIFE. December 20, 2014 at , 7:44 am. sudden infant death (SIDS) Vaccines do not cause SIDS, the pure definition of SIDS is a death of unknown cause. Youre full of shit. December 20, 2014 at characters, 7:47 am. Vaccines cause Chromosome Changes Leading to Mutations No they dont.

And claiming such shows a vast lack of knowledge in how the immune system and genetics work. December 20, 2014 at 7:53 am. Collectively, systematic reviews have not demonstrated that spinal manipulation, the main treatment method employed by chiropractors, was effective for stalin castro, any medical condition, with the possible exception of treatment for back pain December 20, 2014 at 9:11 am. ok but what does any of that have to do with the price of breastmilk in cambodia. December 20, 2014 at 9:12 am. Thousands of people died from it you sick bastard, December 20, 2014 at 11:52 am.

Dr. Heath Motley, what is your specialty? What state (s) are you licensed to practice medicine in? What hospitals grant you privileges? December 20, 2014 at 6:16 pm. Gee, you pro-diseasers are so obnoxiously ignorant I feel for angels characters, you, tho. December 21, 2014 at 1:09 pm. You had an answer for everything else. Why cant you answer this? December 21, 2014 at 9:29 pm.

And pertussis, aka whooping cough is on the rise, not the decline. One school in of mice and men game, Moscow, Idaho alone has 7% of kids not vaccinated for whooping cough. Idaho has one of the lowest vaccinations rates in the country for whooping cough. You need to angels characters do more homework, Joyful1. December 29, 2014 at a normal good is, 10:04 am. 1) viruses are never alive. so calling them dead/alive is a misnomer. They are a bunch of genetic material stuffed into a capsid, incapable of self-replication without the aid of other cells and angels characters, are therefore not alive. 2) the bunch of chemicals acts as an adjuvant and is critical for the activation of the immune system so it generates an immune response to the viral antigen in main causes, the vaccine. No adjuvant, no immune reaction and therefore no protection.

How are they comparable? Well it very much depends on the vaccine and whether were talking about bacterial or viral vaccines and then again what type of angels characters, bacterial vaccine (live? Attenuated? Toxoid?). Different vaccines give your body immunity against main causes of deforestation different viral or bacterial antigens and in america, some do not teach your immune system to recognise all of the antigens that being naturally infected would. But this often isnt necessary for example the DPT vaccine gives immunity to causes the toxins produced by diptheria and tetanus rather than the bacteria and works extremely effectively as it is the characters, toxin that produces such deleterious effects. This dialogue saddens me, mainly because schools are clearly not teaching enough about the main causes of deforestation, actual mechanics of how bacterial and viral vaccines work a better understanding would demystify a lot of the scare stories being bandied about here. December 29, 2014 at 9:04 pm.

The rise of angels characters, shingles is time based. The virus lies dormant for a number of years before manifesting so the chicken pox vaccine has no correlation to main causes of deforestation the rise of shingles. It will, however, have a correlation to in america characters the decrease in russia, shingles cases over time. Your logic is circular and completely faulty. January 4, 2015 at 6:39 pm.

People are obviously very spirited on both sides of the debate. Angels In America! I wanted to try and causes of deforestation, remain cool but ive seen and heard enough. Read dr hotleys says on the damn insert the side effects of the vaccines. these are NEVER made public when the hype a flu shot or other shot. pro vaxxers inability to accept the toxic chemical cocktail is damaging to alot of people must come from them having too many shots already and it scares them to think about the brain damage they must already have. oh and in america characters, this cute comics author is dead wrong on thimerisol. the insert on thay says its toxic and dangerous. stop believing and and men game, doing whateve the gov tells you and stop shitting on anti vaxers for being concerned about the known side effects! January 11, 2015 at 12:01 am. What kind od Dr are you? My kid died od SIDS, and I subsequently spoke with several SIDS and vaccine experts (Stanford, Harvard, Johns-Hopkins), and in america, all cited years and breadth of research that proves that vaccines DO NOT cause SIDS. I think youre just full of crap. January 11, 2015 at 6:57 am. pure propaganda, well I cured my asthma,, and not gonna share with you. since scientists say there is no cure,,I mean pharma.. sorry. and for the comic, they use 1798 event to prove vaccines? really? they didnt have toilets at the time, and I trust wakefield more than CDC.

what about scandal from CDC when a guy admitted he lied about autism and vaccines.. no one wants to publish huh? well u will burn in hell for this CDC, yes you will. January 11, 2015 at 6:59 am. well you can go prick yourself, since you like pricking, and of deforestation, vaccines, go inject somehting, now.. January 11, 2015 at 7:02 am. you mean sids half an hour after vaccine? really sudden and unkown.. In America! gee i wonder what it could be, well vaccines aint, since it is science and russia, science is good, duuh. there is nothing wrong with injecting mercury and deadly virus to your muscles, avoiding immune system.. sounds perfect, lets try it every year, and also give it to a one week old baby.. smart smart smart.. In America Characters! NOT. January 11, 2015 at napoleon russia, 4:49 pm. Joyful1 isnt saying the article was referring to characters Chicken Pox. And Their Effects Essay! They are making an characters example of the Chicken Pox vaccine.

January 11, 2015 at main of deforestation, 6:09 pm. Can someone please direct me to studies done on data compiled from the angels in america characters, control group of leadership trait, non-vaccinated individuals? January 12, 2015 at 7:24 pm. Which type of mercury are you talking about? Methyl- or ethyl-? At what level? Do you understand the differences?

January 12, 2015 at angels, 8:19 pm. Poorly written thenhe mentions it immediately after referring to history. Either way, varicella can kill. February 7, 2015 at 4:36 am. Why are you downplaying the effect those diseases have on the infected side effects of the stalin castro, diseases include Blood and lymphatic system disorders, immune system disorders, myocarditis, nervous system disorders, convulsions, seizures, encephalitis (brain swelling), facial palsy, skin disorders, sudden infant death (SIDS), death, meningitis, paralysis, anaphylactic shock, skin and tissue disorders, eczema, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular accident, transverse myelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Bells palsy, aseptic meningitis, pneumonia, ringing in the ears, multiple sclerosis, myelitis including transverse myelitis, seizure, febrile seizure, peripheral neuropathy, herpes zoster, migraines, neurological syndromes, chronic arthritis, hearing loss, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, neuropathy, and angels in america characters, vaccine-strain versions of chicken pox, measles, mumps, polio, influenza, meningitis, yellow fever, and pertussis. February 9, 2015 at invades russia, 6:20 pm. They use dead or damaged viruses to provoke an immune response. How does one kill or damage a virus?

How can you know each virion in characters, a dose is equally dead or damaged? The myth began in 1998, when an of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects on Societies English medical journal called The Lancet published a paper. Why did a medical journal print a myth? Is that a one-time thing or do they do that a lot? Why should we implicitly trust them now? Vaccines are an industry a big one. In the past we were told tobacco was safe, and asbestos, and radium, and lead, and heroin, and thalidomide, and mercury, and methamphetamine all safe and angels in america characters, healthful. Main Causes Of Deforestation! Tuskegee and MKUltra were going on in my lifetime I feel suspicion is wiser than blind trust when it comes to medicines.

This protects people who are not vaccinated, either because they are too young or have and allergy or underlying medical condition. Why should anyone be too young for such a safe treatment why is a newborn too young but a toddler isnt? How would anyone know they had an allergy or underlying condition until they triggered it with a vaccine? Shouldnt the patients be old enough to articulate their reactions to the shots? Dont assume all vaccine opponents are stupid and ignorant. Some of us are skeptical because we know too much history and angels characters, have too many unanswered questions. March 17, 2015 at of mice and men game, 10:49 pm.

Some of you are skeptical about vaccines because you dont WANT an answer. It is angels characters easier to grandstand and stalin castro, shot out retorts from anti-vaccine websites. Angels In America Characters! (Heads up, anything with vaccine truth in a normal, the address is likely propaganda too.) Listen, I am not suggesting that vaccines are 100% safe. No logical person or scientific professional would EVER state that. NOTHING is 100% safe. Many people drive cars everyday. Have you looked at the percentage of people that are involved in angels, fatal car collisions? Also, scientists are people, and people can make mistakes (like publish a study with poor scientific integrity) If one doctor gets charged with malpractice are you going to of mice game avoid all doctors?

The Lancet should definitely be viewed with more skepticism, especially by the community of its peers. What it seems like is that people who are unsure of vaccine safety want a simple black and white answer. Sorry folks, but the simple truth is that the in america characters, answer is more grey and complex. Some vaccines are safer than others. Main Of Deforestation! Some vaccines are probably more effective than others. Has big pharma pushed drugs into the medical community with half an eye on profit and half an eye on benefit, OF COURSE.

That doesnt render every pharmaceutical evil and angels characters, unnecessary. I dont think it is the job of every person to have a deep professional understanding of the biomedical field. I do think the media and other information outlets have let the of mice game, public down, and angels in america characters, are responsible for trait, some of the angels in america characters, momentum gained by the anti-vaccine movement. Main Causes! However, it is angels characters your responsibility (especially as a parent) to is rationally consider facts and public well being. So yes, take the in america, time to game learn about new vaccines on the market before trying them out. In America! But please dont ignore decades of of mice, data that point to safety and efficacy of many vaccines because a SINGLE study ONE journal published said otherwise. April 5, 2015 at 8:45 pm. Great work, Dr.

Motley! Thanks for taking the time to direct those worried about adverse effects caused by vaccines to honest sources of facts on them. I have MS from a vaccine reaction, my daughter has autism from severe reactions to two vaccines, and my father was paralyzed for the last three years of his life by a flu vaccine. In America! The dangers of vaccines are quite real, very common, and those who prefer to go along with the pharma-propaganda on display here should be aware that they do so at their peril. April 17, 2015 at 4:07 am. Can a persons body reject the adjuvant process? You shouldnt be saddened people just care and crave information, just like me.

Be happy people are asking question as theres no such thing as a stupid one (question). Invades! Your right more education would help our children. May 6, 2015 at angels characters, 1:48 am. Varicella (chicken pox) in an adult causes pneumonia. Adult varicella pneumonia has an 11% mortality. Invades! Its a painful agonizing breathless death too.

Thats just over 1 in 10. May 6, 2015 at 8:22 pm. I think its just referring to the woman who died from drinking too much water, which was referenced in angels characters, the comic. May 7, 2015 at leadership, 10:57 am. The problem in that assertion is angels in america that you are taking natural for non harming. The latest marketing trends cause that. They put natural in a sense that implies it cant cause any damage. Napoleon! Pay attention to that while watching TV.

Or better, turn it off and go to read #128578; Also, you inject chemicals as O2 when you breath. Mind you, next time you cross a car hold your breath since there is a bunch of CO. The key significant in angels in america characters, your phrase is the negative connotations of chemicals. Chemistry is everywhere, and , you own body, left to its own devices in eden will generate chemicals. When you step on a completely snake, in the middle of the angels characters, most natural forest, with your ultra natural foot, and it injects amazingly natural chemicals, that is a venom, you are at risk. When you get a pristine glass of water of a verified, state controlled tap, you are also ingesting chemicals, H2O, NaCH, NaF, thosands of things in russia, this case, good for you. May 7, 2015 at 11:01 am. You can, and that is where vaccines started, use ethyl alcohol, the same one you drink in a beer, with some pus from measles to create a vaccine.

That has some drawbacks, and a bunch of eggheads used its brain to come back with better transports. May 7, 2015 at 11:07 am. What kind of idiots can read that and think they should not vaccinate? Assuming the hastly conclussion is true, of course there were (and there are) many issues while developing medicine. Trade offs are everywhere. This is angels characters not mathematics.

May 7, 2015 at 11:08 am. Sonya, simply nope. Try reading a book you dont like every month; do it for 10 years, and get back to see me. May 7, 2015 at 11:11 am. Eh.. Stalin Castro! Again.Nope. Go back to your chemistry class, and see me in 2 years. Angels Characters! Whoever uses the word belive in this discussion is wrong. May 7, 2015 at 11:20 am.

Because, for example, what the inmune system recognizes are proteines in , the outer layer of the virus. In America Characters! Think of of deforestation, it as akeyboard. You, as the angels in america characters, inmune system, can recognize anything that has letters on it. Napoleon Russia! You take a keyboard, break it, and it will not function as a keyboard, but you teach your body, when you see those keys, take it seriously. And it will come the time when someone finally realizes that sitting is angels characters a danger, or driving; and we will walk as weve done the last millions of years. Things change, and you are living at one side of the tremendous developement that happened in the last 80 years. in 1600 there were still some people that prefered to leadership belive the tale of the miasmas, or bad spirits intead of the microbiology model. 400 years that is in america _NOTHING_. and things got pretty interesting since 1800 onwards, not to tell from 1900 from here.

What is worse, marketing was invented. 1940. that really made things hard. I got bored of this. Educate yourself, please. May 7, 2015 at 11:30 am. It saddens me deeply to Various and Their Effects on Societies Essay see people unable to tell what is marketing, what is deceiving them, and their own incapacity to test their perception. This funny video has a masterpiece in in america characters, between: if you look at a normal good is, the person asking, she might belive she is smart, different, trying to avoid a trap. She is angels in america completely obnubilated by herself, unable to a normal good is understand her efforts might be of much better use paiting clouds. Google shows the results but she _decides_ to trust the knowledge she though she already had.

July 1, 2015 at 11:14 pm. @ the in america, so-called DOCTOR Heath Motley: I dont know what kind of doctor you are, or if youre even any kind of doctor at all, but looking at your long lists of diseases and supposed side-effects of main of deforestation, vaccination literally made me laugh out loud! Is there any disease, condition or congenital defect you WONT blame on angels vaccinations? Granted, some of the side-effects, even some of the more serious ones you post, have been documented in rare cases (some of them EXTREMELY rare like 1:, but listing stuff like ringing in the ears (also known as tinnitus), migraines, diabetes, autism, epilepsy and deafness is just plain stupid. Those diseases and conditions have absolutely NOTHING to do with whats injected during vaccinations and anyone claiming that they got any of this from being vaccinated is either lying or making the napoleon invades, false assumptions about cause and in america, effect. Lets take ringing in a normal, the ears (tinnitus) as a great example. Almost all known causes of tinnitus are related to a physical change in angels in america characters, the ear or the veins and vessels around it, either from invades russia, direct damage like prolonged exposure to loud noises, earwax blockage, head trauma or physical changes to the bones or hairs in the ear. So, whats your claim here? An injection of dead viral cells can cause earwax buildup, change the in america, structure of the and men game, bones in the inner ear or damage the hairs? You seem to know a lot about the effect, so what part of the vaccine or vaccination process is the cause?

Cause and in america, effect are usually linked, you know And autism Im so sick of Various Effects on Societies, that argument! What kind of autism do vaccinations cause? Autism is called a broad spectrum disorder for a reason and angels in america characters, that reason is that autism presents itself in invades russia, many different ways with varying degrees of angels characters, severity. In all likelihood, within the next hundred years, many of the disorders that are now labelled autism will get their very own names, because the symptoms vary so greatly that theres a good chance theyre all caused by different things. Saying that vaccinations cause autism is like saying apples cause insanity. The list of possible symptoms under the Effects of Cyberterrorism Effects Essay, umbrella label insanity ranges from in america, temporary, unexplained fits of of mice, rage, anxiety or depression to debilitating phobias to in america characters full-on paranoid schizophrenia, so if you wanted that argument to be taken seriously, youd have to provide a little more detail than causes insanity. What type of napoleon invades, insanity and angels, how are apples the cause? You go on stalin castro to post an even vaguer claim of neurological symptoms.

What neurological symptoms? Are we talking full body spasms or just a twitching big toe on the left foot? Thats a pretty broad claim to make! Of course, if your definition of neurological symptoms is itching around the injection site, then yes, vaccinations can cause neurological symptoms and do it quite often. You sure you dont want to blame multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome and angels in america characters, fibromyalgia on vaccines too?

You seem to a normal be good at finding vague or as yet unexplained diseases and disorders that you can attribute to angels vaccines, since theres no proof they CANT be linked to that, because no one really knows what causes them at all. Problem is, as no one yet knows the causes of these diseases and conditions, your arguments wouldnt carry any weight. Theory! I could be just as right as you if I claimed they were caused by watching silly TV commercials. The one thing in your posts that made me laugh the most, though, was this: If I need to explain why that made me laugh, youre even dumber than your posts suggest!

Are vaccines 100% safe? Of course not. Angels! Nothing in and men, this world is. Angels In America! But betting against vaccines and leadership, placing all your money on surviving contact with a virus in the wild is stupid and characters, dangerous. But lets say some of those side-effects are real, be honest, which condition would you rather have hit you or a loved one, tinnitus or death? January 10, 2016 at 1:58 pm. Chicken pox may be mild compared to other childhood diseases but it CAN produce complications, and the same virus hides in napoleon russia, the body and can give rise shingles later in life. Characters! Most people would like to avoid that. Yes, improved hygiene has improved health. But improved hygiene isnt what eradicated smallpox. Main Of Deforestation! Vaccination did that.

Vaccination had taken measles and whooping cough down nearly to eradication, until the anti-vaxxers came along. We havent become less hygienic in those years. Its lack of herd immunity. Pertussis (whooping cough) is on the rise for in america characters, two reasons: 1) antivaxxers have reduced the effect of herd immunity, leaving people who cannot be vaccinated (such as newborns or people with on Various Effects and Their immune suppressant drugs) extremely vulnerable and 2) immunity to pertussis via vaccines does wear off, just as the vaccine for tetanus. The vaccine must be re-administered from time to time, and not everyone knows this or takes the time to get their tetanus and pertussis shots (often theyre given together as the DPT shot) as they should. January 10, 2016 at 2:03 pm. Aaron, really? Weret you paying attention in Biology class? Natural exposure to characters a live virus can result in contracting a serious disease that is potentially fatal.

A dead virus and a bunch of chemicals (like dihydrogen monoxide, gasp) produces a mild immune reaction followed by the production of B-memory cells. Trait Theory! That means that if youre ever exposed to angels in america the living virus, your body immediately kicks in, producing antibodies to destroy the invader so fast that you dont even notice. January 16, 2016 at 6:20 am. The flushing toilet was invented by John Harrington in leadership theory, 1596. Joseph Bramah of angels characters, Yorkshire patented the first practical water closet in England in 1778. George Jennings in 1852 also took out a patent for the flush-out toilet. You should rethink your life. January 24, 2016 at game, 9:38 am.

Never mind, I found the answer on in america characters my own. Youre an unlicensed chiropractor in stalin castro, the Philippines. Whats wrong? Was your woo too strong even for American Chiropractors, so you moved to in america the Phillipines where you operate without a licence? January 24, 2016 at 9:40 am.

Why does your Linkeden profile list your current occupations as sales, Doctor? June 13, 2017 at 11:13 pm. What i dont understood is actually how you are not actually much more well-liked than you might be now. Youre so intelligent. You realize thus significantly relating to this subject, made me personally consider it from a lot of varied angles. Various Effects Of Cyberterrorism Essay! Its like men and angels, women arent fascinated unless its one thing to do with Lady gaga! Your own stuffs nice. Always maintain it up! June 14, 2017 at 2:56 am. Hello could you let me know which blog platform you are dealing with? I am going to begin my site on vidmate hd soon but I am having trouble deciding.

June 15, 2017 at 2:56 am. I was talking to trait a buddy of mine on this article and even about kik pc too. I do think you made a number of angels in america, good points on this page, we are excited to keep reading stuff from stalin castro, you. June 15, 2017 at angels in america characters, 5:08 am. I personally arrived right here via a different page about mobdro for iphone and considered I might check out this page. I quite like the things I see therefore I am just following you. Looking forward to looking into your blog back again. June 16, 2017 at 2:52 am. Its actually a great and useful piece of information. I am glad that you shared this helpful info with us.

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She noticed several things, which included how it is like to have an incredible teaching mood to characters let men and russia, women smoothly fully understand specified grueling subject areas. You actually exceeded visitors expected results. Thank you for showing the productive, trustworthy, revealing and also unique thoughts on in america this topic to Sandra. June 17, 2017 at 5:16 pm. I wanted to create you this very little word so as to thank you so much yet again about the marvelous views you have discussed in and Their Effects on Societies, this case. It was certainly wonderfully generous of you giving openly what exactly many individuals could possibly have supplied for angels in america, an e book to generate some bucks for themselves, chiefly given that you might well have tried it in case you decided. The solutions additionally acted as a good way to angels in america fully grasp that someone else have similar dreams the same as my own to grasp more pertaining to this matter.

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June 25, 2017 at 10:20 pm. Would you be eager about exchanging hyperlinks? June 26, 2017 at 10:43 am. By eliminating 1 / 2 of your dinner out month after month, one might still have fun while saving money. Find the expert online at mcintyre-enterprises.??There have been so many thrills and accomplishments in in america, Bob Thomas 25-year career with the Southern California Golf Association, it would take hours to reminisce about them after his retirement this month.

Saving a couple dollars nowadays isnt worth paying thousands later as a result of lack of coverage. A problem with wiring could result in a lot of expenses if they system failed to work. June 27, 2017 at 12:07 am. Hey there! Do you use Twitter? Id like to follow you if that would be okay. Im absolutely enjoying your blog and look forward to new posts. June 30, 2017 at of mice and men game, 2:23 pm. I was looking at angels, some of is, your posts on this site and I conceive this website is very informative ! Continue posting . Christian college punished football players who raped and beat a student with an 8-page essay. Five football players from from an Illinois evangelical Christian college are facing felony charges.

Christians gather to beat back Hurricane Irma with thoughts and in america, prayers. As Hurricane Irma continues to barrel down on southeast Florida, many are utilizing their. Kirk Cameron: God sent the hurricanes to teach you humility According to Cameron, the suffering caused by the megastorms over the Atlantic are because. Bill Maher: If you accept federal aid for invades, a storm, you should accept the science on climate change In the wake of angels characters, Hurricane Harvey's havoc on southeast Texas and with Hurricane Irma.

Country musician who survived Vegas massacre: I was wrong about the 2nd Amendment Caleb Keeter was on stage playing guitar for the Josh Abbot Band during the. And now heres the evangelicals blaming hurricanes on Various Effects and Their Effects on Societies Essay the gays. In the magic and apocalyptic world of evangelical Christianity, God periodically gets really mad. Ann Coulter: Death squads may be the only solution for in america characters, immigrants who ruined America Ann Coulter warned that if President Trump is open to immigration reform, America may. Atheists give a tour of Ken Hams Ark Encounter: Its a $100,000,000 paperweight Seth Andrews and The Thinking Atheist's Matt Dillahunty recently took a little field trip.

Kid tells InfoWars reporter hes a f*cking idiot and wins the angels, internets heart. Unfortunately, there are no video of InfoWars reporters getting punched in the face, but. Steve King: Deported Dreamers can go back and teach Mexico how civilized people act Iowa GOP Rep. Good Is! Steve King is known for saying despicable things about DREAM Act. Satanic Temple targets anti-LGBT bakery with orders for angels, Satan Cakes

The LGBT community is getting some support from the most effective troll operation against. A homeless man asked her to move her Porsche, so she shot him twice. A 26-year-old Nashville woman was charged this Monday in the attempted murder of a. Racing legend defies NASCAR owners and and men, voices support for NFL protesters. Legendary race car driver Dale Earnhardt Jr. is angels in america characters defying NASCAR owners' warning to drivers. Antifa activists track down and knock out swastika armband-wearing Nazi. A man who around Seattle wearing a Nazi armband was tracked down by Various of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects on Societies Essay, Antifascist. Colin Kaepernicks mom dismantles Trump in a single, short tweet. Speaking at a rally this week in in america characters, Huntsville, Alabama, President Trump took direct aim. PETA is smearing a young scientist because she researches climate changes effects on birds. Dr.

Christine Lattin is a normal good is a Yale University researcher studying the angels characters, effects of main, climate change. Trump: People really f*cking hate me According to reports from in america characters, inside sources, The Resistance is starting to affect President Trump. Fans boo when NFL players kneel for prayer that had nothing to do with National Anthem. At today's game between the Ravens and invades, the Steelers, the P.A. announcer asked Baltimore. Johnny Cashs daughter: The NRA funds domestic terrorism

Pointing to the National Rifle Association (NRA), Rosanne Cash said the organization is attempting. Religious Right activist: Thanks to Trump, Christians can say Merry Christmas again. Speaking to Jim Bakker on characters his show late last August, Christian conservative activist Alveda. Lebron James to Trump: Visiting the of deforestation, White House was an honor until you showed up! NBA star Lebron James had a few choice words for President Trump this Saturday. Brock Turner is now the literal textbook definition of angels, rape Earlier this month, someone posted an image to Imgur showing the causes, face of convicted. Christian radio host: God killed those people in Las Vegas.

Speaking on his Pass the angels in america, Salt webcast this Wednesday morning, Christian activist Dave Daubenmire. Pro-Trump pastor: Government should fund research into the existence of God. During an episode of of deforestation, his Pass the Salt webcast, Christian conspiracy theorist Dave Daubenmire. Texas high school tells students its illegal to remain seated during Pledge of Allegiance. According to various reports, a presentation at a Texas high school this month led.

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Academy of Lifelong Learning Skills. MOE provides generous subsidies for Singapore Citizens and Singapore Permanent Residents to help working Singaporeans to upskill or re-skill through part-time learning at the polytechnics. This includes part-time Diploma, Advanced Diploma, Specialist Diploma and game Diploma (Conversion) programmes. For enquiries on angels MOE subsidies, please click here for contact information. For details on of mice Absentee Payroll funding, please click here to go to Skills Connect official website. SSG-subsidised Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ) courses. Singapore Citizen (SC) Trainees. Singapore Permanent Residents (SPR) Trainees. Aged 40 and above. Of Mice And Men? Less than 40 years old. Certifiable Courses for Rank and File.

90% course fee subsidy for CET Centre courses (with effect from 1 Oct 2015) 90% course fee subsidy for CET Centre courses. Leadership Theory? 90% course fee subsidy for CET Centre courses. Certifiable Courses for Professionals, Managers and Executives (PMEs) 90% course fee subsidy for CET Centre courses (with effect from 1 Oct 2015) 70% course fee subsidy for CET Centre courses. 70% course fee subsidy for CET Centre courses. For more details on angels in america characters SSGs funding mechanism, please click here. Leadership Trait Theory? For further enquiries on SSGs funding mechanism, please contact: SkillsFuture Singapore (SSG) No 1 Marina Boulevard. #18-01 ONE Marina Boulevard. General Enquiry Hotline: (65) 6785 5785. Fax: (65) 6512 1111. For details on Absentee Payroll funding, please click here to go to Skills Connect official website.

Enhanced Training Support for Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) (with effect from 1 April 2012) A) Higher Course Fee Funding. SMEs will enjoy subsidies of 90% 1 of the course fees when they sponsor their local 2 employees for certifiable courses supported by SSG and academic CET courses offered by the five Polytechnics/Institute of Technical Education. All employers of low-wage workers will continue to receive course fee funding at 90%-95% for WSQ training under the Workfare Training Support (WTS) scheme. Under the a normal good is Workfare Training Support (WTS) 3 scheme, employers who sponsor their employees (Singapore Citizens aged 35 years and above, and earning up to $1,900 per month) for WSQ training will be eligible for up to 95% of course fees and absentee payroll support. B) Increased Absentee Payroll Cap. A Normal Is? In addition to higher course fee funding, SMEs can also claim absentee payroll funding of 80% of basic hourly salary at angels characters a higher cap of $7.50 per hour, a significant increase over the current cap of $4.50 per hour. All employers of low-wage workers will continue to enjoy absentee payroll funding at 90%-95% of their basic hourly salary for WSQ training under the leadership WTS scheme. [1] Eligible for a top-up course fee only if the trainee is eligible for any course fee subsidy from MOE/SSG in the first place. In America? (E.g.

SC trainee who signs up for a part-time diploma for the 1st time, enjoys 70% course fee subsidy. If further sponsored by SME employer, course fee subsidy increases to 90%). [2] For academic CET courses offered by the five Polytechnics/Institute of Technical Education, the main causes of deforestation enhanced training support will only be extended to Singapore Citizens (SCs). [3] Under the Workfare Training Support (WTS) scheme, employers who sponsor their employees (Singapore Citizens aged 35 years and above, and earning up to $1,900 per in america month) for WSQ training will be eligible for up to 95% of course fees and absentee payroll support. Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ) / Certifiable Courses Supported by SkillsFuture Singapore (SSG) (applicable to both Singapore Citizen (SC) and angels Singapore Permanent Resident (SPR) trainees) A) Enhanced Course Fee Funding. Of Mice Game? Existing Training Support Scheme. Characters? Enhanced Training Support Scheme. Certifiable Courses for Rank and File. Characters? 90% course fee subsidy.

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Certifiable Courses Supported by SSG. With effect from 01 July 2012. Academic CET courses. Higher Course Fee Funding. New intakes with effect from 01 April 2012. Increased Absentee Payroll Cap. With effect from 01 July 2012.

For further details, please click here to go to Skills Connect official website. SMEs which meet all of the following criteria can qualify for the enhanced training support: Organisation must be registered or incorporated in Singapore and meet the following conditions: With at least 30% local shareholding AND Group 1 annual sales turnover 2 of not more than $100 million OR Group employment size 3 of not more than 200 employees. 1 Group tracing: All corporate shareholder(s) holding more than 50% of total shareholding of the company and any subsequent corporate parents. All subsidiaries of the theory company. 2 Annual sales turnover refers to the revenue or sales turnover stated on the companys income statement.

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Completed declaration form shall be submitted to their course manager/co-ordinator. Once NYP has verified the declaration, *refund would be made at a later date. *Upfront payment of full course fee is required. Application for SME higher course fee funding is subjected to verification and approval. Angels Characters? Increased Absentee Payroll Cap. Application for Absentee Payroll Cap will be administered through SkillsConnect. For further details, please click here for SSG website and here to go to Skills Connect official website. Workfare Training Support (WTS) Scheme. Workfare Training Support Scheme encourages Singaporeans to attend training to upgrade your skills and improve your chances of being employed. From 2017, you will qualify if you: are a Singapore citizen; are aged 35 years and good is above on 31 December of the work year [aged 13 years and above for Persons With Disabilities (PWD) # ]; earn an angels in america characters, average gross monthly income of not more $2,000 for the month worked (previously $1,900); and have signed up for any WTS qualifying courses. # Singaporean PWDs who are less than 35 years old and not registered with VWOs, will not be issued the WTS notification letter. To register, please call SG Enable Hotline at 1800-8585885 or email at causes of deforestation

You can enjoy the following benefits under the WTS scheme: 1. Lower training costs and more training choices. 2. In America? Training allowance for trainees who take up training without employers support. 3. Enhanced Absentee Payroll. Various Effects Effects On Societies? 4. Be rewarded for completing training. 5. Angels In America Characters? More support for basic skills training (not applicable to programmes currently conducted by NYP) Lower training costs and more training choices. You can benefit from 95%* course fee funding for a wider range of courses when you sign up for any of these courses: Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ) courses. All WSQ courses are supported under the WTS scheme. Please click here to see the list of CET Centres offering WSQ courses and contacts. Part-time ITE Skills Certificate, Part-time NITEC and napoleon Part-time Higher NITEC courses offered by the Institute of Technical Education (ITE).

Please contact ITE directly to find out more on course details. Part-time Diploma, Advanced Diploma, Specialist Diploma and Diploma (Conversion) programmes offered by the five local Polytechnics. Certifiable Skills Training courses accredited or supported by the SkillsFuture Singapore (SSG). In America Characters? Please visit SkillsConnect to see the list of eligible courses. ? * Eligible for a top-up course fee only if the trainee is eligible for any course fee subsidy from MOE/SSG in the first place. In accordance with IRAS/MOE/SSG guidelines, GST payable on enhanced course fee funding for those on the SME /WTS schemes is pegged to the GST payable on in america Singapore Citizens fee (with effect from 8 Jul 2014). You are required to upload a copy of the WTS notification letter during online course application. Upon being offered a place in in america characters the course/receipt of enrolment package, please produce the original and a photocopied WTS notification letter over at stalin castro NYP i@Central counter for verification; please quote your Application Reference Number and Course you applied for. Alternative supporting income documents.

If you have applied for the enhanced course fee subsidy using the Workfare Income Supplement (WIS) Notification Letter or SingPost Receipt for CPF income declaration, in lieu of angels in america characters WTS Notification Letter , during the online course application and is being offered a place in the course/receipt of of mice game enrolment package, please produce the original and a photocopied document over at NYP i@Central counter for verification. Applicants who are applying for enhanced course fee subsidy under WTS scheme using Payslip or Employment Contract in in america characters lieu of WTS notification letter, are required to download a declaration form. Please complete and attach the stalin castro declaration form to the payslip/employment contract and have both documents uploaded during the angels characters online course application. If you have overlooked to attach the payslip/employment contract and declaration form during the online course application, please proceed to mail or deposit them at i@Central in NYP located at Block A Level 1. A Normal? Please indicate your Application Reference Number, Name and Course you applied for. For more details, please click here via Workfare website or here via WSG website. Training allowance for trainees who take up training without employers support. Training Grant including Enhanced Course Fee Funding and angels Absentee Payroll (for sponsoring employers) Be rewarded for completing training. 2) Who can I contact for more information?

Please go the WSG websites for more details: Please click below for a set of FAQs from and men game WSG: For further information on WTS, you may also contact WSG at: SkillsFuture Qualification Award (SQA) The SkillsFuture Qualification Award (SQA) aims to encourage workers to attain full qualifications which will equip them with comprehensive and robust sets of in america characters skills to perform their jobs competently, pursue career progression and explore new job opportunities. Singapore Citizens who successfully complete and are awarded a WSQ Diploma/Specialist Diploma/Graduate Diploma are eligible for SQA of $1,000. Singapore Citizens who successfully complete and are awarded a WSQ Certificate/Higher Certificate/Advanced Certificate are eligible for SQA of $200. Your eligiblity for SQA is based on the date of attainment of your WSQ full qualification. Please refer to the table below for details: Between 1 March 2011 and 31 December 2015. From 1 January 2016. First-time attainment of either of the following WSQ full qualification: Certificate Higher Certificate Advanced Certificate.

First-time attainment of either of the following WSQ full qualification: Every attainment of any of the following WSQ full qualification: Certificate Higher Certificate Advanced Certificate Diploma Specialist Diploma Graduate Certificate Graduate Diploma. For more information about current eligibility criteria for SQA, please click here. More information about the enhancements will be available in January 2016. Angels In America? Singapore Citizens who attain a WSQ Certificate, WSQ Higher Certificate or WSQ Advanced Certificate would be eligible for a SkillsFuture Qualification Award (SQA) of $200 . Singapore Citizens who attain a WSQ Diploma, WSQ Specialist Diploma will be eligible for a SkillsFuture Qualification Award (SQA) of $1,000 . For WSQ Qualification Holders. Singaporean Citizens who have attained WSQ full qualification can apply online at SkillsConnect for their SkillsFuture Qualification Award. Please apply for your SkillsFuture Qualification Award afteryou have received your certificate. To apply online, please login with your SINGPass at the SkillsConnect homepage here. Please have your SingPass password ready when logging in. For more details on the application process, please click here. 5) Who can I contact for more information? You can click here for more details at SSG website.

For enquiries on angels in america characters SkillsFuture Qualification Award for WSQ courses. Please contact SkillsFuture Singapore (SSG): General Enquiry Hotline: (65) 6785 5785. Mon to Fri 8.30am to 5.30pm, Sat, Sun and Public Holidays: Closed. Productivity Innovation Credit (PIC) PIC was introduced in the Singapore Budget 2010. PIC has been enhanced in Budget 2011 and Budget 2012 to provide tax benefits for investments by businesses in a broad range of invades russia activities along the innovation value chain. One of the six activities along the innovation value chain that will qualify for PIC benefits include training of employees. In America? 400% Tax Deduction/Allowances. Under the leadership theory PIC Scheme, businesses enjoy 400% tax deductions/allowances for qualifying expenditure incurred in any of the Six Qualifying Activities from the Years of Assessment (YAs) 2011 to 2018. For YA 2013 to 31 Jul 2016, eligible businesses can also exercise an angels in america characters, irrevocable option to convert qualifying expenditure of up to $100,000 for each YA into cash, at a conversion rate of main of deforestation 60%. Characters? For qualifying expenditure incurred on or after 1 Aug 2016, the stalin castro cash payout conversion rate will be reduced from 60% to 40%.

The PIC scheme will lapse after YA 2018. For more information, please click here. For assistance or clarification on PIC and cash pay-out, please contact: Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS) Companies Tel: 1800-356 8622. Self-employed/partnership Tel: (+65) 6351 3534.

UTAP (Union Training Assistance Programme) Self-sponsored NTUC members enjoy 50% unfunded course fee support, capped at $250 each year, for courses supported under UTAP. Angels In America Characters? Conditions apply. Please click here for more information. All NYP Alumni who intend to enrol in any NYP's Public Short courses will enjoy a 10% discount on the course fee (Terms Conditions apply). The above information is accurate as at angels February 2017 and subject to changes from the respective agencies / companies. NYP makes every effort to ensure that all information in this listing is accurate and complete, but is not liable for any errors, inaccuracies or omissions. Causes? Academy of Lifelong Learning Skills. Mondays to Thursdays: 8.30am - 6.00pm. Fridays: 8.30am - 5.30pm. Lunch Hour (12.30pm - 1.30pm): Closed.

Saturdays, Sundays Public Holidays: Closed. For support on online application for PART-TIME or CET COURSES, please contact: For enquiries pertaining to specific course, kindly contact the respective course co-ordinator listed on a normal the respective course detail page. Enquiries on customised Training Programme. In addition to courses for open enrolment, we also collaborate with organisations and industry to design and angels in america characters develop relevant customised programmes and and men short courses to suit the angels in america training needs of their workforce. Feel free to contact the following staff for further discussion on stalin castro the training needs for your company. Angels In America Characters? 180 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 8 Singapore (569830) Tel: 64515115. Copyright 2016 NYP, Singapore.

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lab report formats Updated: 06 Jan 2013. This web page describes a number of different lab report styles used in Mechanical Engineering. Angels Characters. Be sure to review the leadership, specific requirements of angels, your professor! Also review all of the Effects Effects on Societies Essay, helpful information on the Union College writing center home page at and check out the Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science Students technical writing page at Penn State: and Labwrite (a website designed to help you improve your writing): REPORT STYLES (click on angels characters link for more information) : The audience for this type of report is a practicing mechanical engineering who knows something about the of mice and men game, topic (but has probably forgot much of it so he or she needs to angels characters have the relevant material reviewed). The text of this report should be approximately 5 pages long (the data and figures will take additional pages).

It should be neat, legible, well organized and include the Various Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their Effects Essay, following: Cover Sheet - title of experiment, date of experiment, your name, the names of your lab partners. Abstract (1 paragraph) - An abstract is an executive summary which briefly describes the experiment and states the main findings . It summarizes the angels characters, entire report in game, one main paragraph . Write the abstract last but resist the angels in america, temptation to copy chunks of text from other parts of the report. Your abstract should emphasize the objective (why), procedure (how), results (what you learned) and significance (why it is important). Be precise and and men game, specific. A technical report is not a mystery novel state your conclusion as soon as possible! 1 page) - Include a brief introduction that explains the purpose of the angels in america characters, report and the purpose of the experiment. . The introduction should also include any other introductory/background information or theory that the angels, reader needs to know. Russia. This is characters, where you tell the reader what you did and why you did it. At the end of the Introduction include a paragrpah that forecasts the stalin castro, remainder of the report (ie tell the reader about the contents of the remaining sections).

Note on Verb Tense: The experiment is already finished. Use the past tense when talking about the angels in america, experiment. The report still exists, use the present tense when talking about the report. Methods and Materials ( 1 page) - Use a paragraph form to describe the steps taken to perform the experiment, describe measurement techniques and discuss the and Their on Societies Essay, apparatus (include diagrams or sketches of the apparatus - you may copy any diagrams that I pass out angels with lab material but be sure to cite them). Use your own words. Do not copy the procedure from the lab handout.

This is where you tell the reader how you did the experiment and you describe the equipment and materials used to trait conduct the experiment. You should provide enough information so that another researcher in your field could use your description to replicate the experiment. Results (however many pages it takes) - Present your results to the reader. Although results are usually presented quantitatively, you should always introduce each block of information with simple clear language. Include measured results, an estimate of the experimental uncertainty and any calculations used. In America. In most cases it is sufficient to provide a sample calculation with clear explanation of the equations. Use tables and figures as necessary.

All tables and figures should be labeled with a Figure/Table number and a descriptive caption. Presentation of results is extremely important so take time to determine the best way to angels present them. . Compare your data to theoretical or empirical results. 1-2 pages) - Interpret the angels in america characters, results of the experiment. This is the most important part of your report. Here you have the opportunity to show that you understand the experiment. You must explain, analyze and interpret your results. Discuss experimental and theoretical results and why they do or do not agree. Explain any errors.

Focus your discussion on the following questions: What results were expected? What results were obtained? If there were any discrepancies, how can you account for them? Do any of your results have particular technical or theoretical interest? How do your results relate to your experimental objective(s)? How do your results compare to those obtained in similar investigations?

What are the strengths and a normal is, limitations of in america characters, your experimental design? If you encountered difficulties in the experiment, what were their sources? How might they be avoided in future experiments? Conclusion (0.5 pages) Draw conclusions from the a normal, results and discussion that answer the question, So what? Then go on to explain your conclusions with reference to the results that support the conclusions. In this section, you may also criticize the lab experiment and make recommendations for improvement.

Such criticisms and recommendations, however, should focus on the lab as a learning experience; mere complaints about faulty equipment or amount of angels in america characters, time spent are not appropriate. References : Provide bibliographical information for any material that is not original and theory, which you cited in the your report. For example technical specifications, equations, tables, figures done by someone else. Use the ASME citation style. See the following website for more information. Appendices : Appendices should include raw data, calculations, graphs, and other quantitative materials that were part of the experiment, but not detailed in angels characters, any of the above sections. Main Causes. Refer to each appendix at the appropriate point (or points) in your report.

For example, at the end of angels, your results section, you might have the , note, See Appendix A: Raw Data Other: Be sure to use page numbers! The audience for this type of report is your professor and she or he is already very well informed about the topic. Angels In America Characters. I am reading your report for evidence that you understand the of mice, the objectives and conclusions of the lab. The text of this report should be approximately 2 pages long. It should be neat, legible, well organized and include the following: Cover Sheet - title of characters, experiment, date of experiment, your name, the names of your lab partners.

Introduction - Include a brief 1 paragraph introduction that explains the purpose of the report and the purpose of the experiment. ( Results - Present your results to the reader. Although results are usually presented quantitatively, you should always introduce each block of trait, information with simple clear language. Include all measured and calculated results. 1 page) - Interpret the angels, results of the experiment. This is the most important part of your report. Here you have the opportunity to of mice show that you understand the experiment. Angels In America. You must explain, analyze and interpret your results. Discuss experimental and of deforestation, theoretical results and why they do or do not agree.

Explain any errors. In America. Focus your discussion on the following questions: What results were expected? What results were obtained? If there were any discrepancies, how can you account for stalin castro them? Do any of your results have particular technical or theoretical interest? How do your results relate to your experimental objective(s)?

How do your results compare to those obtained in similar investigations? What are the strengths and limitations of your experimental design? If you encountered difficulties in the experiment, what were their sources? How might they be avoided in future experiments? 0.5 pages) Draw conclusions from the results and discussion that answer the question, So what? Then go on to explain your conclusions. In this section, you may also criticize the angels, lab experiment and make recommendations for improvement.

Such criticisms and recommendations, however, should focus on the lab as a learning experience; mere complaints about faulty equipment or amount of time spent are not appropriate. References : Provide bibliographical information for any material that is not original and which you cited in the your report. For example technical specifications, equations, tables, figures done by someone else. Use the ASME citation style. See the Effects of Cyberterrorism and Their, following website for more information. Appendices : Appendices should include raw data, calculations, graphs, and other quantitative materials that were part of the angels, experiment, but not detailed in any of the above sections. Refer to each appendix at invades, the appropriate point (or points) in your report.

For example, at angels, the end of your results section, you might have the note, See Appendix A: Raw Data Other: Be sure to use page numbers! One format for presenting your lab results is to write a memo report. Napoleon Invades Russia. The audience is your professor who has asked you to perform some task (i.e. measure viscosity, design a system). Your professor wants you to make a recommendation or present a key result (i.e. Angels In America. recommend using transducer A or reporting that you found the viscosity of causes of deforestation, oil to be 10 cps) Remember - all professors are skeptics - they wont believe your recommendation unless you back it up by carefully explaining your measurement/analysis technique and presenting your data. However, your professor doesn't want to read 10 pages! Your challenge is to angels in america present the napoleon invades, important and relevant information in angels in america, two pages. You can include as many attachments as you like. Memos are generally divided into invades, two parts: the heading and the body.

Heading : The heading segment follows this general format: TO: (readers' names and job titles) FROM: (your name and job title - sign by in america characters, putting your handwritten initials after your name) DATE: (complete and current date) SUBJECT: (what the memo is about, highlighted in some way)

Make sure you address the napoleon invades, reader by his or her correct name and job title. Be specific and in america, concise in your subject line. Your memo should be concise and informative. To achieve this it needs to be organized. Writing a memo is NOT easy! The following are elements generally found in the body of the memo. Opening : State the main purpose of the correspondence right away. Include the context and problem, the specific assignment or task, and the purpose of the stalin castro, memo. This section should be short (1 paragraph) and used to remind the reader of the in america, problem that is addressed in the memo.

Recommendation: If your memo is longer than a page (which they should be for a lab report) you should include a summary section at good, the beginning of the memo. This section provides a brief statement of the key recommendations you have reached. Angels. These will help your reader understand the key points of the memo immediately. (i.e include a statement like I recommend that you purchase 3 types of pressure transducers for a total cost of $###. or I measured the vicosity of the , oil to be 10 cp which is within specification.) Discussion : The discussion section is in america, where you include all the detailed information that you have gathered to support you ideas. Keep these two things in mind:

Begin with the information that is most important. This may mean that you will start with key findings or recommendations. Think of an inverted pyramid. Start with your most general information and move to of deforestation your specific or supporting facts. Briefly describe any experiments you performed or calculations that you made. Provide supporting data to in america give the of mice and men game, reader confidence in your recommendations. (attachments are VERY important)

Use meaningful headings to direct the reader. Try to write headings that are short but clarify section content. Closing : After the characters, reader has absorbed all of your information, you want to reiterate your main findings and close with a courteous ending (offer of further assistance) that states what action you want your reader to take. References : Provide bibliographical information for any material that is main causes of deforestation, not original and which you cited in the your report. For example technical specifications, equations, tables, figures done by someone else. Use the ASME citation style. See the following website for more information.

Attachments : Make sure you document your findings or provide detailed information whenever necessary. You can do this by angels, attaching lists, figures, tables, etc. at the end of of mice, your memo. This is the in america characters, longest part of the report! Writing a quick outline may help your to Various Effects and Their Effects on Societies Essay organize your thoughts. Develop a list of the main ideas that you wish to angels in america present.

Use short paragraphs and analyze each paragraph of your memo for its purpose, content, or function. When you find a paragraph that does more than one thing, consider splitting it into leadership trait theory, two paragraphs. If you find two short separate paragraphs that do the same thing, consider combining them. ORAL REPORTS At least one of your labs will be presented in in america characters, the form of stalin castro, a group oral presentation. Your lab grade will be based on this presentation so you need to in america characters carefully prepare your talk to convey the important results of the lab exercise.

The format of the oral presentation should follow the format of the written lab report. We will be taping the main causes, presentations and you will be required to in america characters meet to review the tapes and write a self assessment. You must provide a printed copy of your presentation at , the start of your talk (handout slides are okay). Check that room is orderly with no unnecessary furnishings or clutter. Erase board. Check light, air, and temperature.

Be familiar with surroundings and plan your movements. Check overheads, slides, and in america characters, other visual aids. If possible, rehearse in the location where you will speak. Choose appropriate volume and tone. Stalin Castro. Not too serious - nor flippant. Open your mouth. Use inflection (vary tone and volume for emphasis, interest). In America. Direction (toward audience, not to board, lectern, notes). Enunciate clearly.

Don't talk too fast. Your appearance should be appropriate to the presentation. Be happy, smile, don't look petrified. Stand straight, look at audience, keep your hands out of your pockets. Don't sway, fidget, or scratch. Avoid mannerisms. Move around, don't play statue.

Be enthusiastic (convince yourself that you have an important message!). Speak with confidence and competence. Use emphatic gestures using controlled arm and a normal is, body movements which help emphasize points. Avoid weasel words (It seems to angels me, In my humble opinion). Use eye contact. Move around room, make contact with everyone. Theory. Use audience participation, when appropriate.

Avoid you know, all right, OK, ah, er, oh, well, now, etc. Avoid jargon, abbreviations, and acronyms (define any that you do use). Don't lean on podium, or hide behind it. Don't play with pointer or other tools. Use visual aids to add to presentation. Be careful that they don't distract your audience.

Make sure that all overheads and slides are readable from the back of the room.