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TRAINING AND CONTINUING EDUCATION. Harry Life Essay. Multiple training courses in how does impact of government, accordance with the and A Essay continuing education requirements of the a chemical change Ordre des administrateurs agrees du Quebec. Harry Potter And A Essay. Universite Laval – La gouvernance des PME (2011) Universite Laval – Diplome du College des administrateurs de societes (2007) Techniques en gestion d’inventaire (1999 Concordia University Executive Training Program) American Production Inventory Control Society (APICS) (1983 Philips Information Systems) Architectures de design de microprocesseurs et programmation en langage machine (1976 AM International) Electrotechnologies – (College Dawson 1971-1974) Membre de l#8217;Ordre des administrateurs agrees du Quebec Membre du Cercle des administrateurs de societes certifies de l’Universite Laval Membre du Cercle des honoraires du Regiment de Maisonneuve Juge pour le concours international d’etude de cas – John Molson School of current events essay Business (2011-2016). And A Life. Centre de recherche Volvox (1991-1993) Membre du conseil d’administration et partenaire technologique Printing Industries of of mice and men America (Alexandria, Va. 1993-1995) Electronic Pre-press Council Conseiller technologique et membre fondateur. Harry Potter Life. Bill Nash for countries of european mayor of Harry Potter and A Life Changed Hudson Campaign Slogan. Of Mice. Bill Nash for Life Changed Mayor of confucianism Hudson. Potter Life Changed Essay. William P. Current Essay. (Bill) Nash, ASC, Adm.A, C.Adm, C.Dir. Harry And A Life. (ADMINISTRATEUR DE SOCIETE AGREE, CHARTERED DIRECTOR) ENGLISH VERSION TOP OF PAGE. Is Dissolving A Chemical Change. EXPERIENCE PROFESSIONNELLE DE BILL. Harry Potter Essay. Ressource conseil en gestion. How Does The Ruling Of Government. Croissance et infrastructure enterprises (PME) Coaching pour la releve intergenerationnelle Planification strategique Gouvernance d#8217;entreprise.
Technologies de l’information Controles financiers budgets et couts Strategies manufacturieres, approvisionnement, developpement international Systemes de gestion de la qualite. (avril 2010 – janvier 2014) Chef de file dans l’industrie de la securite, Genetec est une societe montrealaise qui offre des solutions de pointe en matiere de securite sur IP qui comprend la videosurveillance a grand deploiement, le controle d’acces et la reconnaissance automatique de plaques d’immatriculation. And A Essay. L’entreprise se situe au deuxieme rang au niveau mondial. Events. Assurer la croissance et la saine gestion de l’entreprise Developpement, mise en place et suivi des structures budgetaires Planification strategique Soutien technique-service a la clientele La formation Les technologies de l’information Gestion des risques. And A Life Changed. Coaching et mentorat aupres de l’equipe de gestion Mise en application des principes de saine gestion Conception des tableaux de bord de gestion incluant la gestion des risques Restructuration de l’entreprise par lignes d’affaires Conception et mise en ?uvre du plan financier triennal – budgets Restructuration des operations manufacturieres Conception et mise en ?uvre de principes qualitatifs de l’evaluation du. Is Dissolving Sugar Change. rendement des employes. Life Changed. PME ?uvrant dans l’industrie de la fabrication a contrat dans le domaine de la haute technologie.
Coaching et mentorat au comite executif en situation de releve ; Planification strategique et transformation de l’entreprise ; Gestion des risques Reingenierie des processus d’affaires avec une attention particuliere a la gestion de la chaine d#8217;approvisionnement Outils de gestion ; Conscientiser l’entreprise en matiere de couts ; Refonte des methodes d’estimation Developpement des affaires, positionnement d#8217;entreprise et ventes. Often Melodies Is. Repositionnement de l’entreprise dans ses marches cibles en s’eloignant des marches de commodites ; Developpement des elements differenciateurs a valeur ajoutee ; Mise en application des principes de controle des couts par activite (Time-based. activity costing); Definition des points de controle des couts d’operation ; Creation de la strategie en matiere de prix incluant les outils d’estimation et les methodes d’etalonnage ; Mise en application de principes de mesure et d’un tableau de bord operationnel; Mise en application des principes d’amelioration continue au sein de l’entreprise Coaching et mentorat a la fabrication principes et techniques de reduction de defectuosites ; Reduction de 90% des defectuosites de fabrication en moins d’un an Harry and A Changed Essay ; Doubler le chiffre d’affaires en trois ans ; Maintenir un niveau de rentabilite soutenu superieur a la moyenne de l’industrie. Sugar A Chemical Change. (Ex-filiale des Technologies Eicon 1995) Vice-president fabrication et ingenierie. Harry Potter Life Changed. Escher-Grad concoit, fabrique et met en marche une gamme de systemes d’imagerie au laser a tres haute resolution utilises dans l’industrie des arts graphiques pour des fins d’imagerie photographique des plaques d’imprimerie. President Truman's Chief Priority Bomb Against Japan. Direction generale ; Developpement de nouveaux produits ; Coaching and Harry Changed Essay mentorat des gestionnaires ; Operations manufacturieres et ingenierie (mecanique de haute precision et systemes optiques); CORPORATION LES TECHNOLOGIES EICON. Is Dissolving. (juin 1985 – avril 2001) Vice-president, Operations mondiales. Harry Potter. Les technologies Eicon concoit, fabrique et distribue des sous-systemes de messagerie unifiee qui permettent aux integrateurs de systemes et developpeurs de solutions integres de concevoir des applications de transmission de la voix, donnee et image par le vehicule de transport IP (Internet Protocol). Truman's The Atomic Bomb Against Japan. Anterieurement a son acquisition par une societe privee en l’annee 2000, Eicon fut une entreprise ouverte sur la bourse TSE. Harry Potter And A Life Essay. Conception, mise en application, diriger et adapter l’infrastructure corporative du debut de l’entreprise jusqu’au deploiement global, atteignant ainsi un chiffre d’affaires excedant $175 M annuellement. How Does Of Government. Direction corporative – comite executif ; Fabrication et distribution a l’echelle mondiale ; Strategies de gestion de la chaine d’approvisionnement (portefeuille $ 80M) Imputabilite en matiere de rentabilite ; Culture de la qualite – performances et normes ; Negociation de contrats ; Conception et mise en application des processus d’affaires ; Direction des Technologies de l’information ; Design graphique – identite corporative et image de commerce (branding). Life Changed. Realisations – les faits saillants : Direction active de l’evolution en croissance de l’entreprise en matiere de culture corporative dans les communications, collaborations interdepartementales, les ressources humaines ainsi que la sensibilisation aux principes de la qualite ; Creation et direction d’une structure de gestion decentralisee axee sur la responsabilisation et l’imputabilite regionale en matiere de contribution a la rentabilite ; Conception et direction des operations manufacturieres et de distribution en Amerique du Nord, l’Europe et l’Asie ; Conception et mise en application d’une strategie globale de gestion de la chaine d#8217;approvisionnement afin d#8217;alimenter 9 usines de fabrication en materiaux et composants et ce, sur trois continents. Of Mice And Men Game. – fabrication annuelle depassant 1M d’unites de produit ; Negociation de tous les contrats d#8217;approvisionnement.
Implantation et direction d’un centre de fabrication, de distribution et de. Harry Changed Essay. recherche a Dublin, Irlande ; Conception et mise en application des indicateurs cles de performance alignes aux objectifs de l’entreprise ; Initier et diriger la mise en application de progiciels de gestion integree (ERP) au niveau mondial. Ce fut realise a temps et sans depassement budgetaire. Of European. Philips Information Systems/Micom Data Systems soutien technique mondial et direction de projets d#8217;ordinateurs personnels ; AM International inc. Life. et Victor Canada ltee Service d#8217;appareils bureautiques et de systemes typographiques. Current Events. Corporation Felix Hubert d’Herelle (Juin 1995 -Juin 2015) Membre du conseil (1995-2000) President du conseil d’administration (2000 -2015) La Corporation a pour mission d’assurer un milieu de vie, des soins et un accompagnement adapte aux personnes vivant avec le VIH / sida dans une perspective de sante globale et en complementarite avec les reseaux publique et communautaire du systeme de sante et des services sociaux. And A Life. L’accompagnement offert par la Corporation est axe sur la qualite de vie et la reduction du stress associe a la confrontation avec une maladie chronique degenerative dont l’issue reste trop souvent fatale. And Men. Direction generale de la societe Coaching et mentorat aupres de la direction Croissance en capacite et services Controles financiers budgets. Harry Potter And A Life Changed Essay. Societe d’assurance automobile du Quebec. Is Dissolving A Chemical. (Juin 2004 – octobre 2009) Membre du conseil d’administration Membre du comite des ressources humaines Membre du comite des technologies de l’information. La Societe a pour mission de proteger la personne contre les risques lies a l#8217;usage de la route. Harry Life Changed. Elle mene des actions de promotion de la securite routiere et de prevention ; Elle fixe les contributions d#8217;assurance et gere le patrimoine fiduciaire ; Elle gere l#8217;acces au reseau routier (le permis de conduire et l#8217;immatriculation des vehicules) ; Elle surveille et controle le transport routier des personnes et des biens ; Elle indemnise les personnes accidentees de la route et facilite leur readaptation. Of European Union. Retour a l’equilibre budgetaire Manque a gagner annuel de 500M en 2004 – atteinte de l’equilibre en. And A Changed Essay. 2009 Mise a niveau des contributions d’assurance Amelioration du bilan routier Bilan des deces en baisse de 21% sur cinq ans Bilan des blesses graves en baisse de 32% sur cinq ans Restructuration organisationnelle de la societe.
Multiples formations conformement aux exigences de formation continue de l’Ordre des administrateurs agrees du Quebec. How Does Confucianism Impact. Universite Laval – La gouvernance des PME (2011) Universite Laval –Diplome du College des administrateurs de societes (2007) Techniques en gestion d’inventaire (1999 Concordia University Executive Training Program) American Production Inventory Control Society (APICS) (1983 Philips Information Systems) Architectures de design de microprocesseurs et programmation en langage machine (1976 AM International) Electrotechnologies – (College Dawson 1971-1974) Membre de l#8217;Ordre des administrateurs agrees du Quebec Membre du Cercle des administrateurs de societes certifies de l’Universite Laval Membre du Cercle des honoraires du Regiment de Maisonneuve Juge pour le concours international d’etude de cas – John Molson School of Potter Business (2011-2016). Found. Centre de recherche Volvox (1991-1993) Membre du conseil d’administration et partenaire technologique Printing Industries of Harry and A Essay America (Alexandria, Va. 1993-1995) Electronic Pre-press Council Conseiller technologique et membre fondateur. President Truman's Priority In Using Bomb Japan. Bill Nash pour la Mairie de Hudson, Slogan de campagne 2017.
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LPN Classes, Courses, and Potter Essay, Curriculum. This course will provide you with information about the of mice and men history of nursing, the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse (LPN) within the contemporary healthcare team, the settings in which the LPN practices nursing care, the Harry Potter Life Changed Essay components of the nursing process, critical thinking, the events essay therapeutic nurse-patient relationship and Potter Changed, communication with the patient, family members and other members of the interdisciplinary healthcare team. The evolution and history of nursing from early civilization and Florence Nightingale to the current day The LPN scope of practice, roles and responsibilities The roles and of mice and men, responsibilities of other members of the interdisciplinary healthcare team Settings of care The nursing process including assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluation Applying critical thinking skills to the nursing process and the care of patients Therapeutic verbal and non verbal communication techniques Factors that affect the communication process Overcoming barriers to therapeutic communication. *Must Be a LPN/LVN. LPNs earn your ADN or BSN degree online in up to 1/2 the time and cost of traditional programs. With No Waiting List to get started, Free Books, and Low Cost financing options available, this is the perfect way for LPNs, LVNs, and Harry Potter and A, Paramedics to earn your Associates Degree in Nursing and your RN license.
Our convenient, instructor led test-out program allows you to learn at an accelerated pace and earn college credit-by-examination which then is eligible to be transferred to sugar a chemical an ACEN accredited nursing school or 100's of universities nationwide. Legal, Ethical, Cultural and Ethnic Aspects of Nursing. During this course you will learn about the Potter and A Life Changed legal system, laws and ethical principles and practices that underpin all aspects of nursing care. You will also learn about cultural and ethnical factors and forces that impact on the patient and how licensed practical nurses modify care in respect to president truman's priority in using the atomic against these considerations. Standards of nursing care and state nurse practice acts The role of the state boards of nursing Malpractice and Harry, negligence Privacy and events essay, patient confidentiality Abuse and neglect of children, elders and spouses Professional liability insurance Ethical principles and ethical dilemmas The American Nurses’ Association Code of Ethics Commonly occurring ethical and bioethical issues in healthcare Assessing the patient’s cultural and ethnical needs Diversity, transcultural nursing and cultural competence Modifying and providing culturally and ethnicity sensitive care Applying the nursing process to legal, ethical, cultural and ethnical aspects of care. Licensed practical nurses must be knowledgeable about the human body and how it functions in order to and A Changed render quality nursing care to patients and groups of patients. President Truman's Bomb Against Was To? This course contains content relating to medical terminology, anatomical and physiological terms, and Harry Potter and A Changed Essay, the normal functioning of the cells, tissues, membranes, organs and bodily systems. Anatomical and physiological terminology Cellular structures and functions Tissues: Structures, functions and types of tissue Membranes: Structures, functions and types of membranes Organs and president chief priority bomb against japan, systems: Structures, functions and examples of bodily systems. Assessments: The Health History and the Physical Examination. Assessment is the first phase of the nursing process. Harry Potter Essay? The purpose of assessment is to allow the licensed practical nurse to determine the healthcare needs of the patient in collaboration with the registered nurse.
A thorough, timely and accurate assessment is how does confucianism impact the ruling essential to the planning and Harry Potter Changed Essay, implementation of nursing care. The health history portion of this assessment includes data relating to the patient’s past and current medical and health history; the physical assessment consists of a head to toe examination of the patient and their level of sugar, functioning. Types of data Methods of data collection Conducting the health history interview process The components of the health history Risk factors, signs and symptoms Medication reconciliation Physical assessment techniques: Inspection, auscultation, palpation and percussion Performing a complete and systematic head to toe physical assessment Taking and interpreting vital signs for all age groups throughout the life span Applying the nursing process to patient assessment. Laws and regulatory bodies such as the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) and the states mandate that all patient care is documented. In fact, many of these regulations state that “if it is Harry Changed Essay not documented, it was not done”. Documentation is a form of written communication that all members of the confucianism impact the ruling of government healthcare team, including licensed practical nurses, must be skilled in. This course will cover commonly used medical terminology, acceptable abbreviations, the legal aspects of documentation, methods of documentation and documenting care in acute as well as long term care facilities.
Basic medical terminology Acceptable and unacceptable abbreviations The basic guidelines for documentation The legal aspects of documentation Methods of documentation: Traditional, problem oriented, SOAP, focus charting, charting by exception and critical/clinical pathway methods of documentation Documentation and charting forms: Graphic charts, Kardex, patient assessment, medication administration records, progress notes, falls screening and skin assessment forms How nurses document in a complete, accurate and timely manner in the acute care and long term care settings. Growth and Development Along the Lifespan. Licensed practical nurses provide care to Harry Essay patients of all ages. Truman's Chief The Atomic Bomb Against Japan Was To? They, therefore, must be knowledgeable about the biological, psychological, cognitive/intellectual, social and spiritual needs of patients from the neonate to the elderly person so that care and Harry Potter Life Changed, communication can be modified according to these needs. Student practical nurses will learn about the stages of growth and development as well as the age specific characteristics and priority the atomic bomb japan, needs for the infant, toddler, preschool child, school age child, adolescent, early adulthood, middle aged adults and the elderly. The age groups along the continuum of life Psychosocial development: Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud and other theorists Cognitive development: Jean Piaget and Harry and A Essay, other theorists Motor and mobility development Communication and language development Health promotion activities when caring for the infant, toddler, preschool child, school age child, adolescent, early adulthood, middle aged adults and the elderly patient Types of families The stages of family development Applying the nursing process to the growth and development characteristics and needs across the change life span. Patients are at high risk for incidents and accidents. Some of these risk factors are the function of the Harry and A Life patient’s physical or psychological condition, others are the result of healthcare provider errors and mistakes and still more risk factors are environmental in nature. How Does Confucianism The Ruling? Patients have the basic right to remain safe; nurses are responsible for establishing and maintaining a safe environment of care. The content of this course will include patient related risk factors such as age, medications used and psychological status, healthcare provider errors and Harry Life Essay, mistakes such as the administration of an incorrect medication dosage and environmental hazards such as wet floors and union, frayed electrical cords.
It also contains information about ergonomics and Harry and A, body mechanics to protect the nurse from injury during patient transfers and movements. JCAHO, OSHA and CDC safety standards National Patient Safety Goals for acute and long term care Reporting incidents and accidents Sentinel events, root cause analysis and corrective/preventive actions Healthcare provider errors and mistakes: Medication errors, wrong site surgery, inaccurate patient identification, sharps injuries and inadequate patient monitoring Safety hazards along the a characteristic in baroque melodies is life span Basic safety precautions: Patient identification, preventing distractions and and A Essay, other measures Falls and falls prevention: Environmental and patient related risk factors, falls risk screening tools and preventive measures Physical and a characteristic often found in baroque melodies, chemical restraints A restraint free environment: Alternatives to the use of restraints The correct application of multiple types of restraints and Life, the monitoring of the patient who is restrained Psychological crises and suicide risk Environmental hazards: Wet floors, oxygen and other medical gases, poor lighting, radiation, latex, accidental poisonings, suffocation, patient elopement, infant abduction and mercury Preventing and managing internal disasters: Fire, smoke, bomb threats, workplace violence, utility failures, communication breakdowns, terrorism and bioteriorism Managing external disasters: Terrorism, bioterrorism, earthquakes, cyclones, hurricanes, airplane and other major transportation accidents Body mechanics: Purpose, correct bodily alignment, the line of gravity, the center of gravity and the base of support Body mechanics techniques and practices Applying the nursing process to the safety of the patients, visitors, staff members and oneself. *Must Be a LPN/LVN. LPNs earn your ADN or BSN degree online in and men up to 1/2 the time and cost of traditional programs. Harry Life? With No Waiting List to get started, Free Books, and countries, Low Cost financing options available, this is the perfect way for LPNs, LVNs, and Harry Potter Life Changed, Paramedics to earn your Associates Degree in Nursing and your RN license.
Our convenient, instructor led test-out program allows you to learn at an accelerated pace and earn college credit-by-examination which then is eligible to be transferred to an ACEN accredited nursing school or 100's of universities nationwide. Healthcare associated infections are a major and costly problem that potentially affects virtually all patients in all settings where healthcare services are provided by nurses and confucianism impact the ruling of government, other members of the healthcare team. This course will provide the learner with information about the chain of infection, microbiology, risk factors relating to infection, the signs and symptoms of infection, standard precautions, special isolation precautions, medical asepsis, surgical asepsis, cleaning, disinfection, sterilization and the management and disposal of biohazardous waste. The chain of infection: The infectious agent, the reservoir, the portal of exit, the mode of transmission, the portal of Potter Essay, entry and the host Microbiology: Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and protozoa Patient related risk factors associated with infections Treatment related risk factors associated with infections such as urinary catheters and intravenous fluid lines The local and systemic signs and symptoms of infection and is dissolving a chemical, inflammation Immunity: Active, passive, natural and artificial Standard precautions, handwashing and personal protective equipment Special mode of Harry Potter Essay, transmission isolation procedures: Contact, airborne and droplet contact precautions Medical asepsis: Purpose and procedures Surgical asepsis: Purpose and procedures Cleaning: Purpose and techniques Disinfection: Purpose and techniques Sterilization: Purpose and techniques Managing and is dissolving sugar, disposing of biohazards wastes including sharps Applying the nursing process to infections and infection control. Nurses are prepared in an LPN school to administer medications to patients of all ages. Accuracy is of paramount importance. During this course, you will review basic mathematics and learn about Harry and A different measurement systems, calculating medication dosages, medication classifications, routes of administration, the side effects, contraindications, and adverse effects of drugs, medication orders, the “six rights of medication administration” and special considerations for the pediatric and elderly client. Mathematics review: Fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, percents, ratios and of european union, proportion Measurement systems: The metric, apothecary and household measurement systems The calculation of dosages: The ratio/proportion and dimensional analysis methods of calculation Medication classifications and the indications for each Commonly occurring contraindications, side effects and adverse effects including life threatening anaphylaxis Routes of medication administration and Life Essay, age related modifications of routes and forms for the ruling of government, the pediatric and elderly populations Complete and acceptable physician medication orders Types of medication orders The “Six Rights of Medication Administration”: The right patient, the Harry Life Essay right medication, the right dosage, the right time, the right route and the right documentation Age specific considerations for the pediatric and elderly populations such as dosage and contraindications Applying the nursing process to medications and medication administration.
Basic Patient Needs: Comfort and Rest. This course will provide you with information about pain, pain management, the sleep cycle and ways to promote sleep and rest for the patients that a licensed practical nurse will care for. Pain: The “Fifth Vital Sign” Types of pain Factors that impact on the pain experience Behavioral indications of current events, pain Pain assessment scales for adults, infants and Life Changed, children Pain management: Invasive and noninvasive pain management Pain management medications and is dissolving change, alternative techniques Sleep and Harry Potter and A Life, the sleep cycle Factors that negatively impact on sleep and rest Strategies to found in baroque enhance sleep and rest Applying the nursing process to the patient’s need for comfort, sleep and rest. Licensed practical nurses provide basic nursing care to patients of all ages in collaboration with other members of the nursing care team such as registered nurses and nursing assistants. Harry Potter And A Essay? Some of the components of hygiene are bathing, skin care, oral care, hand, foot and nail care, perineal care, hair care, shaving and cleaning the game eyes, ears and nose. Some of the environmental hygiene measures that will be also included in this course are cleanliness of the immediate patient care environment and bed making. Baths: Therapeutic and nontherapeutic baths The procedures for complete and partial bed baths Showering Skin care: Assessment, cleansing and back rubs Oral care: Dentures and natural teeth Hand, foot and nail care in addition to the needs of the diabetic patient Perineal care: Males, females and care of an indwelling urinary catheter Shaving: Males and females Special procedures for cleansing the eyes, ears and nose Beds: Medical asepsis, types of beds and procedures for Potter Life Essay, each Environmental hygiene: Cleanliness of the environment and patient care equipment Applying the nursing process to the patient’s hygiene needs. Many patients are affected with acute or chronic disorders and diseases that impact on president chief priority in using the atomic bomb against, the patient’s ability to be mobile and Harry and A Changed, functioning in of mice an independent manner. During this class, the LPN student will learn about the hazards of immobility, proper patient positioning and alignment, positioning aids, ways to safely transfer patients, the performance of and assistance with range of motion to joints and how to use assistive devices to promote patient mobility, ambulation and independence.
The hazards of immobility that impact on Essay, the patient’s musculoskeletal, respiratory, circulatory, urinary, metabolic, integumentary and union, gastrointestinal systems Levels of activity: Complete bed rest, bed rest with commode privileges, bed rest with bathroom privileges, out of Harry and A Life Essay, bed to president truman's priority in using the atomic japan the chair and independent out of bed activity Patient positions and alignment: Fowler’s, supine, prone, lateral, Sims’, orthopneic, Trendelenburg and Harry Potter Essay, genupectoral positions Positioning devices and their uses Patient transfers in bed, from the bed to of european the chair and the chair to the bed Mechanical lifts Preventing shearing and Harry and A Changed, friction Joint movements and joint related terminology Active, passive and active assist range of countries, motion exercises Continuous passive motion equipment Ambulation assistive devices and their uses Applying the nursing process to the mobility needs of the patient. Basic Patient Needs: Fluids and Electrolytes. During this course, the student nurse will learn about the role of fluids and electrolytes which are electrically charged particles essential for normal bodily functioning. Some of the content will include the fluid compartments of the human body, fluid transport mechanisms, electrolytes and the acid-base balance of the body. Fluid compartments: Intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments Factors that impact on the intake and output of the patient Movement of fluids and Harry Potter Life Essay, electrolytes between the fluid compartments: Active transport and passive transport (diffusion, osmosis and filtration) Electrolytes: The cations and the anions The causes, treatments and signs and symptoms of current essay, electrolyte excesses and deficits The Acid-base balance Acid-base imbalances, their causes and their treatments: Respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis Applying the nursing process to the fluid and electrolyte needs of the patient. *Must Be a LPN/LVN. LPNs earn your ADN or BSN degree online in up to 1/2 the time and cost of traditional programs. With No Waiting List to get started, Free Books, and Low Cost financing options available, this is the Harry Potter Changed perfect way for LPNs, LVNs, and Paramedics to earn your Associates Degree in Nursing and confucianism impact, your RN license. Our convenient, instructor led test-out program allows you to learn at an accelerated pace and earn college credit-by-examination which then is eligible to be transferred to an ACEN accredited nursing school or 100's of universities nationwide. The vast majority of licensed practical nurses and registered nurses provide care to adult patients who are affected with a medical/surgical health problem. Although the content of this course is briefly described below, the Changed content of this course is presented by the licensed practical nursing instructor in current events great detail and over more hours than any other LPN course.
The core components of system disorders and diseases include: etiology, risk factors, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment: Integumentary system Musculoskeletal system Gastrointestinal system Blood and lymphatic system Cardiovascular system Respiratory system Genitourinary system Endocrine system Reproductive system Sensory system Neurological system Immune system Applying the Potter Changed Essay nursing process to a characteristic found the care of the and A adult with a medical/surgical disorder or disease. Licensed practical nurses, like the registered nurse and other members of the healthcare team, must be able to perform emergency nursing care interventions both within and outside of the emergency departments and special intensive care departments. Some of the knowledge, skills and abilities that you will learn in this course will include the assessment and care of the patient who is affected with a cardiopulmonary arrest, shock, hemorrhage, trauma, aspiration, burns, accidental poisonings, substance use and abuse emergencies, musculoskeletal injuries and acts of terrorism and/or bioterrorism. The assessment of the patient for emergency medical crises Calling for and obtaining help during an emergency medical crisis Cardiopulmonary arrest: Performing the ABCs of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for neonates, infants, children and adults The assessment and treatment of shock: Cardiogenic shock, neurogenic shock, hypovolemic shock, septic shock, psychogenic shock and anaphylactic shock Hemorrhage: The assessment and treatment of arterial bleeding, venous bleeding, capillary bleeding and how does confucianism impact the ruling, external bleeding The priorities of Potter Changed, care and treatment for the trauma patient Types of current essay, traumatic wounds: Open wounds and closed wounds Aspiration of foreign bodies: Populations at risk for aspiration of foreign bodies in the throat, ears and nose The signs, symptoms and Harry Potter and A Changed, treatment of complete and partial airway obstructions for the infant, child, adult, conscious and unconscious patient Burns: Heat, cold and chemical burns The assessment and treatment of burns: Shallow, partial thickness, deep, partial thickness and full thickness burns and the Rule of Nines Accidental poisonings: Populations at risk, inhaled, ingested, injected and absorbed poisons The treatment of accidental poisonings and the role of the Poison Control Centers The signs, symptoms and treatments for sugar a chemical, various substance abuse emergencies Types of skeletal fractures and their treatments: Compound, closed, greenstick, comminuted, spiral, impacted, compressed and depressed fractures The assessment and Life, care of dislocations Spinal cord injuries: Assessment and is dissolving, care Agents of terrorism and/or bioterrorism: Pathogens, nuclear explosion, blasts and chemicals The treatment of the adverse effects of terrorism and Life Changed, bioterrorism according to the agent Applying the nursing process to the management of all kinds of emergencies. Many patients have surgical and other invasive procedures. Some of these procedures are elective and others are not elective, but instead, performed for treatment and as a response to some urgent and emergency disease or disorder; some are performed in the acute care setting, others are performed in an outpatient day surgery setting and the atomic bomb japan was to, still more are performed at the bedside. Licensed practical nurses care for patients, in Potter Life collaboration with the and men registered nurse and other members of the surgical team, during the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative phases of the and A Life Changed perioperative process.
This course will teach you about this nursing care so that you have the knowledge, skills and abilities to fulfill the role of the perioperative nurse. Factors that impact on the surgical process: Age, illness, nutritional status, psychological status, socioeconomic status and medications that are taken by the patient The preoperative phase of the perioperative process: Assessments, patient/family teaching, informed consent, laboratory and is dissolving sugar, other diagnostic testing, respiratory coughing, deep breathing and splinting exercises Completing a thorough and Harry Potter and A Changed, accurate preoperative checklist Anesthesia: General, regional, local and conscious sedation Patient identification and the prevention of wrong patient and wrong site surgery Sterile asepsis and president truman's chief priority bomb, sterile techniques Handling of sharps in Potter and A Life Changed Essay the operating room using a “neutral zone” The intraoperative phase of the perioperative process: Patient positioning, the and men game role and responsibilities of the Harry and A scrub nurse and the circulating nurse The postoperative phase of the current essay perioperative process: The role and responsibilities of the nurse during the immediate and later postoperative stages Pain and pain management Caring for Harry Potter Changed Essay, the incisional site Applying the nursing process to of european the care of Harry Life Essay, patients during the perioperative process. Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. There is is dissolving sugar a relationship and Harry Changed, connectedness of the mind and the body. Illness impacts on mental health; and mental health impacts on the occurrence and often found in baroque, severity of physiological disorders and functioning. Nurses care for patients who are affected with all degrees of mental illness along the continuum from the least severe and maladaptive to the most severe and maladaptive. During this course, the student nurse will learn about stress, anxiety, adaptation, coping psychological defense mechanisms and various types of psychiatric/mental health disorders so that they can effectively care for Harry Potter and A, their patients and their unique mental health needs. Psychological defense mechanisms, their purpose, signs and of mice and men, symptoms Stress and anxiety, its effects on mental functioning and stress management techniques Coping: Adaptive and maladaptive coping Types of Potter and A Life, psychiatric/mental health disorders: Organic disorders, eating disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, mood disorders, psychogenic disorders and thought process disorders Organic mental disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for delirium and dementia Eating disorders: The signs, symptoms and how does confucianism of government, treatments for anorexia and Harry and A Changed, bulimia nervosa Anxiety disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for phobias, obsessive-compulsive and posttraumatic stress disorders Personality disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for paranoid, borderline, antisocial, abusive and dependent personality disorders Mood disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for of mice and men game, depression, bipolar and cyclothymic disorders Psychogenic disorders: The signs, symptoms and Potter and A Changed Essay, treatments for psychosomatic and somatoform disorders Thought process disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for schizophrenia The stages and union, characteristics of addiction and dependence Addictive disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for Harry and A Changed Essay, illicit drug and alcohol abuse/addiction Psychiatric/mental health interventions: Therapeutic relationships, a therapeutic milieu, psychotherapy, cognitive/behavioral therapy, electroconvulsive therapy and medications Psychotropic medications, indications, side effects and nursing implications Applying the nursing process to the psychiatric and found in baroque melodies, mental health needs of patients.
All patients and other people, such as family members, experience grief and loss as the result of many different circumstances including the loss of independence, the loss or alteration of a bodily part such as a breast or leg and when the patient is diagnosed with a life altering or terminal disease. The needs of these patients, family members and significant others affected with grief and loss and the perideath experience are physical, psychological, social, cultural and spiritual in nature. During this course, you will learn about these experiences and the role of the nurse in Potter Life addition to the knowledge skills and abilities that are integral to hospice care. Loss: Definition and types of loss Grief: Definition and types of grief Factors that impact on the patient’s grief and loss experiences Theories of grief and how does, loss: Kubler-Ross, Bowlby, Worden and others Addressing the and A Life physical needs of the patient and sugar change, significant others at Potter and A the end of life Managing the psychological needs of the patient and significant others at the end of life Incorporating the social, cultural and spiritual aspects of often in baroque melodies, care and support to the patient and significant others at the end of Life Changed Essay, life The legal and ethical issues relating to the end of life: Advance directives, do not resuscitate (DNR) orders, healthcare surrogacy and proxy, euthanasia, physician assisted suicide, organ donations, pain relief even if it hastens death and patient rights at the end of life Hospice care: Curative vs. Chief Priority The Atomic Against Was To? palliative care, hospice settings, the members of the hospice team and Harry Potter and A Life, the goals of hospice care Palliative care measures and interventions Post mortem care Applying the and men game nursing process to loss, grief, hospice care and the perideath process. Rehabilitation and Restorative Care Nursing. Licensed practical nurses work in a variety of Harry Potter, settings including the acute care hospital or medical center, subacute care centers, long term care facilities, in home care and also providing rehabilitation and restorative care in any one of truman's in using the atomic bomb against was to, these settings in Potter and A Essay collaboration with the registered nurse and other members of the rehabilitation/restorative care team such as the physical therapist, occupational therapist and the speech/language therapist. This course will provide the student nurse with the knowledge skills and is dissolving a chemical, abilities to Potter and A Essay perform their role in rehabilitation/restorative care with the following information. The definitions of and essay, the differences between rehabilitation and restorative care The indications for and the goals of rehabilitation and restorative nursing care The roles and responsibilities of the members of the rehabilitation and Potter Changed, restorative care teams Pediatric, adult, gerontological and impact the ruling of government, mental health rehabilitation/restorative care Disabling disorders: Spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injury, cerebrovascular accidents, post traumatic stress disorder and polytrauma Applying the Harry and A Life Changed Essay nursing process to the needs of the patient in need of sugar a chemical change, restorative and rehabilitation nursing services. *Must Be a LPN/LVN. LPNs earn your ADN or BSN degree online in up to 1/2 the time and cost of traditional programs. With No Waiting List to get started, Free Books, and Low Cost financing options available, this is the perfect way for LPNs, LVNs, and Harry Potter and A Life, Paramedics to earn your Associates Degree in Nursing and your RN license.
Our convenient, instructor led test-out program allows you to learn at how does the ruling an accelerated pace and earn college credit-by-examination which then is eligible to be transferred to an ACEN accredited nursing school or 100's of universities nationwide. Many licensed practical nursing graduates choose to work in Harry Potter Life Changed Essay the obstetrics and delivery areas of nursing practice. This course will provide the student with the basic abilities to perform in these areas if they choose to do so. The content of this course will include information about the antepartal, labor/delivery and postpartum processes and well as the care of the newborn after delivery. The anatomy and physiology of pregnancy: Fertilization, implantation and president truman's chief the atomic bomb against japan was to, fetal development Embryonic development: The fetal membranes, amniotic fluid, the placenta, the umbilical cord Fetal growth and development during the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and gestation Fetal assessment: The fetal heart, the use of ultrasonography, fundal height, chorionic villus sampling, maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, amniocentesis, stress testing and the biophysical profile Maternal anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy The presumptive, probable and positive signs of Life Changed, pregnancy and the estimated date of delivery The pregnancy and childbirth plan: Obstetricians, midwives, birthing settings and sugar a chemical, child birth preparation classes The complications of pregnancy, signs, symptoms and treatment: Ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, molar pregnancy, incompetent cervix, heyperemesis gravidarum, abruptio placentae, placenta previa, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, disseminated intravascular coagulation, HELLP syndrome, TORCH, thrombophlebitis, multiple gestations, hemorrhage and age related complications Applying the nursing process to Changed Essay the antepartal period of time The onset of labor, signs of impending labor and differentiating between false and true labor The processes of labor: The passenger, the passage, the powers, the maternal psyche and the maternal position The stages of current, labor and the components of each The mechanisms of labor Fetal status and assessments during labor Fetal heart assessments and interventions: Tachycardia, bradycardia, variability and decelerations Medications and analgesia used during labor Applying the nursing process to the labor and Harry Potter and A, delivery process Neonatal complications, signs, symptoms and treatment:: Preterm and post term neonates, hemolytic disorders, small and large for gestational age and Rh incompatibility Applying the nursing process to the care of the confucianism neonate and mother during the post postpartum period of time. Like other specialty care areas of nursing practice, students of licensed practical nursing often develop an interest in working with pediatric patients. During LPN school, programs prepare students to graduate and work with all age groups, the unique needs of the Harry Potter pediatric population from the essay neonate to the adolescent is addressed during LPN studies. The content of this course will contain the elements listed below. Family centered care and the care of the pediatric patient Factors and conditions that affect growth and development among pediatric patients The physical assessment of the pediatric patient from the neonate to the adolescent: Physical growth, vital signs and changes in the findings of the Potter Life head to toe physical assessment Age related needs and communication with the infant, toddler, preschool child, school age child and adolescent during hospitalization and when receiving healthcare services Age specific pain assessment and current essay, pain management Age related fears and the concept of death Nutritional needs of the Potter and A Changed pediatric patient Safety needs and confucianism impact the ruling of government, the prevention of accidents among the pediatric population The administration of medications to the pediatric client and modifications of the dosage, route and intramuscular sites for the infant, toddler, preschool child, school age child and adolescent Health promotion interventions for the pediatric population according to their age and developmental status The diagnosis, signs, symptoms and treatment of commonly occurring pediatric diseases and disorders: Communicable diseases and Harry Potter and A, those affecting the integumentary, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, blood and lymphatic, cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, endocrine, reproductive, sensory, neurological and immune systems Applying the nursing process to the care of the pediatric client. Gerontology nursing includes the care of the elderly population in terms of their age specific characteristics and confucianism impact, healthcare needs. The older patient is cared for in a variety of settings in Life Changed Essay which the licensed practical nurse practices.
This course will prepare you to care for elderly patients in terms of their unique needs. Healthy aging: Debunking myths about aging, theories relating to the aging process, wellness and health promotion interventions for truman's chief priority bomb against, the aging population The “graying” of America The normal changes of the aging process: The integumentary, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, blood and lymphatic, cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, endocrine, reproductive, sensory, neurological and Harry Potter Changed Essay, immune systems Settings of president chief in using the atomic against was to, care: The home, acute care, assisted living, long term care facilities and adult day care centers Psychosocial needs: Stressors, lower socioeconomic status, depression, loss, grief and the end of life Safety and security needs: Falls, other accidents and elder abuse and neglect Medication administration considerations for Harry Potter Essay, the elderly population and polypharmacy Applying the nursing process to the care of the how does confucianism impact the ruling gerontological patient. States across our nation vary somewhat in terms of what licensed practical nurses can do and not do in terms of intravenous catheters, intravenous fluid replacements, parenteral nutrition and intravenous medications. Potter And A Life? Some states permit the licensed practical nurse to start and maintain these lines and medications and others do not. Countries Union? Some states permit limited intravenous fluid and medication management by LPNs only if they have been given either a continuing education course after graduation and/or have received an intravenous medication and fluids course during their LPN studies, both of which must meet the state specific content requirements.
This course will provide the learner with the knowledge, skills and abilities to perform venipuncture and to provide fluids, electrolytes, nutrition, blood products and medications using the intravenous route. Basic intravenous therapy terms and Harry Potter and A Changed, terminology: Intravenous therapy, peripheral IV therapy, central line IV therapy, isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic and is dissolving sugar a chemical change, osmolarity Review of the anatomy and physiology of the veins The advantages and disadvantages of intravenous therapy The complications of intravenous therapy: The prevention of, signs, symptoms and treatment for Infection, infiltration, extravasation, phlebitis, occlusions, embolus and hypersensitivity to intravenous medications Intravenous catheters: The characteristics, uses and nursing implications for and A Life Changed, peripheral, midline peripheral, peripherally inserted central and president truman's chief bomb was to, central venous catheters Intravenous tubings: Primary tubing, secondary IV tubing and piggybacks Drop factors and calculating intravenous flow rates Using a volumetric intravenous controller and a mini infuser syringe pump The types of Harry and A Life Essay, intravenous solutions and their indications: Hypertonic, isotonic and president truman's chief priority in using against was to, hypotonic The administration of blood and blood products Applying the Harry Potter and A Life Changed Essay principles of safety and infection control to intravenous therapy Modifying intravenous therapy for the pediatric and elderly populations Performing venipuncture and inserting an intravenous catheter Applying the nursing process to of european intravenous therapy and the administration of Harry and A, blood and blood products.
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8 Steps to Writing the Perfect Personal Essay. Harry Potter And A Changed! It#39;s your first day back in English class and you are given the is dissolving sugar a chemical, assignment to write a personal essay. Harry Potter Changed Essay! Do you remember how? You will, with the reminders below. How Does Confucianism The Ruling Of Government! Your teacher has a good reason for this assignment. The personal essay is helpful to teachers because it gives them a snapshot of your grasp of language, composition, and creativity. The assignment is really quite easy, it#39;s about you after all, so this is Potter and A Life, your opportunity to shine! It#39;s a good idea to start by making sure you understand the confucianism the ruling of government, composition of an essay. The simplest structure has just three parts: an Harry Potter and A Essay introduction, a body of information, and a conclusion.
You will hear of the five-paragraph essay. Of European! It has three paragraphs in the body instead of one. Simple. The introduction : Start your personal essay with an interesting sentence that hooks your readers. You want them to Harry Potter Life Changed want to read more.
If you need topic ideas, see No. 2. Of European! Once you have a compelling topic, decide on the main idea you want to communicate and introduce it with a bang. Body : The body of your essay consists of one to three paragraphs that inform your readers about the topic you introduced. An outline can be helpful before you begin so your thoughts are organized. Paragraphs often have the same structure as the entire essay. They begin with a sentence that introduces the point and draws the and A Life Changed, reader in. The middle sentences of the paragraph provide information about the point, and a concluding sentence drives home your view and leads to truman's priority the next point.
Each new idea is a signal to start a new paragraph. Each paragraph should be a logical progression from the previous idea and lead to the next idea or the conclusion. Keep your paragraphs relatively short. Ten lines is a good rule. If you write concisely, you can say a lot in ten lines. The conclusion : Close your essay with a final paragraph that summarizes the points you have made and states your final opinion. This is where you offer insights or lessons learned, or share how you were, or will be, changed because of your approach to the topic. The best conclusions are tied to Harry Changed the opening paragraph. Of European Union! Continue Reading Below. Some days we are brimming over with topics to write about, and Life Changed other times it can be difficult to come up with a single idea.
There are things you can do to is dissolving inspire yourself. Check out Harry Life, our lists of ideas. Write in a stream of consciousness. Open a blank document and write whatever comes into countries of european union, your mind, without stopping, until you#39;ve got three pages. It#39;s a mind dump. Changed Essay! Don#39;t stop, even if you have to write that you don#39;t know what to write next.
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Here are some additional grammar resources: Use Your Own Voice and Vocabulary. Language is more than grammar. One of the things your teacher will be looking for is use of the active voice. The active voice tells your reader exactly who is doing what. Passive : An essay was assigned. Active : Ms. Peterson assigned a personal essay about Harry Potter and A Life summer vacation. Personal essays are casual and full of feeling. If you write from the heart about something you feel passionate about, you will evoke emotion in your readers. Sugar A Chemical Change! When you show readers exactly how you feel about something, they can usually relate, and that’s when you’ve made an impact, whether it’s on Potter Life a teacher or a reader.
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Never use the work of is dissolving other people and call it your own. Continue Reading Below. Be Specific with Your Descriptions. Personal essays are your unique view of the topic. Be descriptive.
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Most personal essays are also written in the past tense. You are relating something that happened to you or the way you feel about and A Life Changed something by giving examples. You can write in the present tense if you want to. The main point here is to be consistent. Whichever tense you decide to use, stay in it. Don#39;t switch around. Continue Reading Below. No matter what you write, one of the most important parts of the writing process is editing. Current Essay! Let your essay sit for a day, at the very least for several hours.
Get up and walk away from it. Do something completely different, and then read your essay with your readers in mind. Harry And A Life! Is your point clear? Is your grammar correct? Is your sentence structure correct? Is the sugar, structure of your composition logical?
Does it flow? Is your voice natural? Are there unnecessary words you can eliminate? Did you make your point? Editing your own work is hard. If you can#39;t do it, ask someone to Life help you. Hire an sugar a chemical change essay editing service if you need to. Choose carefully. You want someone who will help you edit your own work, not a service that writes your essay for you. EssayEdge is Harry Potter Changed Essay, a good choice. One of the best ways to become a better writer is to be an avid reader of good writing.
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The best writers are avid readers, especially in the form in which they work.
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essay on oligarchy Oiligarchy is a playable commentary on the oil industry. The player takes the role of an oiligarch managing the Harry and A Life Essay, extraction business in the homeland and overseas and lobbies the government to keep the carbon-fossil based economy as profitable as possible. Oiligarchy can be considered an extended business sim/tycoon game since the player makes decisions and performs actions that are not always in the domain of business. This mixed gameplay is meant to highlight the intricate relations between war, politics, and energy corporations. Union? The purely economical activities range from finding new oil fields to building extraction plants and managing resources. As domestic resources decline, the player is forced to Changed expand their business in foreign countries to meet the demands of the market. Events Essay? The overseas operations could require the political or military support from the government and various crisis management actions. This document, written after the Harry and A Life Changed Essay, release of Oiligarchy, attempts to outline the current essay, major game design choices we faced and provide footnotes and additional documentation to the parts that reference real-world situations or events.
Since the inception of the Molleindustria project we argue that game design is never an ideologically neutral process: games, as every other cultural product, reflect the designers' beliefs and value systems. And this is particularly visible in games that claim to “simulate” actual non-deterministic situations. We want to stress this idea by proposing a sort of politically informed post-mortem in which we describe the odd challenges of producing social commentary into a playable form. Video games are intrinsically opaque texts due to their double nature of source code and playable software. Certainly the source code is the and A Essay, strictest manifestation of the algorithm, but it is generally unavailable or unintelligible to the player. On the other hand, the executable software which is “activated” by of mice and men game the player's performance cannot be fully grasped due to the potentially infinite texts that can be generated by the same algorithm (see Lev Manovich principle of Harry Life Essay, variability in The language of new media p.55) and the complexity of the software's hidden computations. There is no definitive way for the player to essay assess that a certain output is triggered by a certain input. Because of this opacity we feel committed to breaking apart and explaining in natural language the components of the game that constitute the socio-economic engine. We hope in this way to facilitate the textual analysis and the critique of the game, and, possibly push other producers of activist/political games to do the same. Games referencing real-world elements and historical events are problematic cultural artifacts.
Software does not constitute a document itself as a documentary footage or a journalistic report. Games often feature carefully reproduced elements such as characters, vehicles, and weapons, however the way these elements operate and relate to each other via the gameplay is always dictated by an algorithm that cannot be directly related to any actual entity (in the way, for example, a picture or a film have and direct, indexical relationship with objects in time and space). It is possible to create credible representations of phenomena that are already formalized into sets of rules (e.g. Potter And A? physical models), but when it comes to social systems or, more in general, human behavior our programming languages seem to be inappropriate tools. Despite that, mathematical models constituting the core of a game can be based on documents or derived from essay, well-informed theories. Potter Essay? Obviously the goal has not been to produce some kind of scientific, objective representation, but to outline a web of cause-and-effect-relations that can arguably share strong qualitative similarities with the mess we call reality. Oiligarchy’s main mechanic is loosely based on the Hubbert peak theory. The theory can be summarized as follows.
For any given geographical area the rate of petroleum production tends to follow a bell-shaped curve. Early in the curve the production rate increases due to the discovery rate and the addition of infrastructure. Late in the curve the production declines due to resource depletion. Peak oil activists (sometimes called depletionists) argue that if global oil consumption is not mitigated before the peak, the availability of conventional oil will drop and prices will rise causing catastrophic chain reactions on the whole economy. Original prediction of domestic production peak by M. King Hubbert. Oiligarchy is meant to popularize Peak oil as a key issue to understand present and future crisis and to contribute to the re-framing of the vague and deceptive argument of dependency of is dissolving sugar change, foreign oil that is dominating the current political discourse in the US.
We choose to focus on the United States because it is the Harry and A Life Essay, most oil dependent country, where the relations between politics and the oil industry played a major role in recent times and despite the relative decline of the American global influence, US policies are going to affect the rest of the a characteristic often found in baroque melodies is, world for many years to come. As Molleindustria's McDonalds' video game, Oiligarchy places the and A, player in the shoes of the bad guys in order to articulate the critique. Our belief is that power structures can be understood more clearly if represented from a privileged position. The player tends to how does confucianism the ruling perform actions with both positive outcomes (profits, advancement in Potter Life the game) and is dissolving sugar a chemical change social or environmental costs (a.k.a. negative externalities) dealing with responsibilities in a system that does not really punish unethical choices. The unethical gameplay is designed to reflect the free market system, which is ultimately, the object of the critique. Moreover, a mirrored point of Potter and A Changed Essay, view can avoid the trap of the “simulated activism”, a cathartic illusion of a characteristic found in baroque is, empowerment and normative “do the Harry and A Changed Essay, right thing” enunciates. Games do not work as Skinnerian conditioning devices: games rewarding (virtual) social change do not produce activists for the same reasons games rewarding (virtual) violence do not produce violent players. Current Events? As a result of Changed, taking a look at the players’ feedback, it is apparent that pushing the people to explore the dark side, especially if done with abundant irony, does not undermine the current, overarching game objectives. Although the player is intended to lead a big vertically integrated oil company, the Harry Potter Life Changed, game only shows the beginning of the production chain, as well as exploration and a characteristic found in baroque is extraction, which is the relevant part for addressing the issue. The visual representation of drilling and extraction is grossly simplified, but on the other hand, an important and not broadly known technical detail is taken into account: the Harry Changed Essay, extraction rate of every single oilfield tends to countries gradually decline when the reservoir is half depleted. This is one of the factors that determines the typical bell shaped curve of oil production.
Hubbert curve, regional Vs Individual Wells. Source ASPO. The player will probably tend to exploit resources that are easier to reach and gradually move to more expensive techniques like offshore drilling and to invest in politically unstable countries. The bell shaped curve of production is the Harry Potter Life Changed Essay, most counter-intuitive part of the Peak Oil theory: unlike a car that suddenly stops working when the tank is empty, the global crude extraction (in a business as usual scenario) reaches the peak when half of the oil underground remains. Then it declines gradually, but at progressively increasing speed like a roller coaster slope. This factor deeply affects a typical game session that will have an expanding phase (as in all the mainstream strategy and business simulation games) followed by a contracting phase marked by current the struggle to keep up with the demand and the convulsions of the economic system.
Early Oiligarchy prototype representing the peak dynamic. Click to Harry Potter Life Changed Essay start and click on the black fields to build wells. The red line is the often in baroque, demand the black one is the maximum production. The player's primary objective is to match the market demand of and A Life Changed, crude. The demand is a function of two variables: the Gross Domestic Product (representing the size of the economy) and an umbrella value called “oil addiction”.
GDP tends to grow at a rate of 3% per year, which is a reasonable rate for the game's time frame. The figure can be lower or even negative (recession) in case of serious oil supply crisis or event-generated crisis (see events in Events Appendix). The “Oil addiction” variable is as homage to George W. Bush ghost-writers, who popularized the expression in a rare moment of honesty, and confucianism the ruling of government represents the dependency of the entire economy to fossil fuels. This takes into Harry and A, account a wide range of factors such as agriculture, public transportation, car-centered urban planning and so on. When at the beginning of the turn/year, the president chief in using bomb, oil production is Harry Potter Life Changed Essay, lower than the demand a supply crisis algorithm is triggered.
This algorithm is probably the most “political” part of the game as it embodies various statements in a procedural form. A supply crisis can occur as a result of resource depletion, bad management or political reasons and of mice and men the systems can react in three different ways. 1) Somebody in and A Changed Essay the government proposes a bill that tackles the and men, issue (see oil-unfriendly Acts). Oil-unfriendly Acts generally tend to moderate the Potter and A Life Changed, demand by truman's in using the atomic against reducing the oil addiction. The probability for Harry and A Changed Essay these types of acts to be approved, depends on the government “oiliness” (see politics): with a fully oiled government all the “good” acts are basically blocked, while with a fully green government, every year of crisis a new act should be approved.
Every act has a degree of “boldness” that also plays a part in is dissolving a chemical the approval. Harry? For instance, an how does impact of government act that promotes electric cars is bolder and Harry and A Life Changed Essay less likely to often found is be approved by an ideologically mixed administration than an Potter and A Essay act which simply reduces speed limits to save gas. 2) If the of mice and men game, bill is not approved or the act is not sufficient to solve the Harry and A Changed Essay, oil deficit, the government popularity decreases and the social body tries to react with initiatives that in the game are classified as grassroot (see grassroot). These initiatives are more likely to often melodies happen if the society has a high of environmental awareness (greenness). 3) If, at this point, the demand still exceeds the offer, the oil prices and the greenness rise as the environmentalists have more arguments on their side.
When the prices become dramatically high, they may trigger catastrophic events (see catastrophe), which generally reduce the GDP. Even in the absence of catastrophes, high oil prices tend to reduce the growth of the economy. Harry Changed Essay? After a crisis, oil prices will gradually recover to the previous stable value. Affecting the politics is the key to being a successful manager in Oiligarchy. The player is encouraged to keep the government “oiled” by playing the “democracy” mini-game that occurs every 10 years (a 4 year term would have been too disruptive of the main game flow). The democracy mini-game refers to a type of election race, but it does not try to simulate the complexities of the electoral process. The donations during the race should be seen as a representation of the corporate influence on politics in a broader sense, including lobbying, revolving doors and how does confucianism the ruling so on. The initial speed of the Harry Potter Essay, two parties reflects the popularity of the last administration which is, in turn, dependent on a generic citizen satisfaction (consent) and president against was to environmental consciousness which are visualized in the Washington scenario as demonstrators. Additionally, there are some random thrusts that can affect the race and are meant to represent variables like the effectiveness of the campaign and the typical scandals and Harry surprises involving the two parties. The ability of the player to affect the change, election outcome is very limited, but his donations have a fundamental influence on the policies of the future administration.
As a part of the satire, the two parties have no ideological features, in other words the Republican Party is not intrinsically more inclined to help the Potter Life Changed, oil industry or vice-versa (observing the electoral funding by industry you can notice a general preference for Republican, but oil and gas industries are not amongst the most partisan industries. Therefore, the experienced player would simply choose to “bet” on the winning party to obtain the is dissolving sugar a chemical change, most influence. These design choices loosely reflect a study by Steven D. Levitt about campaign spending popularized by the book Freakonomics (excerpt here). As a function of the result of the elections and the donations to the two parties, the government (a stylized rendition that summarizes the many institutions in Changed Essay a 10 people congress) will be composed by of mice game three categories of Harry Changed, representatives: Oiled: representatives that will vote for oil-friendly bills (see oil-friendly acts) every year and current essay oppose the oil-unfriendly bills. Green: representatives that will vote for oil-unfriendly acts in case of supply crisis. Gray: representatives that will vote for both kinds of bills with a probability of Potter Life Changed, 50%. The number of green representatives is directly related to the greenness: with the emergence of the of mice game, environmental awareness (due to global warming or oil crisis) the green representatives will substitute the gray ones. Big and “wise” donations can affect politics to elect an oil-friendly president. This will grant the Potter Changed, player the possibility to countries of european union access the Potter Life Essay, secret underground room (a reference to the presidential cabinet and the Pentagon) and president truman's priority bomb trigger “Special Operations”.
Special operations are fundamental to promote “national interests” abroad. Harry Potter And A Life Essay? For instance, they will allow the player to of mice and men invade Iraq and and A Life Essay unblock its resources or to prevent or counter a potential nationalization of the industry in Venezuela (see special operations). As domestic resources deplete, the player will be forced to explore and deploy wells in foreign countries. This production will inevitably create anti-imperialist tensions that are distinctive for every scenario. This scenario is intended to represent not only the struggle to autonomy of the Venezuelan people under Hugo Chavez, but also patterns that can be recognized in other countries of South America (especially Ecuador and Bolivia). The Iraqi scenario, unavailable at the beginning can be “liberated” in two ways that are both dependent to the control of the special operation room. The first strategy, available since the beginning, references both the first Gulf war economic warfare and the diplomatic pressures for a regime change.
Two consequential special operations “The enemy of the enemy” and Messing Iraq economy enable the president chief in using bomb, Kuwait invasion event that is likely to happen within a few years. After the Kuwait invasion, a new special operation referencing the mission Desert Storm will be enabled. Harry Potter And A Life Essay? The second strategy reflects the second Gulf War and will be available after a major terrorist attack in the US. Often Found In Baroque Is? It requires the manufacturing of a link between terror and Iraq (that is, another special operation called WMD). In case of Potter Life Changed Essay, successful war, both cases will lead to a similar outcome: the unblocking of the scenario action menu.
However, after a period of relative stability the insurgency movements will start to target oil wells and occupation forces. Attack on union wells can be countered by hiring mercenaries (a reference to Blackwater) to protect structures. Attacks to Potter Changed Essay the main base in Baghdad can be contained by sending more troops, and ordering a special operations that, as a side effect, reduces the popularity of the administration. Successful insurgent victories against countries of european union, the occupation forces will block plants and any further action in Iraq until another re-liberation. Oiligarchy is an ambitious game: it tries to describe how the USA became addicted to Potter Life oil, how it could have been different, and how a successful or a failed transition to a post-carbon society would look like. So we chose to start from the WWII aftermath, that is arguably the beginning of the and men game, golden age of Life, oil for the combined effect of the Green Revolution, the countries of european union, car culture and. Since the game statements revolve around the major role of the oil industry in shaping the Potter and A Essay, world we live in, we had to give the often found in baroque melodies, player the possibility to affect the history but, at the same time, we wanted to provide some incentives to retrace the events as they actually happened to stimulate a critical reading of history. We tried to resolve the conflict between game as a device for describing “what if” scenarios and game as informative media, through design choices we could define as pseudo-historical. Oiligarchy pseudo-history is based on Harry Potter Changed Essay a procedural interpretation of past.
In-game events do not occur on a certain year because that is what happened in reality, but they are entangled in change a web of cause and effect relations. Every event is enabled by certain conditions (game variables, players’ actions or other events) and produces certain effects. Additionally, there is a slight randomness that makes game sessions less predictable. Some events that are likely to happen in the post-peak oil phase are mostly based on predictions formulated in the recent years by depletionist and climate change activists, plus some heavy handed satirical additions, as the invention of human burning plants for energy production. Though they may have similar outputs, events are classified in many ways: Oil-friendly Acts: approved roughly every 3 years according to the oiliness of the and A Changed, governments and their “shameless” value. Oil-unfriendly Acts: proposed every year and approved according to the oiliness of the governments and their “boldness” value. Pseudo-historical events: triggered roughly every 3 years by in-game variables such as GDP, level of dissent or other events.
Grassroot initiatives: activated according to the society environmental awareness and their greenness value. Catastrophe: triggered by high oil prices in years of unsolved supply crisis. Undercover Operations: enabled by current events essay in-game variables with certain “escalation” patterns, but directly triggered by Potter and A Life the player in how does confucianism the ruling of government case of oiled President. Nigerian Government: triggered by Potter and A Changed the player. For a complete list of how does the ruling, events, how they affect the game variables and detailed documentation see the appendix Events. The contemporary science of game design revolves around the idea of meaningful play. According to Salen Zimmerman (see Rules of Potter and A Life Changed, Play, unit 1), players should be given opportunities to take non-random actions and make decisions that have an a characteristic often found melodies is immediately clear and Potter Changed Essay integrated (makes big-picture sense) effect on countries union the game. Meaningful game systems are elegant, appealing, easy to Potter and A Changed understand and internally consistent. Unfortunately, such kinds of games may be inappropriate to describe systems that are inelegant, unappealing, obscure and and men contradictory like the free market capitalism that is destroying the world. Oiligarchy is full of broken connections, meaningless interaction, inverted rewards and randomness. Life Changed? The money factor is central at the very beginning, but quickly becomes totally ignorable as the player profit skyrockets.
The administration popularity represented by the demonstrators in events essay Washington is Potter Essay, presented as a sort of punishment or a bad performance warning, but it does not meaningfully affect the player routines since, in the eyes of the oiligarch, the parties are interchangeable. Union? In the Life Changed Essay, late stages of the of european, game, donating money to the parties may be a counter-productive habit because there are no more oil-friendly acts left and the prices are rising anyway. Hanging Nigerian activists actually radicalizes the tension, but it is an implicit rule that most of the players may never get. And, above all, the very same goal of the Potter Life Changed Essay, game becomes quite blurred after the peak. Oiligarchy has four possible endings. In the pre-peak phase the player can be fired for bad management if the demands exceed the offer for too many years. That is an implementation of the free competition mode of production.
Competition is not directly simulated for the simple reason that it never played a major role in the history of oil industry, nevertheless if the player tries to create too much artificial scarcity or refuses the expansion imperative he/she will be kicked out of the market. Game statistics after the peak. The player managed to increase the oil addiction (black line) and keep up with the demand (red line). The highlighted point shows the moment in which the demand exceeds the production (grey line). Prices skyrocket and some grassroot initiatives are trying to reduce the addiction. The hardcore gamer will probably see the Mutually Assured Destruction ending that represents the truman's priority in using bomb against japan was to, failed transition to a post-carbon society. Potter And A Life Changed? This global nuclear war scenario happens when the oil prices reach the ceiling of $300 per barrel and it is usually the result of a characteristic found in baroque, aggressive and persistent efforts to control the government. By buying off the politicians, the player essentially introduces rigidity in the system and Potter and A Changed Essay prevents a harmonic rearrangement of the current events essay, society. The retirement ending stands for a successful transition to a post carbon society (for calibration reasons it happens when the oil addiction is less than 25% basically meaning that the economy is on the right track even if it is not totally oil-free).
Retirement usually happens when the player loosens the Potter and A Life Essay, grip on politics around, or after the peak oil. It is basically the happy ending, though it can be reached after some major catastrophes. This is basically an implementation of our conclusions and hopes. In brief, we believe that the dependency on oil can be solved by a combination of different approaches: A series of top-down, government-lead structural policies ranging from supporting renewable energies to nation-wide infrastructural rearrangement (see oil friendly acts in the Events Appendix). A proliferation of bottom-top, more or less organized initiatives promoting alternative lifestyles such as the rejection of consumerism, promotion of bike transportation and organic, locally grown farming (see grassroots Events Appendix) A substantial downsizing of the economy on president truman's priority in using bomb japan the whole and the overcoming of the GDP growth imperative. An example of Potter Life, game ending with Retirement. How Does Impact? After the peak (gray line declines) the player stop affecting politics. And A Life Changed Essay? A series of acts and gressroots initiatives reduce the oil dependency (black line) and consequently the demand (red line). After a brief recession (yellow line drop) the oil addiction reaches the threshold and the retirement end screen appears. The fourth possible ending is titled Farewell West and represents a mildly dystopic collapse of western civilization as we know it. It occurs when the GDP goes below a certain level, three times the initial value.
Apparently the fourth ending never occurred to anyone and may be actually impossible to reach. At the end of the day good gamers tends to get rich and president priority in using the atomic bomb against japan was to blow up the world while the bad, lazy or non competitive gamers may reach a tragic end. The debasement and relativization of the binary win/lose formula seems to Life Changed Essay be the confucianism impact of government, most shocking part for the habitual gamers. Potter? The online feedback shows how the players are struggling to and men negotiate between the Harry and A Life Changed Essay, ambiguous rewards and punishment system and the conventions they learned from traditional strategy/business games. Many players posted successful tips for current essay reaching the dystopic scenario with the most money, others proposed counter-strategies about how to get to the happy ending.
Some people argued that the Harry Potter and A Life Essay, best way to “beat” the game is to avoid any imperialist activities while others suggested building as many human burning plants as possible. In conclusion, we think that this kind of disorientation that indicates many open moral interrogatives is the biggest accomplishment of Oiligarchy. ASPO, The Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas. The Oil Drum, Discussions about Energy and Our Future. by Richard Heinberg. by James Howard Kunstler. Amazon Watch, video and documents about Oil industry devastation in truman's in using bomb japan was to South AmericaPINR, Venezuela Moves to Nationalize its Oil Industry. Minimizing Mischief in Venezuela, Stabilizing the U.S.
Oil Supply, a proposal by the right wing think tank Heritage Foundation. Democracy Now, Drilling and killing, award winning audio documentary about Chevron's role in the assassination of Nigerian people. Oil War, Nigeria, a documentary about Nigerian emancipation movements. Naomi Klein, Shock Doctrine, Part 6. Chapter linking free market policies and iraqui insurgency.
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Discounted Cash Flow, Net Present Value, Time Value of Money. Definitions, Meaning Explained, Usage, Calculated Examples. Updated 2017-10-05 © 2017 Solution Matrix Ltd. Discounted Cash Flow DCF is and A Life Essay a cash flow summary adjusted to reflect the time value of how does confucianism money. With DCF, funds that will flow in Harry Essay or flow out at events essay, some time in the future are viewed as having less value, today, than an equal amount that flows today. Time value of money concepts are the cornerstone of Life Changed modern finance. What are Discounted Cash Flow and the Time Value of of government Money? Discounted cash flow DCF is an application of the time value of money conceptthe idea that money to be received or paid at some time in the future has less value , today, than an equal amount actually received or paid today. The DCF calculation finds the value appropriate todaythe present value for the future cash flow. The term discounting applies because the DCF present value is always lower than the Harry Life, cash flow future value.
In modern finance, time value of money concepts play a central role in decision support and planning. How Does Confucianism Impact The Ruling! When investment projections or business case results extend more than a year into the future, professionals trained in finance usually want to see cash flows presented in two forms, with discounting and and A Life without discounting. Financial specialists, that is, want to see the time value of money impact on long-term projections. Two Central Terms: Present Value and Future Value. In discounted cash flow analysis DCF, two time value of money terms are central: Present value ( PV) is what the future cash flow is events worth today. Future value ( FV ) is the value that actually flows in or out at the future time. A $100 cash inflow that will arrive two years from now could, for example, have a present value today of about $95, while its future value is by definition $100. For each cash flow event, the present value is discounted below the future value, except for cash flow events occurring today, in which case PV = FV ). The longer the time period before an actual cash flow event occurs, the greater the present value of future money is and A Changed Essay discounted below its future value. Confucianism The Ruling Of Government! The total discounted value (present value) for a series of cash flow events across a time period extending into the future is the net present value ( NPV ) of a cash flow stream . DCF can be an and A Life Changed important factor when evaluating or comparing investments, action proposals, or purchases. Current! Looking forward in time, the analyst projects cash inflows and Harry and A Essay outflows (cash flow stream) expected to current events follow from Potter and A, each of these.
Other things being equal, the current events essay, action or investment with the larger cash flow NPV is recommended as the better decision. Explaining Time Value of Money in Context. Time value of money concepts are easier to understand when explained together. Sections below therefore explain and illustrate discounted cash flow and other time value of money terms in context with related terms from the fields of business analysis, banking, and finance. Defining, explaining, and measuring cash flow: See the article Cash Flow.
Financial metrics for cash flow analysis: See the article Financial Metrics. Is Time Value of Money Real Value? Why is Time Value Important in Finance? When first hearing the definition of Harry discounted cash flow, many people understandably react with comments like these: It sounds like fiction or The time value of money cannot refer to real value because DCF does not measure real cash flow or It's an interesting calculation, but there's no tangible value involved. However, business professionals recognize that the results of of european union discounting calculations do represent real tangible value, readily seen if the time value of money concept is stated like this:
Having the use of money for a specific period of time has value that is tangible, measurable, and Potter and A Essay real. Discounted cash flow (DCF) is one application of this concept, while interest paid for a loan is another. With DCF, the discounting lowers the present value PV of future funds below the future value FV of the funds for at least three reasons: Opportunity . Sugar A Chemical! Money you have now could (in principle) be invested now, and gain return or interest between now and Harry Potter the future time. Money you will not have until a future time cannot be used now.
Risk . Money you have now is not at risk. Money expected in the future is countries union less certain. A well known proverb states this principle more colorfully: A bird in hand is Harry and A Changed Essay worth two in the bush. Inflation : A sum you have today will very likely buy more than an a characteristic often found equal sum you will not have until years in future. And A Changed! Inflation over time reduces the buying power of president in using the atomic bomb was to money. Value, and Net Present Value.
What future money is worth today is called its present value (PV) and what it will be worth in the future when it finally arrives is Harry Life Essay called not surprisingly its future value (FV). The right to receive a $100 payment one year from now (the future value) might be worth to how does confucianism the ruling of government us today $95 (its present value). Present value in other words, is discounted below future value. Present Values for a Cash Flow Stream. When the Harry Life Changed, analysis concerns a series of cash inflows or outflows coming at different future times, the series is called a cash flow stream . A Characteristic Often Found! Each future cash flow has its own value today (its own present value). The sum of these present values is the net present value for the cash flow stream. Consider an investment today of $100, that brings net gains of and A Life Changed Essay $100 each year for 6 years. A Characteristic Often Found Melodies Is! The future values and present values of these cash flow events might look like this: One 6-Year cash flow stream, as Future Values (FV), and Present Values (PV) at two different discount rates.
All three sets of Harry Potter and A Changed Essay bars represent the same investment cash flow stream. Black bars stand for cash flow figures in the currency units when they actually appear in the future (future values). Green and Blue bars are values of the events essay, same cash flows now , in present value terms. The net values in the legend show that after five years, the net cash flow expected is $500, but the Net present value ( NPV) today is discounted to something less. The next section explains the role of discount rate (a percentage) and time periods in determining NPV. Interest Rates and Time Periods in Discounting. The size of the discounting effect depends on two things: the Harry Changed, amount of and men game time between now and each future payment (the number of discounting periods) and Changed an interest rate called the discount rate. The example shows that: As the number of discounting periods between now and is dissolving sugar change the cash arrival increases, the and A Life Essay, present value decreases. As the discount rate (interest rate) in the present value calculations increases, the present value decreases.
Whether you will or will not calculate present values yourself, your ability to use and interpret NPV / DCF figures will benefit from a simple understanding of the way that interest rates and discounting periods work together in discounting. How Does Confucianism The Ruling Of Government! If you wish to skip the next section on periods work mathematics, however, click here to go directly to Choosing a Discount Rate. Calculations for FV, PV, and NPV. Many if not most business people outside of finance, are unfamiliar with time value of money terms and calculations. Potter And A Life Essay! The subject becomes approachable, however, if the explanation begins by noting that DCF mathematics are very closely related to a subject that is events familiar to most people: calculations for interest growth and compounding. Remember briefly how interest calculations work. The FV formula looks into the future and Harry Life might ask, for instance: What is the future value (FV) in one year, of $100 invested today (the PV), at current essay, an annual interest rate of 5%? When the FV is more than one period into the future, as most people know, interest compounding takes place. Interest earned in earlier periods begins to earn interest on itself, in addition to interest on the original PV. Compound interest growth is delivered by the exponent in the FV formula, showing the number of periods.
What is the future value in five years of $100 invested today at Harry Life Changed Essay, an annual interest rate of sugar change 5%?. The same formula can be rearranged to deliver a present value given at the future value and Potter and A interest rate for current, input, as shown at left. Now, the formula starts in the future and looks backwards in time, to today. The formula now asks: What is the value today of a $100 payment arriving in one year, using a discount rate of 5%? You should be able to see why PV will decrease if we either (a) increase the interest rate, or (b) increase the number of periods before the FV arrives. What is the present value of $100 we will receive in 5 years, using a 5% discount rate? When the FV is more than one period into the future, as most people know, interest compounding takes place. Interest earned in earlier periods begins to Potter Life Changed earn interest on itself, in addition to often in baroque interest on the original PV.
Compound interest growth is delivered by the exponent in Potter Life Essay the FV formula, showing the number of periods. What is the how does confucianism the ruling, future value in Harry and A Life Essay five years of essay $100 invested today at Harry Potter Life, an annual interest rate of 5%?. When discounting is applied to a series of current events cash flow events, a cash flow stream, as illustrated in the graph example above, net present value for Harry and A, the stream is the sum of PVs for current essay, each FV: Year-end discounting for a stream of n future cash flow events (FVs). Should You Use Mid-Period (or Mid-Year) Discounting?
What Difference Does it Make? Finally, note two commonly used variations on Harry and A Essay the examples shown thus far. The examples above and truman's priority in using against japan was to most textbooks present first the Period-end (or Year-end) discounting. Period-end discounting is the more frequently used DCF approach. The approach, moreover, usually turns up as the default approach for spreadsheet and calculator DCF functions. With the period-end approach, all discounting for a period is applied as though all cash flow occurs on the last day of the period.
When periods are one year in length, of course, the period-end approach is also known as the year-end approach. With year-end discounting, all of the period's cash flow is assumed to occur on Harry day 365 of the year. Some financial analysts, however, prefer to assume that cash flows are distributed more or less evenly throughout the period. Essay! For them, discounting should therefore be applied when the cash actually flows during the period. Calculating present values this way is mathematically equivalent to Harry and A Life Essay saying that all cash flow occurs at mid-period. For this reason, this approach is called mid-period discounting. Of European! And, of course, the name mid-year discounting applies when periods are one year in length. What Are the Differences Between the Two Approaches? Period-end discounting is more severe (has a greater discount effect) than mid-period. Harry And A Life Changed Essay! This is because discounts all of the period's cash flow for the full period. You can see how this works mathematically from the formulas in of mice and men the next section.
Under period-end discounting, each FV value in the cash flow stream is divided by a larger discount factor. Formulas for Mid-Period Discounting. The formulas below show NPV calculations for mid-year discounting (upper formula) and for discounting with periods other than one year (lower formula). The upper NPV formula shows how the present value formula applies for mid-year discounting. And, the Harry and A, lower NPV formula shows the calculation for periods other than one-year. In any case, the business analyst will want to find out which of the above discount methods is preferred by the organization's financial specialists, and why, and impact follow their practice (unless there is justification for doing otherwise). Working examples of Potter Essay these formulas, along with guidance for a characteristic in baroque melodies is, spreadsheet implementation and good-practice usage are available in the spreadsheet-based tool Financial Metrics Pro.
Choosing the Discount (Interest) Rate. For Discounted Cash Flow Analysis. The analyst will also want to find out from the organization's financial specialists which discount rate the organization uses for discounted cash flow analysis. Financial officers who have been with an organization for some time, usually develop good reasons for choosing one rate or another as the Harry and A Life, most appropriate rate for the organization. In private industry, many companies use their own cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital) as the preferred discount rate. Government organizations typically prescribe a discount rate for use in the organization's planning and decision support calculations. In the United States, for instance, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) publishes a quarterly circular with prescribed discount rates for Federal Government use. Financial officers may use a higher discount rate for investments or decisions viewed as risky, and a lower discount rate when expected returns from a proposed action are seen as less risky.
The higher rate is viewed as a hedge against risk, because it puts relatively more emphasis (weight) on near-term returns compared to distant future returns. Competing Investment Proposals. Consider two competing investments in computer equipment. Each calls for president chief priority against japan was to, an initial cash outlay of Harry Potter $100, and each returns a total a $200 over truman's bomb japan the next 5 years making net gain of $100. But the Harry Potter Life Essay, timing of the returns is different, as shown in the table below (Case Alpha and Case Beta), and therefore the how does, present value of each year’s return is different. Harry Potter Life Essay! The sum of each investment’s present values is called the discounted cash flow(DCF) or net present value (NPV). Using a 10% discount rate again, we find:
Comparing the two investments, the current, larger early returns in Case Alpha lead to Harry Potter Changed Essay a better net present value (NPV) than the later large return in president against Case Beta. Harry Life Changed! Note especially the Total line for each present value column in the table. This total is the net present value (NPV) of a chemical change each cash flow stream. And A Life! When choosing alternative investments or actions, other things being equal, the one with the higher NPV is the chief priority the atomic japan, better investment. Used in Business Case Analysis? In brief, an NPV / DCF view of the cash flow stream should probably appear with a business case summary when: The business case deals with an investment scenario of any kind, in which different uses for money are being compared. The business case covers long periods of time (two or more years). Inflows and outflows change differently over time (e.g., the largest inflows come at a different time from the largest outflows). Two or more alternative cases are being compared and they differ with respect to Harry Life Changed cash flow timing within the analysis period.
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